Prediction of carcass composition through measurements in vivo and measurements of the carcass of growing Santa Ines sheep.
ABSTRACT: In vivo and carcass measurements were evaluated to predict carcass physical and chemical composition and to list the measurements that best fit the prediction of the composition of growing Santa Inês sheep carcasses. Thirty-three animals were used to measure the loin eye area by ultrasound in vivo (LEAu) and in the carcass. We used 39 animals for biometric measurement in vivo and 42 sheep for morphometric measurement in the carcass. For the physical and chemical compositions of carcasses, dissection of the half left carcass was carried out in 42 animals. The data were submitted to Pearson's correlation analysis and t test. Simple and multiple linear regressions were performed using a stepwise procedure. All correlations between in vivo measurements and the physical and chemical compositions of carcasses (in kg) were significant, except for LEAu. Biometric measurements and hot (HCW) and cold (CCW) carcass weights were considered as predictors of the carcasses' physical and chemical compositions. Slaughter body weight (SBW) was the variable that most influenced the equations in the assessment of in vivo measurements and HCW and CCW most influenced the equations for measurements on carcasses. Biometric measurements of Santa Inês sheep can be used together with the SBW to estimate the physical and chemical compositions of carcasses, with emphasis on body compactness index, breast width, wither height, and croup height. The morphometric measurements can be used together with carcass weight to estimate the physical and chemical compositions of carcasses, with emphasis on croup width, carcass compactness index, croup perimeter, external and internal carcass lengths, chest width, and leg length and perimeter. The HCW can be used to predict the physical and chemical composition of carcasses without affecting the accuracy of the prediction model.
Project description:This study was undertaken to examine biometric measurements during the growth phase of male and female Santa Inês sheep reared in Brachiaria brizantha pastures in northeastern Brazil. The experiment involved 24 castrated males and 24 females at an initial age of 90 days, with an average body weight of 19.04 ± 0.96 kg. Treatments consisted of the effect of four cultivars (Marandu, Xaraés, Piatã and Paiaguás) and two sexes. Six animals were used per treatment, in a randomized-block experimental design. The following characteristics were evaluated: abdominal circumference (AC), body condition score (BCS), body length (BL), body weight (BW), body capacity 1 (BC1), body capacity 2 (BC2), chest width (CW), heart girth (HG), leg circumference (LC), leg length (LL), rump height (RH), rump width (RW) and withers height (WH). Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, Pearson's correlation, ANOVA and Tukey's, Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Univariate and multiple regressions were applied to estimate BW with a maximum error level of 5%. Significant differences were observed for the biometric measurements between sexes and cultivars (p<0.05). Body weight was highly correlated (>70%) with AC, WH, CG, RW, BC1 and BC2. The male sheep grazed on cultivars Piatã showed the best values for BW (40.43 kg), HG, RW, WH, LL, LC (102.46; 20.8; 65.23; 60.44; 42.54 cm respectively) and BC1 (4.25 kg/cm). Females grazed on cultivar Marandu had higher values for RW, CW, LL (17.26; 20.1; 75.98 cm respectively), BC1 (6.03 kg/cm) and BC2 (0.422 kg/cm). The equations that best estimated live weight were BC1 and HG. In male and female Santa Inês sheep, biometric parameters grow differently depending on the cultivar where they are grazed during the growth phase. Cultivars Marandu and Piatã are the most recommended for sheep production, as they provided the best performance and body development in those animals.
Project description:Beef carcass weights in the United States have continued to increase over the past 30 yr. As reported by the United States Department of Agriculture, grid-based carcass weight discounts begin when carcasses exceed 408 kg. Despite weight discounts, beef carcass weights continue to increase. At the same time, an increased prevalence of discoloration and color variability in top round subprimals has been observed throughout the industry which may be influenced by the increases in carcass weights. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of beef carcass size and its relationship to chill time, color, pH, and tenderness of the beef top round. In the current study, eight industry average weight beef carcasses (AW, 341-397 kg) and eight oversized beef carcasses (OW, exceeding 432 kg) were evaluated. Temperatures and pH measurements were observed on both sides of all carcasses for the initial 48 h postharvest at a consistent superficial and deep anatomical location of the respective top rounds. Carcasses were fabricated into subprimals at 48 h and top rounds were aged at 2 °C for an additional 12 d. The superficial location of both AW and OW carcasses cooled at a faster rate (<i>P</i> < 0.01) than the deep locations. The deep location of OW carcasses had a lower pH and a more rapid (<i>P</i> < 0.01) initial pH decline. Quantitative color of steaks from OW carcasses had greater mean <i>L</i>* (lightness; <i>P</i> = 0.01) and initial <i>b</i>* (yellowness; <i>P</i> < 0.01) values. The delayed temperature decline and the accelerated pH decline of the deep location of the top round of OW carcasses occur at different rates than AW carcasses. Delayed rate of cooling leads to irreversible impacts on steak appearance of top round steaks fabricated from OW beef carcasses when compared with AW carcasses.
Project description:The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the body measurements (BMs) and carcass characteristics of hair sheep lambs. Twenty hours before slaughter, the shrunk body weight (SBW) and BMs were recorded. The BMs involved were height at withers (HW), rib depth (RD), body diagonal length (BDL), body length (BL), pelvic girdle length (PGL), rump depth (RuD), rump height (RH), pin-bone width (PBW), hook-bone width (HBW), abdomen width (AW), girth (GC), and abdomen circumference (AC). After slaughter, the carcasses were weighed and chilled for 24 h at 1 °C, and then were split by the dorsal midline. The left-half was dissected into total soft tissues (muscle + fat; TST) and bone (BON), which were weighed separately. The weights of viscera and organs (VIS), internal fat (IF), and offals (OFF-skin, head, feet, tail, and blood) were also recorded. The equations obtained for predicting SBW, HCW, and CCW had an r2 ranging from 0.89 to 0.99, and those for predicting the TST and BON had an r2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.91, demonstrating satisfactory accuracy. Our results indicated that use of BMs could accurately and precisely be used as a useful tool for predicting carcass characteristics of hair sheep lambs.
Project description:Beef carcasses in Europe are classified on measures of carcass weight, conformation, and fat cover. These measurements provide the basis for payment to producers, with financial penalties for carcasses that do not conform to desirable characteristics. The objective of the present study was to identify animal-level factors associated with the achievement of a desirable carcass weight, conformation score, fat score, and age at harvest, as stipulated by Irish beef processors in accordance with the EUROP carcass classification system. The stipulated specifications were a EUROP conformation score ≥O=, a carcass weight between 270 and 380 kg, a EUROP fat score between 2+ and 4=, and an age at harvest ≤ 30 mo. In the present study, 59% of cattle failed to achieve at least one of these desired specifications. The logit of the probability of achieving the desired specifications was estimated using multivariable logistic regression and carcass data from 4,717,989 cattle finished and harvested in Ireland between the years 2003 and 2017. In comparison to beef-origin carcasses and after accounting for breed differences, the likelihood of dairy-origin carcasses achieving the desired age, conformation, fat, and weight specifications was 0.97, 0.88, 1.14, and 1.05, respectively. In comparison to heifer carcasses, the odds ratio (OR) of bull and steer carcasses simultaneously achieving all of the desired specifications (i.e. the overall specification) was 0.35 and 0.95, respectively. Additionally, after accounting for breed differences, heifers from the dairy herd were half as likely as heifers from the beef herd to achieve the overall specification, whereas the odds of dairy-origin bulls (OR = 3.46) and steers (OR = 2.41) achieving the overall specification was greater than that of their respective beef-origin counterparts. Finally, cattle with a greater breed proportion of Angus were most likely to achieve the overall specification. Results from the present study could provide a deeper understanding as to why animals fail to achieve desirable carcass specifications and could be implemented into the management decisions made on farm to ensure that the supply of beef carcasses that achieve the desired metrics is maximized.
Project description:Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (?6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.
Project description:The current study aimed at molecular identification and comparing the diversity of arthropods communities between pig and sheep carcasses during the cold and warm season in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Adult arthropods found on and around the carcasses were collected using either fly traps or forceps. Molecular analyses confirmed the identification of twelve arthropod species collected from both sheep and pig carcasses during the cold season. Results showed that 11 of 12 arthropod species were common in both sheep and pig carcasses, with exception to Onthophagus vacca (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) (Linnaeus, 1767) and Atherigona soccata (Diptera: Muscidae) (Rondani, 1871) species which were unique to sheep and pig carcasses respectively. However, during the warm season, the sheep carcass attracted more arthropod (n = 13) species as compared to the pig carcass. The difference in the obtained arthropod was due to the presence of O. vacca which was also unique to the sheep carcass during this season. Furthermore, there was an addition of a beetle species Hycleus lunatus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) (Pallas, 1782), which was collected from both sheep and pig carcasses but unique to the warm season. The pig carcass attracted more dipteran flies during both warm (n = 1,519) and cold season (n = 779) as compared to sheep carcass during the warm (n = 511) and cold season (n = 229). In contrast, coleopterans were more abundant on the sheep carcass during the warm season (n = 391) and cold season (n = 135) as compared to the pig carcass in both warm season (n = 261) and cold season (n = 114). In overall, more flies and beetles were collected on both sheep and pig carcasses during the warm season, and this further highlight that temperature influenced the observed difference in the abundance of collected arthropod between seasons.
Project description:Pig carcasses, as human proxies, were placed on the seabed at a depth of 300 m, in the Strait of Georgia and observed continuously by a remotely operated camera and instruments. Two carcasses were deployed in spring and two in fall utilizing Ocean Network Canada's Victoria Experimental Network under the Sea (formerly VENUS) observatory. A trial experiment showed that bluntnose sixgill sharks could rapidly devour a carcass so a platform was designed which held two matched carcasses, one fully exposed, the other covered in a barred cage to protect it from sharks, while still allowing invertebrates and smaller vertebrates access. The carcasses were deployed under a frame which supported a video camera, and instruments which recorded oxygen, temperature, salinity, density, pressure, conductivity, sound speed and turbidity at per minute intervals. The spring exposed carcass was briefly fed upon by sharks, but they were inefficient feeders and lost interest after a few bites. Immediately after deployment, all carcasses, in both spring and fall, were very rapidly covered in vast numbers of lyssianassid amphipods. These skeletonized the carcasses by Day 3 in fall and Day 4 in spring. A dramatic, very localized drop in dissolved oxygen levels occurred in fall, exactly coinciding with the presence of the amphipods. Oxygen levels returned to normal once the amphipods dispersed. Either the physical presence of the amphipods or the sudden draw down of oxygen during their tenure, excluded other fauna. The amphipods fed from the inside out, removing the skin last. After the amphipods had receded, other fauna colonized such as spot shrimp and a few Dungeness crabs but by this time, all soft tissue had been removed. The amphipod activity caused major bioturbation in the local area and possible oxygen depletion. The spring deployment carcasses became covered in silt and a black film formed on them and on the silt above them whereas the fall bones remained uncovered and hence continued to be attractive to large numbers of spot shrimp. The carcass remains were recovered after 166 and 134 days respectively for further study.
Project description:In Greece, all cattle carcasses produced from a variety of breed types are classified according to the SEUROP system. The objective of this study was to evaluate Greek carcass characteristics such as carcass weight and age of slaughter based on SEUROP classification system (muscle conformation and fat deposit classes) and to describe the effect of main factors such as breed, gender, year of slaughter, farm's geographical region and month of slaughter on these carcass parameters. It is the first study that evaluates local breeds, revealing the wide diversity of the Greek cattle breeding conditions. The analyzed records consisted of 323,046 carcasses from 2011 to 2017. All the examined factors significantly affected the mean carcass weight (298.9 ± 0.2 kg) and the mean slaughter age (559.1 ± 0.3 days). Carcasses from beef meat breeds had on average higher mean carcass weight while the local breeds had lower. The mean slaughter age and carcass weight were higher in winter than in summer. The local and the dairy breeds were classified in similar muscle conformation classes. Finally, Greek cattle carcasses from almost all regions were satisfactory for their quality carcass traits with good muscle conformation (R, O and U class) and low-fat deposit (class 1 to 3).
Project description:High infection risk is often associated with aggregations of animals around attractive resources. Here, we explore the behavior of potential hosts of non-trophically transmitted parasites at mesocarnivore carcass sites. We used videos recorded by camera traps at 56 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses and 10 carcasses of other wild carnivore species in three areas of southeastern Spain. Scavenging species, especially wild canids, mustelids and viverrids, showed more frequent rubbing behavior at carcass sites than non-scavenging and domestic species, suggesting that they could be exposed to a higher potential infection risk. The red fox was the species that most frequently contacted carcasses and marked and rubbed carcass sites. Foxes contacted heterospecific carcasses more frequently and earlier than conspecific ones and, when close contact occurred, it was more likely to be observed at heterospecific carcasses. This suggests that foxes avoid contact with the type of carcass and time period that have the greatest risk as a source of parasites. Overall, non-trophic behaviors of higher infection risk were mainly associated with visitor-carcass contact and visitor contact with feces and urine, rather than direct contact between visitors. Moreover, contact events between scavengers and carnivore carcasses were far more frequent than consumption events, which suggests that scavenger behavior is more constrained by the risk of acquiring meat-borne parasites than non-trophically transmitted parasites. This study contributes to filling key gaps in understanding the role of carrion in the landscape of disgust, which may be especially relevant in the current global context of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.
Project description:We estimated detection probabilities of bird carcasses along sandy beaches and in marsh edge habitats in the northern Gulf of Mexico to help inform models of bird mortality associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We also explored factors that may influence detection probability, such as carcass size, amount of scavenging, location on the beach, habitat type, and distance into the marsh. Detection probability for medium-sized carcasses (200-500 g) ranged from 0.82 (SE?=?0.09) to 0.93 (SE?=?0.04) along sandy beaches. Within sandy beaches, we found that intact/slightly scavenged carcasses were easier to detect than heavily scavenged ones and did not find strong effects of location on the beach on detection probability. We estimated detection rate for each combination of scavenging state, carcass size, and position along sandy beaches. In marsh edge habitats, detection ranged from 0.04 (SE?=?0.04) to 0.86 (SE?=?0.10), with detection rates rapidly increasing from small (<?200 g) to medium carcass sizes and leveling off between medium and extra-large (>?1000 g) carcasses regardless of vegetation type (Spartina or Phragmites). Carcasses of all sizes were generally harder to locate in Spartina-dominated marshes than in Phragmites-dominated ones. A subset of the data for which we could adequately assess the effect of distance into the marsh indicated that detection rates generally declined the farther a carcass was into marsh vegetation. Based on power analyses, our ability to identify predictors that influence detection rates would be higher with larger numbers of carcasses, greater numbers of search trials per carcass, or more balanced sampling distributions across predictor values.