Discriminating complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis by ultrasound imaging, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy.
ABSTRACT: Discriminating complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis is crucial. Patients with suspected complicated appendicitis are best treated by emergency surgery, whereas those with uncomplicated appendicitis may be treated with antibiotics alone. This study aimed to obtain summary estimates of the accuracy of ultrasound imaging, CT and MRI in discriminating complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis. A systematic literature review was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for studies describing the diagnostic accuracy of complicated versus uncomplicated appendicitis. Studies were included if the population comprised adults, and surgery or pathology was used as a reference standard. Risk of bias and applicability were assessed with QUADAS-2. Bivariable logitnormal random-effect models were used to estimate mean sensitivity and specificity. Two studies reporting on ultrasound imaging, 11 studies on CT, one on MRI, and one on ultrasonography with conditional CT were included. Summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity in detecting complicated appendicitis could be calculated only for CT, because of lack of data for the other imaging modalities. For CT, mean sensitivity was 78 (95 per cent c.i. 64 to 88) per cent, and mean specificity was 91 (85 to 99) per cent. At a median prevalence of 25 per cent, the positive predictive value of CT for complicated appendicitis would be 74 per cent and its negative predictive value 93 per cent. Ultrasound imaging, CT and MRI have limitations in discriminating between complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis. Although CT has far from perfect sensitivity, its negative predictive value for complicated appendicitis is high.
Project description:Appendicectomy is a common emergency operation. The aim of this analysis was to study the effect of preoperative delay on disease progression, and whether a novel scoring system (Atema score) could be useful in predicting complicated appendicitis. Patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis on CT and who underwent appendicectomy in 2014-2015 were analysed for patient characteristics, preoperative delay and outcomes. Of 837 patients with uncomplicated appendicitis on CT, 187 (22.3 per cent) were found to have complicated appendicitis at surgery. The median time estimate for perforation was 25.4 h after CT, with an hourly rate of perforation of 2 per cent. Patients with an Atema score of 6 or less and those with no appendicolith on CT and a C-reactive protein level below 51 mg/l were the slowest to develop perforation, reaching a perforation rate of 5 per cent in 7.1 and 7.6 h respectively. A substantial proportion of patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis on CT have complicated appendicitis at surgery. However, in patients with no risk factors, surgery can be postponed safely for up to 7 h.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The preoperative distinction between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis is important to determine the appropriate treatments, such as antibiotics, surgery, or interval appendectomy. Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role; however, combining clinical and imaging factors may make preoperative evaluation more reliable. This study evaluated and analyzed cases and the usefulness of several preoperative factors and clinical scoring models to detect complicated appendicitis.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 203 patients preoperatively diagnosed with acute appendicitis at our facility were included. Complicated appendicitis was defined as appendicitis with gangrene, perforated appendix, and/or abscess formation. Preoperative factors were collected from published clinical scoring models; patient information, symptoms, signs, results of laboratory tests, and findings of CT. Factors were analyzed using a chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>The preoperative factors were compared between 151 uncomplicated and 52 complicated appendicitis patients. The significant factors were age ≥40, duration of symptoms >24 hours, body temperature ≥37.3°C, high levels of CRP, findings in CT scan (appendix diameter ≥10 mm, stranding of the adjacent fat, presence of fluid collection, and suspicion of abscess or perforation). We also evaluated the usefulness of clinical scoring models for the detection of complicated appendicitis and found the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score and two prediction models (Atema score and Imaoka score) showed significance (p < 0.05). High serum CRP level was significantly associated with complicated appendicitis (p < 0.001), and the predicted existence rates of complicated appendicitis were 52.7% for serum CRP level ≥50mg/L, 74.4% for ≥100mg/L, and 82.6% for ≥150mg/L.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results demonstrated several preoperative factors and clinical scoring models to increase suspicion of complicated appendicitis. Specifically, high serum levels of CRP may be a useful factor in predicting complicated appendicitis prior to surgery when supported by clinical findings and imaging; however, further research is needed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Based on the epidemiological and clinical data, acute appendicitis can present either as uncomplicated or complicated. The aetiology of these different appendicitis forms remains unknown. Antibiotic therapy has been shown to be safe, efficient and cost-effective for CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Despite appendicitis being one of the most common surgical emergencies, there are very few reports on appendicitis aetiology and pathophysiology focusing on the differences between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. Microbiology APPendicitis ACuta (MAPPAC) trial aims to evaluate these microbiological and immunological aspects including immune response in the aetiology of these different forms also assessing both antibiotics non-responders and appendicitis recurrence. In addition, MAPPAC aims to determine antibiotic and placebo effects on gut microbiota composition and antimicrobial resistance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:MAPPAC is a prospective clinical trial with both single-centre and multicentre arm conducted in close synergy with concurrent trials APPendicitis ACuta II (APPAC II) (per oral (p.o.) vs intravenous+p.o. antibiotics, NCT03236961) and APPAC III (double-blind trial placebo vs antibiotics, NCT03234296) randomised clinical trials. Based on the enrolment for these trials, patients with CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis are recruited also to the MAPPAC study. In addition to these conservatively treated randomised patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, MAPPAC will recruit patients with uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis undergoing appendectomy. Rectal and appendiceal swabs, appendicolith, faecal and serum samples, appendiceal biopsies and clinical data are collected during the hospital stay for microbiological and immunological analyses in both study arms with the longitudinal study arm collecting faecal samples also during follow-up up to 12 months after appendicitis treatment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Southwest Finland (Turku University Hospital, approval number ATMK:142/1800/2016) and the Finnish Medicines Agency. Results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03257423.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Routine colonoscopy was traditionally recommended after acute diverticulitis to exclude coexistent malignancy. Improved CT imaging may make routine colonoscopy less required over time but most guidelines still recommend it. The aim of this review was to assess the role of colonoscopy in patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis. METHODS:PubMed and Embase were searched for studies reporting the prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) or colorectal carcinoma in patients who underwent colonoscopy within 1?year after CT-proven left-sided acute diverticulitis. The prevalence was pooled using a random-effects model and, if possible, compared with that among asymptomatic controls. RESULTS:Seventeen studies with 3296 patients were included. The pooled prevalence of ACN was 6·9 (95 per cent c.i. 5·0 to 9·4) per cent and that of colorectal carcinoma was 2·1 (1·5 to 3·1) per cent. Only two studies reported a comparison with asymptomatic controls, showing comparable risks (risk ratio 1·80, 95 per cent c.i. 0·66 to 4·96). In subgroup analysis of patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, the prevalence of colorectal carcinoma was only 0·5 (0·2 to 1·2) per cent. CONCLUSION:Routine colonoscopy may be omitted in patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis if CT imaging is otherwise clear. Patients with complicated disease or ongoing symptoms should undergo colonoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Based on epidemiological and clinical data acute appendicitis can present either as uncomplicated (70-80%) or complicated (20-30%) disease. Recent studies have shown that antibiotic therapy is both safe and cost-effective for a CT-scan confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. However, based on the study protocols to ensure patient safety, these randomised studies used mainly broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics requiring additional hospital resources and prolonged hospital stay. As we now know that antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis is feasible and safe, further studies evaluating optimisation of the antibiotic treatment regarding both antibiotic spectrum and shorter hospital stay are needed to evaluate antibiotics as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. METHODS:APPAC II trial is a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial comparing per oral (p.o.) antibiotic monotherapy with intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic therapy followed by p.o. antibiotics in the treatment of CT-scan confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Adult patients with CT-scan diagnosed uncomplicated acute appendicitis will be enrolled in nine Finnish hospitals. The intended sample size is 552 patients. Primary endpoint is the success of the randomised treatment, defined as resolution of acute appendicitis resulting in discharge from the hospital without the need for surgical intervention and no recurrent appendicitis during one-year follow-up. Secondary endpoints include post-intervention complications, late recurrence of acute appendicitis after one year, duration of hospital stay, pain, quality of life, sick leave and treatment costs. Primary endpoint will be evaluated in two stages: point estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) will be calculated for both groups and proportion difference between groups with 95% CI will be calculated and evaluated based on 6 percentage point non-inferiority margin. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge, APPAC II trial is the first randomised controlled trial comparing per oral antibiotic monotherapy with intravenous antibiotic therapy continued by per oral antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The APPAC II trial aims to add clinical evidence on the debated role of antibiotics as the first-line treatment for a CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis as well as to optimise the non-operative treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03236961, retrospectively registered on the 2nd of August 2017.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aims to differentiate acute uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, by investigating the correlation between sonographic findings and histological results in different types of paediatric appendicitis. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of 1017 paediatric patients (age < 18 years) who underwent ultrasound by paediatric radiologists before appendicectomy at our institution between 2006 and 2016. Histologically, uncomplicated appendicitis was primarily associated with transmural infiltration of neutrophil granulocytes, while complicated appendicitis was characterised by transmural myonecrosis. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between sonographic and histological findings. RESULTS:Out of 566 (56%) male and 451 (44%) female patients with a mean age of 10.7 years, uncomplicated appendicitis was histologically diagnosed in 446 (44%) children and complicated appendicitis was diagnosed in 348 (34%) cases. The following ultrasound findings were significantly associated with complicated appendicitis in multivariate regression: an increased appendiceal diameter (OR = 1.3, p < .001), periappendiceal fat inflammation (OR = 1.5, p = 0.02), the presence of an appendicolith (OR = 1.7, p = 0.01) and a suspected perforation (OR = 6.0, p < .001) by the pediatric radiologist. For complicated appendicitis, an appendiceal diameter of more than 6?mm had the highest sensitivity (98%), while a sonographically suspected perforation showed the highest specificity (94%). CONCLUSION:Abdominal sonography by paediatric radiologists can differentiate between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis in paediatric patients by using an increased appendiceal diameter, periappendiceal fat inflammation, the presence of an appendicolith and a suspected perforation as discriminatory markers. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:This paper demonstrates expanded information on ultrasound, which is not only an essential tool for diagnosing appendicitis, but also a key method for distinguishing between different forms of appendicitis when performed by paediatric radiologists. Compared with previous studies, the crucial distinction features in our analysis are 1) the definition of gangrene and not primarily perforation as an acute complicated appendicitis enabling early decision-making by sonography and 2) a large number of patients in a particularly affected age group.
Project description:Non-operative treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis is safe and increasing in popularity, but has other risks and benefits compared with appendicectomy. This study aimed to explore the preference of the general population regarding operative or antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis. In this prospective study, a clinical scenario and questionnaire were submitted to a panel comprising a sample of an average adult population. The survey was distributed by an independent, external research bureau, and included a comprehensive explanation of the risks and benefits of both treatment options. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who would prefer antibiotics over surgery. Secondary outcomes were reasons for this preference and the accepted recurrence rate within 1 year when treated with antibiotics only. All outcomes were weighted for the average Dutch population. Of 254 participants, 49.2 per cent preferred antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis, 44.5 per cent preferred surgery, and 6.3 per cent could not make a decision. About half of the participants preferring antibiotics would accept a recurrence risk of more than 50 per cent within 1 year. Avoiding surgery was their main reason. In participants preferring surgery, many tolerated a recurrence risk of no more than 10 per cent when treated with antibiotics. Removal of the cause of appendicitis was their main reason. Around half of the average population sample preferred antibiotics over surgical treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis and were willing to accept a high recurrence risk to avoid surgery initially. Participants who preferred surgery tolerated only a very low recurrence risk with antibiotic treatment.
Project description:Acute appendicitis is one of the major causes for emergency surgery in childhood and adolescence. Appendectomy is still the therapy of choice, but conservative strategies are increasingly being studied for uncomplicated inflammation. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis remains challenging, especially due to the frequently unspecific clinical picture. Inflammatory blood markers and imaging methods like ultrasound are limited as they have to be interpreted by experts and still do not offer sufficient diagnostic certainty. This study presents a method for automatic diagnosis of appendicitis as well as the differentiation between complicated and uncomplicated inflammation using values/parameters which are routinely and unbiasedly obtained for each patient with suspected appendicitis. We analyzed full blood counts, c-reactive protein (CRP) and appendiceal diameters in ultrasound investigations corresponding to children and adolescents aged 0-17 years from a hospital based population in Berlin, Germany. A total of 590 patients (473 patients with appendicitis in histopathology and 117 with negative histopathological findings) were analyzed retrospectively with modern algorithms from machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). The discovery of informative parameters (biomarker signatures) and training of the classification model were done with a maximum of 35% of the patients. The remaining minimum 65% of patients were used for validation. At clinical relevant cut-off points the accuracy of the biomarker signature for diagnosis of appendicitis was 90% (93% sensitivity, 67% specificity), while the accuracy to correctly identify complicated inflammation was 51% (95% sensitivity, 33% specificity) on validation data. Such a test would be capable to prevent two out of three patients without appendicitis from useless surgery as well as one out of three patients with uncomplicated appendicitis. The presented method has the potential to change today's therapeutic approach for appendicitis and demonstrates the capability of algorithms from AI and ML to significantly improve diagnostics even based on routine diagnostic parameters.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Paediatric surgical care is increasingly being centralized away from low-volume centres, and prehospital delay is considered a risk factor for more complicated appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of paediatric appendicitis in Sweden, and to assess whether distance to the hospital was a risk factor for complicated disease.<h4>Methods</h4>A nationwide cohort study of all paediatric appendicitis cases in Sweden, 2001-2014, was undertaken, including incidence of disease in different population strata, with trends over time. The risk of complicated disease was determined by regression methods, with travel time as the primary exposure and individual-level socioeconomic determinants as independent variables.<h4>Results</h4>Some 38?939 children with appendicitis were identified. Of these, 16·8 per cent had complicated disease, and the estimated risk of paediatric appendicitis by age 18?years was 2·5 per cent. Travel time to the treating hospital was not associated with complicated disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1·00 (95 per cent c.i. 0·96 to 1·05) per 30-min increase; P?=?0·934). Level of education (P?=?0·177) and family income (P?=?0·120) were not independently associated with increased risk of complicated disease. Parental unemployment (adjusted OR 1·17, 95 per cent c.i. 1·05 to 1·32; P?=?0·006) and having parents born outside Sweden (1 parent born in Sweden: adjusted OR 1·12, 1·01 to 1·25; both parents born outside Sweden: adjusted OR 1·32, 1·18 to 1·47; P?<?0·001) were associated with an increased risk of complicated appendicitis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Every sixth child diagnosed with appendicitis in Sweden has a more complicated course of disease. Geographical distance to the surgical facility was not a risk factor for complicated appendicitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The traditional fear that every case of acute appendicitis will eventually perforate has led to the generally accepted emergency appendicectomy with minimized delay. However, emergency and thereby sometimes night-time surgery is associated with several drawbacks, whereas the consequences of surgery after limited delay are unclear. This systematic review aimed to assess in-hospital delay before surgery as risk factor for complicated appendicitis and postoperative morbidity in patients with acute appendicitis. METHODS:PubMed and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to 2016 for studies including patients who underwent appendicectomy for acute appendicitis, reported in two or more predefined time intervals. The primary outcome measure was complicated appendicitis after surgery (perforated or gangrenous appendicitis); other outcomes were postoperative surgical-site infection and morbidity. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using forest plots if possible. Unadjusted data were pooled using generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS:Forty-five studies with 152 314 patients were included. Pooled adjusted ORs revealed no significantly higher risk for complicated appendicitis when appendicectomy was delayed for 7-12 or 13-24 h (OR 1·07, 95 per cent c.i. 0·98 to 1·17, and OR 1·09, 0·95 to 1·24, respectively). Meta-analysis of unadjusted data supported these findings by yielding no increased risk for complicated appendicitis or postoperative complications with a delay of 24-48 h. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that delaying appendicectomy for presumed uncomplicated appendicitis for up to 24 h after admission does not appear to be a risk factor for complicated appendicitis, postoperative surgical-site infection or morbidity. Delaying appendicectomy for up to 24 h may be an acceptable alternative for patients with no preoperative signs of complicated appendicitis.