A hijack mechanism of Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates for relapsing contemporary antiviral therapeutics.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly expands to a global pandemic and its impact on public health varies from country to country. It is caused by a new virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is imperative for relapsing current antiviral therapeutics owing to randomized genetic drift in global SARS-CoV-2 isolates. A molecular mechanism behind the emerging genomic variants is not yet understood for the prioritization of selective antivirals. The present computational study was aimed to repurpose existing antivirals for Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates by uncovering a hijack mechanism based on structural and functional characteristics of protein variants. Forty-one protein mutations were identified in 12 Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates by analysis of genome variations across 460 genome sequences obtained from 30 geographic sites in India. Two unique mutations such as W6152R and N5928H found in exonuclease of Surat (GBRC275b) and Gandhinagar (GBRC239) isolates. We report for the first time the impact of folding rate on stabilizing/retaining a sequence-structure-function-virulence link of emerging protein variants leading to accommodate hijack ability from current antivirals. Binding affinity analysis revealed the effect of point mutations on virus infectivity and the drug-escaping efficiency of Indian isolates. Emodin and artinemol suggested herein as repurposable antivirals for the treatment of COVID-19 patients infected with Indian isolates. Our study concludes that a protein folding rate is a key structural and evolutionary determinant to enhance the receptor-binding specificity and ensure hijack ability from the prevalent antiviral therapeutics.
Project description:The rapid development of the SARS-CoV-2 mediated COVID-19 pandemic has been the cause of significant health concern, highlighting the immediate need for effective antivirals. SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that has an inherently high mutation rate. These mutations drive viral evolution and genome variability, thereby facilitating viruses to have rapid antigenic shifting to evade host immunity and to develop drug resistance. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) perform viral genome duplication and RNA synthesis. Therefore, we compared the available RdRp sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from Indian isolates and the 'Wuhan wet sea food market virus' sequence to identify, if any, variation between them. Our data revealed the occurrence of seven mutations in Indian isolates of SARS-CoV-2. The secondary structure prediction analysis of these seven mutations shows that three of them cause alteration in the structure of RdRp. Furthermore, we did protein modelling studies to show that these mutations can potentially alter the stability of the RdRp protein. Therefore, we propose that RdRp mutations in Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates might have functional consequences that can interfere with RdRp targeting pharmacological agents.
Project description:Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, also known as SARS-CoV-2), lead global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no effective drugs targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Drug repurposing, representing as an effective drug discovery strategy from existing drugs, could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study, we present an integrative, antiviral drug repurposing methodology implementing a systems pharmacology-based network medicine platform, quantifying the interplay between the HCoV-host interactome and drug targets in the human protein-protein interaction network. Phylogenetic analyses of 15 HCoV whole genomes reveal that 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity with SARS-CoV (79.7%). Specifically, the envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 are two evolutionarily conserved regions, having the sequence identities of 96% and 89.6%, respectively, compared to SARS-CoV. Using network proximity analyses of drug targets and HCoV-host interactions in the human interactome, we prioritize 16 potential anti-HCoV repurposable drugs (e.g., melatonin, mercaptopurine, and sirolimus) that are further validated by enrichment analyses of drug-gene signatures and HCoV-induced transcriptomics data in human cell lines. We further identify three potential drug combinations (e.g., sirolimus plus dactinomycin, mercaptopurine plus melatonin, and toremifene plus emodin) captured by the "Complementary Exposure" pattern: the targets of the drugs both hit the HCoV-host subnetwork, but target separate neighborhoods in the human interactome network. In summary, this study offers powerful network-based methodologies for rapid identification of candidate repurposable drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of RNA viruses that are associated with different diseases in animals, birds, and humans. Human CoVs (HCoVs) have long been known to be the causative agents of mild respiratory illnesses. However, two HCoVs associated with severe respiratory diseases are Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV). Both viruses resulted in hundreds of deaths after spreading to several countries. Most recently, SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as the third HCoV causing severe respiratory distress syndrome and viral pneumonia (known as COVID-19) in patients from Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Soon after its discovery, SARS-CoV-2 spread to all countries, resulting in millions of cases and thousands of deaths. Since the emergence of SARS-CoV, many research groups have dedicated their resources to discovering effective antivirals that can treat such life-threatening infections. The rapid spread and high fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 necessitate the quick discovery of effective antivirals to control this outbreak. Since SARS-CoV-2 shares 79% sequence identity with SARS-CoV, several anti-SARS-CoV drugs have shown promise in limiting SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss antivirals described for SARS-CoV and provide an update on therapeutic strategies and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. The control of the current outbreak will strongly depend on the discovery of effective and safe anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
Project description:The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency. SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. For RNA viruses, virus-encoded RNA helicases have long been recognized to play pivotal roles during viral life cycles by facilitating the correct folding and replication of viral RNAs. Here, our studies show that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) possesses the nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) and RNA helicase activities that can hydrolyze all types of NTPs and unwind RNA helices dependently of the presence of NTP, and further characterize the biochemical characteristics of these two enzymatic activities associated with SARS-CoV-2 nsp13. Moreover, we found that some bismuth salts could effectively inhibit both the NTPase and RNA helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our findings demonstrate the NTPase and helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, which may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 replication and serve as a target for antivirals.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, is an RNA virus that has inherent high rate of mutation. Due to the mutations, the virus evolves at a rapid pace that helps them to survive better inside the host. One of the hotspots of pharmacological interventions is to inhibit binding of virus with the host cells, which is mediated by Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 receptors present on the human cells. This study was conducted with an aim to identify and characterise the mutation (s) present in the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. Towards this, an <i>in silico</i> methodology was used, and the mutations on Spike glycoprotein were identified by comparing the Spike glycoprotein of first reported sequence from Wuhan wet seafood market virus with the available sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from Indian isolates. Our analysis revealed the presence of twenty-five mutations in Spike glycoprotein among Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates. These mutations spread all over the protein and can be clustered at least into four distinct positions. Further, mutations at eleven positions exhibited alterations in the secondary structure of the polypeptide chain. We also investigated the influence of these mutations on overall protein dynamics and have shown that they affect the dynamic stability of the Spike glycoprotein.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted almost every part of human life worldwide, posing a massive threat to human health. There is no specific drug for COVID-19, highlighting the urgent need for the development of effective therapeutics. To identify potentially repurposable drugs, we employed a systematic approach to mine candidates from U.S. FDA-approved drugs and preclinical small-molecule compounds by integrating the gene expression perturbation data for chemicals from the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures project with a publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing dataset from mild and severe COVID-19 patients. We identified 281 FDA-approved drugs that have the potential to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 16 of which are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate their efficacy against COVID-19. We experimentally tested the inhibitory effects of tyrphostin-AG-1478 and brefeldin-a on the replication of the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) virus influenza A virus. In conclusion, we have identified a list of repurposable anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs using a systems biology approach.
Project description:Towards the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, and has been responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Since its first report, SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic, with over 10 million human infections and over 560,000 deaths reported worldwide at the end of June 2020. Currently, there are no United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines and/or antivirals licensed against SARS-CoV-2. The high economical and health impacts of SARS-CoV-2 has placed global pressure on the scientific community to identify effective prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 disease. While some compounds have been already reported to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and a handful of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need for the development and standardization of assays which can be used in high through-put screening (HTS) settings to identify new antivirals and/or neutralizing mAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we described a rapid, accurate, and highly reproducible plaque reduction microneutralization (PRMNT) assay that can be quickly adapted for the identification and characterization of both neutralizing mAbs and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, our MNA is compatible with HTS settings to interrogate large and/or complex libraries of mAbs and/or antivirals to identify those with neutralizing and/or antiviral activity, respectively, against SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>From an isolated epidemic, coronavirus disease 2019 has now emerged as a global pandemic. The availability of genomes in the public domain after the epidemic provides a unique opportunity to understand the evolution and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus across the globe.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed whole-genome sequencing of 303 Indian isolates, and we analyzed them in the context of publicly available data from India.<h4>Results</h4>We describe a distinct phylogenetic cluster (Clade I/A3i) of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from India, which encompasses 22% of all genomes deposited in the public domain from India. Globally, approximately 2% of genomes, which to date could not be mapped to any distinct known cluster, fall within this clade.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The cluster is characterized by a core set of 4 genetic variants and has a nucleotide substitution rate of 1.1?×?10<sup>-3</sup> variants per site per year, which is lower than the prevalent A2a cluster. Epidemiological assessments suggest that the common ancestor emerged at the end of January 2020 and possibly resulted in an outbreak followed by countrywide spread. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study characterizing this cluster of SARS-CoV-2 in India.
Project description:There have been more than 2.2 million confirmed cases and over 120?000 deaths from the human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), in the United States alone. However, there is currently a lack of proven effective medications against COVID-19. Drug repurposing offers a promising route for the development of prevention and treatment strategies for COVID-19. This study reports an integrative, network-based deep-learning methodology to identify repurposable drugs for COVID-19 (termed CoV-KGE). Specifically, we built a comprehensive knowledge graph that includes 15 million edges across 39 types of relationships connecting drugs, diseases, proteins/genes, pathways, and expression from a large scientific corpus of 24 million PubMed publications. Using Amazon's AWS computing resources and a network-based, deep-learning framework, we identified 41 repurposable drugs (including dexamethasone, indomethacin, niclosamide, and toremifene) whose therapeutic associations with COVID-19 were validated by transcriptomic and proteomics data in SARS-CoV-2-infected human cells and data from ongoing clinical trials. Whereas this study by no means recommends specific drugs, it demonstrates a powerful deep-learning methodology to prioritize existing drugs for further investigation, which holds the potential to accelerate therapeutic development for COVID-19.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes lethal disease in humans, which is characterized by exacerbated inflammatory response and extensive lung pathology. To address the relevance of small non-coding RNAs in SARS-CoV pathology, we deep sequenced RNAs from the lungs of infected mice and discovered three 18–22 nt small viral RNAs (svRNAs). The three svRNAs were derived from the nsp3 (svRNA-nsp3.1 and -nsp3.2) and N (svRNA-N) genomic regions of SARS-CoV. Biogenesis of CoV svRNAs was RNase III, cell type, and host species independent, but it was dependent on the extent of viral replication. Antagomir-mediated inhibition of svRNA-N significantly reduced in vivo lung pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, these data indicate that svRNAs contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis and highlight the potential of svRNA-N antagomirs as antivirals. Overall design: Strand-specific, single-end, reads were generated for detecting smallRNAs (18 nts or more) in lung (mouse). Three or four replicates were prepared per sample type.