"Everything Is Gonna Be Alright with Me": The Role of Self-Compassion, Affect, and Coping in Negative Emotional Symptoms during Coronavirus Quarantine.
ABSTRACT: Self-compassion has been associated with less distress, particularly when people face stressful and negative events. This study analyzed the mediation role of coping and affect in the relation between self-compassion and negative emotional symptoms during the quarantine decreed by Portuguese Health Authorities in the first phase of the coronavirus outbreak. A total of 428 Portuguese adults (75% women; Mage = 40.8, SD = 11.6) completed an online survey comprised by the Self-Compassion Scale (predictor); Short Version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (outcomes); The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; and Brief-COPE. These instruments were adapted to COVID 19's epidemic. Parallel mediation analyses demonstrated that self-compassionate participants were at less risk of suffering from symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress during the quarantine. Plus, the relation between self-compassion and depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms were mediated by negative affect and dysfunctional coping style, but only for symptoms of depression. The findings support coping strategies and affect as links between self-compassion and distress but also the importance of separately analyzing the role of self-compassion, negative affect, and coping on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Low self-compassion might increase negative affect, maintaining stress responses to face demanding events during the COVID-19 epidemic. Results were discussed in the context of the pandemic outbreak.
Project description:In a prospective study of collegiate athletes (N?=?117), the application of self-compassion within the context of sport injury was explored. Previous literature indicated that self-compassion enhances adaptive coping and well-being and reduces anxiety in stress-provoking situations. This research suggested that it could potentially reduce the stress response and subsequent injury risk. Findings indicated that self-compassion may buffer the experience of somatic anxiety (rs?=?-.436, p?<?.01) and worry (rs?=?-.351, p?<?.01), and reduce the engagement of avoidance-focused coping strategies (rs?=?-.362, p?<?.01). There were no significant findings related to self-compassion and injury reduction. A challenge with this research is distinguishing the impact of resistance to self-compassion from the potential benefits that it may have on coping and appraisal of stress in sport. This research was a preliminary exploration of self-compassion within the context of responses to stress and subsequent injury risk. Results suggest that further investigation across different athletic populations, sports, and injury situations is warranted.
Project description:Background:Individuals who were maltreated during childhood are faced with increased risks for developing various psychological symptoms that are particularly resistant to traditional treatments. This pilot study investigated the effects of a mindfulness based behavioral intervention for young adults with a childhood maltreatment history. Methods:This study looked at self-report psychological questionnaires from 20 subjects (5 males) before and after a mindfulness-based behavioral intervention, compared to 18 subjects (6 males) in the waiting list control group (age range 22-29); all subjects experienced mild-to-moderate childhood maltreatment. We analyzed changes in stress, anxiety, depression, mindfulness and self-compassion related to the intervention with linear mixed effects models; we also analyzed the relationships among questionnaire score changes with partial correlation analyses and mediation analysis. Results:Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed significant group by time interaction on stress (p < 0.01), anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-compassion (p < 0.01), with the mindfulness group having significant reduction in stress and anxiety (p < 0.01), and significant increase in mindfulness (p < 0.05) and self-compassion (p < 0.001). Partial correlation analyses showed that among all subjects from both groups, changes in mindfulness positively correlated with changes in self-compassion (r = 0.578, p = 0.001), which negatively correlated with changes in depression (r = -0.374, p = 0.05) and anxiety (r = -0.395, p < 0.05). Changes in self-compassion mediated, in part, the relationship between changes in mindfulness and changes in anxiety (average causal mediation effect = -4.721, p < 0.05). We observed a dose-dependent effect of the treatment, i.e., the number of intervention sessions attended were negatively correlated with changes in stress (r = -0.674, p < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.580, p < 0.01), and depression (r = -0.544, p < 0.05), after controlling for the individual differences in childhood maltreatment severity. Conclusion:Our results suggest that, to some extent, the mindfulness-based intervention can be helpful for improving self-compassion and psychological health among young adults with a childhood maltreatment history. Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02447744.
Project description:Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of depressed parents. One hundred eighty parents with a history of depression and their children ages 9-15 completed measures assessing youths' stress associated with parental depression (RSQ), symptoms of anxiety and depression (YSR and CBCL), and coping (RSQ). The results support the hypothesis that secondary control coping is a transdiagnostic correlate of symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. Youth stress related to parental depression and primary control coping were specific correlates of youth depressive symptoms and not anxiety symptoms. Disengagement coping was not a significant correlate of symptoms of anxiety or depression in youth. Results suggest that there are both transdiagnostic and specific correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. The current study provides evidence to suggest specific types of stress and strategies to cope with this stress demonstrate specificity to symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk offspring of depressed parents. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between stress, coping, and symptoms to inform prevention and treatment research.
Project description:Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.
Project description:Health care professionals (HCPs) are a population at risk for high levels of burnout and compassion fatigue. The aim of the present systematic review was to give an overview on recent literature about mindfulness and compassion characteristics of HCPs, while exploring the effectiveness of techniques, involving the two aspects, such as MBSR or mindfulness intervention and compassion fatigue-related programs. A search of databases, including PubMed and PsycINFO, was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the methodological quality for this systematic review was appraised using AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2). The number of articles that met the inclusion criteria was 58 (4 RCTs, 24 studies with pre-post measurements, 12 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 7 qualitative studies). MBSR intervention was effective at improving, and maintaining, mindfulness and self-compassion levels and to improve burnout, depression, anxiety, stress. The most frequently employed interventional strategies were mindfulness-related trainings that were effective at improving mindfulness and self-compassion, but not compassion fatigue, levels. Compassion-related interventions have been shown to improve self-compassion, mindfulness and interpersonal conflict levels. Mindfulness was effective at improving negative affect and compassion fatigue, while compassion satisfaction may be related to cultivation of positive affect. This systematic review summarized the evidence regarding mindfulness- and compassion-related qualities of HCPs as well as potential effects of MBSR, mindfulness-related and compassion-related interventions on professionals' psychological variables like mindfulness, self-compassion and quality of life. Combining structured mindfulness and compassion cultivation trainings may enhance the effects of interventions, limit the variability of intervention protocols and improve data comparability of future research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mothers in Motion (MIM), a community-based intervention program, was designed to help young, low-income women with overweight or obesity prevent further weight gain by promoting stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents the MIM's intervention effect on self-efficacy to cope with stress, emotional coping response, social support for stress management, stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect. METHODS:Participants (N?=?612) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Michigan. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (410 participants) or comparison group (202 participants). During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched ten video lessons at home and joined ten peer support group teleconferences. Surveys with established validity and reliability were used to measure self-efficacy to cope with stress, emotional coping response, and social support for stress management. The Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Scale were used to measure stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect, respectively. A general linear mixed model was applied to test the intervention effect at the end of the 16-week intervention (T2, n?=?338) and at three-month follow-up (T3, n?=?311). RESULTS:At T2, the intervention group reported significantly higher self-efficacy to cope with stress (effect size [Cohen's d]?=?0.53), better emotional coping response (d?=?0.38), less stress (d?=?0.34), fewer depressive symptoms (d?=?-?0.27), and more positive affect (d?=?0.31) than the comparison group. However, there were no significant differences in social support for stress management and negative affect between these two groups. At T3, the intervention group still reported significantly higher self-efficacy to cope with stress (d?=?0.32) and better emotional coping response (d?=?0.34) than the comparison group but did not report significantly higher social support for stress management, stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect. CONCLUSIONS:To help young, low-income women with overweight or obesity manage stress, researchers and program planners may consider focusing on building self-efficacy to cope with stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials NCT01839708 ; registered February 28, 2013.
Project description:Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress experienced during childhood might have a negative impact on development. This study explores factors associated with such symptoms among Portuguese primary school-aged children.<h4>Methods</h4>A sample of children (n?=?1022, mean age?=?8.77?years old) was recruited in public and private schools from the cities of Coimbra, Lisbon and Porto, Portugal. The children's version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-C) was self-administered. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to measure associations (expressed as Odds Ratio, OR and 95% Confidence Intervals, CI) between each DASS-C subscale, dichotomized by its 4th vs. 3rd or less quartiles (symptoms increase with scores), and covariates: child sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), sports activity beyond school, children self-assessed health status, child and mother's body mass index and mother's DASS scores.<h4>Results</h4>Age was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.57-0.87) and girls, compared to boys, presented lower odds of depressive and stress symptoms (adjusted OR, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.47-0.92 and 0.57, 0.41-0.80, respectively). A low socioeconomic status was associated with more frequent symptoms of stress (adjusted OR, 95%CI for low compared to high SES: 1.61, 1.01-2.56). Children with poorer self-assessed health status and whose mothers scored higher in the DASS also presented significantly higher odds of scoring in the 4th quartile (vs. 3rd or less) of the three DASS-C subscales.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest the need to tailor preventive efforts targeting childhood mental health symptoms.
Project description:We intended to assess stress, anxiety, depression and coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic. Through an online survey, we used primary care posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screen for DSM 5 (PC-PTSD-5), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, along with coping methods. Of the respondents (n=733), a considerable proportion had moderate to severe anxiety (21.2%) and depression (15%). Stress symptoms, above the cut-off point of 3 in PC-PTSD-5 suggestive of probable PTSD, were present in 34.1%. Mental health problems were significantly associated with students, 20 to 30 year olds, those who are single, and university educated. Considerable proportions of healthcare workers presented with stress symptoms (21.4%), anxiety (5.6%) and depression (5.6%), however, the proportions were significantly less in comparison with others. Various coping strategies were reported; respondents who avoided thinking about the pandemic or seemed unsure of coping strategies and those struggling to cope had significantly greater anxiety and depression. As large proportions of people have anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in relation to COVID-19, there is a need to establish a mental health support system that can address the need of the general population. Public education on coping strategies and stress management may be helpful.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a stressful condition. Mental health comorbidity is common. Stress can increase the risk of depression, reduce quality of life (QOL), and possibly exacerbate disease activity in MS. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) may help, but has been little studied in MS, particularly among more disabled individuals.The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and likely effectiveness of a standard MBSR course for people with MS. Participant eligibility included: age > 18, any type of MS, an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) </= 7.0. Participants received either MBSR or wait-list control. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and three-months later. Primary outcomes were perceived stress and QOL. Secondary outcomes were common MS symptoms, mindfulness, and self-compassion.Fifty participants were recruited and randomised (25 per group). Trial retention and outcome measure completion rates were 90% at post-intervention, and 88% at 3 months. Sixty percent of participants completed the course. Immediately post-MBSR, perceived stress improved with a large effect size (ES 0.93; p < 0.01), compared to very small beneficial effects on QOL (ES 0.17; p = 0.48). Depression (ES 1.35; p < 0.05), positive affect (ES 0.87; p = 0.13), anxiety (ES 0.85; p = 0.05), and self-compassion (ES 0.80; p < 0.01) also improved with large effect sizes. At three-months post-MBSR (study endpoint) improvements in perceived stress were diminished to a small effect size (ES 0.26; p = 0.39), were negligible for QOL (ES 0.08; p = 0.71), but were large for mindfulness (ES 1.13; p < 0.001), positive affect (ES 0.90; p = 0.54), self-compassion (ES 0.83; p < 0.05), anxiety (ES 0.82; p = 0.15), and prospective memory (ES 0.81; p < 0.05).Recruitment, retention, and data collection demonstrate that a RCT of MBSR is feasible for people with MS. Trends towards improved outcomes suggest that a larger definitive RCT may be warranted. However, optimisation changes may be required to render more stable the beneficial treatment effects on stress and depression.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02136485 ; trial registered 1st May 2014.