Serotonin and serotonin reuptake inhibitors alter placental aromatase.
ABSTRACT: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are currently the main molecules prescribed to pregnant women that suffer from depression. Placental cells are exposed to SRIs via maternal blood, and we have previously shown that SRIs alter feto-placental steroidogenesis in an in vitro co-culture model. More specifically, serotonin (5-HT) regulates the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme aromatase (cytochrome P450 19; CYP19), which is disrupted by fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. Based on molecular simulations, the present study illustrates that the SRIs fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine exhibit binding affinity for the active-site pocket of CYP19, suggesting potential competitive inhibition. Using BeWo cells and primary villous trophoblast cells isolated from normal term placentas, we compared the effects of the SRIs on CYP19 activity. We observed that paroxetine and sertraline induce aromatase activity in BeWo cells, while venlafaxine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline decrease aromatase activity in primary villous trophoblast. The effects of paroxetine and sertraline in primary villous trophoblasts were observed at the lower doses tested. We also showed that 5-HT and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) induced CYP19 activity. An increase in phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine and a decrease in threonine phosphorylation of CYP19 was also associated with DOI treatment. Our results contribute to better understanding how 5-HT and SRIs interact with CYP19 and may affect estrogen production. Moreover, this study suggests that alteration of placental 5-HT levels due to depression and/or SRI treatment during pregnancy may be associated with disruption of placental estrogen production.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bridging the gap between preclinical research and clinical trials is vital for drug development. Predicting clinically relevant steady-state drug concentrations (Css) in serum from preclinical animal models may facilitate this transition. Here we used a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling approach to evaluate the predictive validity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) transporter (SERT) occupancy and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-potentiated behavioral syndrome induced by 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Serum and whole brain drug concentrations, cortical SERT occupancy and 5-HTP-potentiated behavioral syndrome were measured over 6 h after a single subcutaneous injection of escitalopram, paroxetine or sertraline. [(3)H]2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulphanyl)-5-methyl-phenylamine ([(3)H]MADAM) was used to assess SERT occupancy. For PK/PD modelling, an effect-compartment model was applied to collapse the hysteresis and predict the steady-state relationship between drug exposure and PD response. KEY RESULTS: The predicted Css for escitalopram, paroxetine and sertraline at 80% SERT occupancy in mice are 18 ng mL(-1), 18 ng mL(-1) and 24 ng mL(-1), respectively, with corresponding responses in the 5-HTP behavioral model being between 20-40% of the maximum. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Therapeutically effective SERT occupancy for SRIs in depressed patients is approximately 80%, and the corresponding plasma Css are 6-21 ng mL(-1), 21-95 ng mL(-1) and 20-48 ng mL(-1) for escitalopram, paroxetine and sertraline, respectively. Thus, PK/PD modelling using SERT occupancy and 5-HTP-potentiated behavioral syndrome as response markers in mice may be a useful tool to predict clinically relevant plasma Css values.
Project description:Monocultures of different placental cells are used for many physiological and toxicological studies; however, they are not a true reflection of the interaction between placenta and fetus. To develop the most appropriate model to study endocrine and metabolic properties of fetoplacental unit we used three co-culture models of placental cells nonfusogenic JEG-3, unsyncytialised BeWo (BeWo) and syncytialised BeWo (syncBeWo) cultured with adrenal (H295R) cells. As an end point of endocrine properties we investigated steroids receptors expression and steroid secretion, while as metabolic properties AhR, CYP1A1and COMT expression. Progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion (ELISA) and 3?HSD, CYP19, estrogen (ER?/?), progesterone (PR) and aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptors, CYP1A1 and COMT protein expression (Western blot) were evaluated. Comparing three co-culture models we observed: (1) there were no differences between JEG-3 and BeWo in the PR expression, however it was higher in BeWo compared to syncBeWo; (2) there were no differences in ER? protein expression in all models, while profile of ER? expression was the highest in syncBeWo; (3) high P4 secretion in JEG-3 and BeWo while low in syncBeWo; (4) high E2 levels in JEG-3 and syncBeWo, while low E2 secretion in BeWo; (5) the highest hCG secretion in the JEG-3 and syncBeWo than in BeWo (6) the highest AhR, CYP1A1 and COMT expression in syncBeWo. Based on the results showing higher hCG secretion in the JEG-3 than in BeWo, representing villous and extravillous phenotype we suggest that JEG-3 model could be used to study fetoplacental steroidogenesis at the 1st, while BeWo model at the 3rd. Results showing comparable profiles of AhR, CYP1A1 and COMT expression in JEG-3 and BeWo models and the significantly higher expression in synBeWo points to synBeWo as a good model for study the metabolic properties.
Project description:1. The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the in vivo SERT-binding potency was in the order of paroxetine>>fluoxetine, sertraline>fluvoxamine. 2. The time courses of brain SERT binding by SSRIs in mice were mostly in parallel to those of their plasma concentrations. Also, norfluoxetine (active metabolite) has been suggested to contribute largely to the long-lasting binding activity of brain SERT after the fluoxetine administration. 3. Oral administration of each SSRI suppressed significantly the marble-burying behaviour with no change in locomotor activity in mice, and the extent and time course of suppression agreed well with those of brain SERT binding. Thus, the pharmacological potencies of SSRIs in the attenuation of marble-burying behaviour correlated significantly with their brain SERT binding activities. 4. In conclusion, the present study has provided the first in vivo evidences to support that fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline orally administered bind to the pharmacologically relevant brain SERT in mice and that their SERT-binding characteristics is closely associated with the pharmacokinetics and inhibition of marble-burying behaviour.
Project description:Purpose:To compare treatment outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder treated with duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for up to 6 months. Patients and methods:Data were taken from a 6-month prospective, observational study that included 1,549 major depressive disorder patients without sexual dysfunction in 12 countries. We report the overall results and those from Asian countries. Depression severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR16). Clinical and functional remissions were defined as having a QIDS-SR16 <6, and as having a rating of <3 on all three Sheehan Disability Scale items and no reduced productivity, respectively. Mixed effects modeling with repeated measures analysis and generalized estimating equation models were used. Propensity scores were included in the models. Results:The mixed effects modeling with repeated measures regression models showed that the Clinical Global Impression rating during follow-up was significantly lower in those patients treated with duloxetine compared with escitalopram (0.40, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.56); fluoxetine (0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.38); paroxetine (0.38, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.54); and sertraline (0.32, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.49). The QIDS-SR16 of duloxetine-treated patients was significantly lower than those treated with escitalopram (1.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.12); fluoxetine (1.48, 95% CI 0.90 to 2.06); paroxetine (1.53, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.07); and sertraline (1.19, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.78). The probability of clinical remission of the patients treated with escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline was lower than those treated with duloxetine (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.64; OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.61; OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.56; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.71; respectively). The regression analysis of functional remission also showed more favorable results for duloxetine, with OR ranging from 0.43, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.60 for paroxetine to 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70 for sertraline. The results for the Asian countries were generally consistent. Conclusion:Duloxetine-treated patients had better 6-month outcomes in terms of depression severity and clinical and functional remission, compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Experimental tools for studying the complex steroidogenic interactions that occur between placenta and fetus during human pregnancy are extremely limited.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to develop a co-culture model to study steroidogenesis by the human fetoplacental unit and its disruption by exposure to environmental contaminants.<h4>Methods</h4>We cultured BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells, representing the villous cytotrophoblast, and H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, representing the fetal unit, in a carefully adapted co-culture medium. We placed H295R cells in 24-well plates and BeWo cells on transwell inserts with or without pesticide treatment (atrazine or prochloraz) and assessed CYP19 activity and hormonal production after 24 hr of co-culture.<h4>Results</h4>The co-culture exhibited the steroidogenic profile of the fetoplacental unit, allowing a synergistic production of estradiol and estriol (but not of estrone) of 133.3 ± 11.3 pg/mL and 440.8 ± 44.0 pg/mL, respectively. Atrazine and prochloraz had cell-type specific effects on CYP19 activity and estrogen production in co-culture. Atrazine induced CYP19 activity and estrogen production in H295R cells only, but did not affect overall estrogen production in co-culture, whereas prochloraz inhibited CYP19 activity exclusively in BeWo cells and reduced estrogen production in co-culture by almost 90%. In contrast, prochloraz did not affect estradiol or estrone production in BeWo cells in monoculture. These differential effects underline the relevance of our co-culture approach to model fetoplacental steroidogenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The co-culture of H295R and BeWo cells creates a unique in vitro model to reproduce the steroidogenic cooperation between fetus and placenta during pregnancy and can be used to study the endocrine-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Studies demonstrating that higher doses of citalopram (> 40 mg) and escitalopram (> 20 mg) prolong the corrected QT interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. METHODS:The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30-74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness who were prescribed high-dose SSRIs from 1998 through 2011. The mean age was 47 years, and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of proarrhythmic effects. RESULTS:The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.75), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.75-2.05), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.45-1.24), and 1.53 (95% CI, 0.91-2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (? 60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study end point. CONCLUSIONS:We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline.
Project description:Rigorous data regarding fetal central nervous system (CNS) exposure after antidepressant exposure are sparse. The magnitude of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) CNS exposure was measured in three groups of rats using ex vivo autoradiography of the serotonin transporter (SERT): 1) in utero, 2) postnatal clearance after birth, and 3) exposure through lactation. Rats were exposed to one of five SRI-type antidepressants (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) administered continuously via osmotic minipumps to pregnant or nursing dams. Dam dosing was adjusted to reflect the 50th and 85th percentiles of serum concentrations observed in pregnant women. Embryonic day 21 rat pups exposed in utero exhibited >80% SERT occupancy in brain tissue, which is equivalent to that of the pregnant dam and similar to that reported for human pharmacotherapy. Venlafaxine was the exception with occupancies ranging from 61 to 92% across different litters. The magnitude of SERT occupancy is essentially equivalent between dams and fetuses. By postnatal day 4, high SERT occupancy was observed only in fluoxetine-exposed pups (41-92% occupancy). Significantly less, but measurable, exposure occurred via breast milk exposure even in the absence of detectable drug concentrations in nursing pup sera. Pups exposed to SRIs via breast milk for 3 or 7 days exhibited varying SERT occupancies (0-57% depending on the individual medication and dam dose). These data highlight the need for animal modeling of fetal and nursing infant drug exposure using clinically meaningful dosing strategies and appropriate CNS measures to develop rational treatment guidelines that systematically minimize fetal and neonatal medication exposure in humans.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study is to create a rank order of the comparative efficacy and acceptability (risk of all-cause discontinuation) of antidepressant treatment in poststroke depression (PSD) by integrating direct and indirect evidence.<h4>Design</h4>Multiple-treatments meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.<h4>Participants</h4>Patients with depression following stroke.<h4>Interventions</h4>10 antidepressants and placebo in the acute treatment of PSD.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>The primary outcomes were the overall efficacy, defined as the mean change of the total depression score. The secondary outcome was the acceptability, defined as risk of all-cause discontinuation. These estimates as standardised mean differences or ORs with 95% CIs.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 12 suitable trials, with data from 707 participants. All drugs were significantly more effective than placebo apart from sertraline, nefiracetam and fluoxetine. Most of the comparisons for acceptability revealed no significant differences except that paroxetine had significantly lower all-cause discontinuation than doxepin, citalopram and fluoxetine. Standardised mean differences compared with placebo for efficacy varied from -6.54 for the best drug (reboxetine) to 0.51 for the worst drug (nefiracetam). ORs compared with placebo for acceptability ranged from 0.09 for the best drug (paroxetine) to 3.42 for the worst drug (citalopram). For the efficacy rank, reboxetine, paroxetine, doxepin and duloxetine were among the most efficacious treatments, the cumulative probabilities of which were 100%, 85.7%, 83.2%, 62.4%, respectively. With respect to the acceptability rank, paroxetine, placebo, sertraline and nortriptyline were among the most acceptable treatments, the cumulative probabilities of which were 92.4%, 63.5%, 57.3%, 56.3%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>After weighing the efficacy and acceptability, we conclude that paroxetine might be the best choice when starting acute treatment for PSD, and fluoxetine might be the worst choice.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>This systematic review has been registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Review Protocols (PROSPERO) public database (CRD42017054741; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
Project description:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) bind 5-HT transporters, leading to the accumulation of 5-HT and amelioration of depression. Although different mouse strains show varying sensitivity to SSRIs in mouse models of depression, the underlying mechanism of these strain differences remains unclear. Here, the SSRI citalopram dose-dependently reduced immobility time in both the FST and TST in DBA/2J mice but not C57BL/6J mice, whereas fluoxetine showed the opposite results. Paroxetine similarly reduced immobility time in both strains. The affinity of citalopram for the 5-HT transporter was 700-fold higher in DBA/2J mice than in C57BL/6J mice, whereas the affinity of fluoxetine was 100-fold higher in C57BL/6J mice than in DBA/2J mice. Furthermore, high citalopram concentrations were required for [3H]5-HT uptake in C57BL/6J but not in DBA/2J mouse cortical synaptosomes, whereas fluoxetine showed the opposite results. The effects of paroxetine on 5-HT transporter binding and synaptosomal 5-HT uptake were similar in the two strains. These results suggest that immobility duration depends on 5-HT transporter binding levels, which lead to apparent strain differences in immobility time in the FST and TST. Furthermore, differences in 5-HT transporter binding may cause variations in SSRI effects on behaviors.
Project description:Alterations in circadian rhythm generation may be related to the development of mood disorders. Although it has been reported that the most popular antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect circadian phase, no data are available that describe the effects of SSRIs on other circadian parameters (period, amplitude and damping rate) in dissociated cells. In the present study we used real-time monitoring of bioluminescence in rat-1 fibroblasts expressing the Period1-luciferase transgene, and that in Period1-luciferase transgenic mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) explants, in order to characterize the effects of SSRI on circadian oscillator function in vitro. We found that mRNA of the serotonin transporter (SERT), a target of SSRIs, was expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and paroxetine all significantly shortened the period of Period1-bioluminescence rhythms in rat-1 fibroblasts. The amplitude was reduced by sertraline, and the damping rate was decreased by sertraline, fluoxetine, flvoxamine and paroxetine. The effect of sertraline was dose-dependent, and it also shortened the circadian period in the SCN. SERT is associated with lipid microdomains, which are required for efficient SERT activity. Indeed, cholesterol chelating reagent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin significantly reduced the period and the amplitude in rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, lipid binding reagent xylazine significantly reduced the period. In summary our data present evidence that SSRIs affect circadian rhythmicity. The action of SSRIs is likely mediated by suppression of SERT activity. A better understanding of the relationship between mental illness and biological timing may yield new insight into disease etiology and avenues for treatment.