Clonorchis sinensis-Derived Protein Attenuates Inflammation and New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis.
ABSTRACT: Helminth infections and their components have been shown to have the potential to modulate and attenuate immune responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of Clonorchis sinensis-derived protein (CSp) on ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Cytotoxicity of CSp at different doses was assessed by MTS and flow cytometry before performing experiments. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) were obtained from AS patients. Inflammatory cytokine-producing cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. The levels of INF- ? , IL-17A, TNF-?, and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SKG mice were treated with CSp or vehicles. Inflammation and new bone formation were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, positron emission tomography (PET), and micro-computed tomography (CT). Treatment with CSp resulted in no reduced cell viability of PBMCs or SFMCs until 24 h. In experiments culturing PBMCs and SFMCs, the frequencies of IFN- ? and IL-17A producing cells were significantly reduced after CSp treatment. In the SKG mouse model, CSp treatment significantly suppressed arthritis, enthesitis, and enteritis. Micro-CT analysis of hind paw revealed reduced new bone formation in CSp-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. We provide the first evidence demonstrating that CSp can ameliorate clinical signs and cytokine derangements in AS. In addition, such CSp treatment could reduce the new bone formation of AS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and decreased levels of IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) compared to those in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or in healthy controls. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IL-18BP on osteoclastogenesis and T cell differentiation in RA in vitro.<h4>Methods</h4>Serum and SF of patients with RA and OA were collected to compare IL-18 and IL-18BP levels by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and SF mononuclear cells (SFMCs) of RA patients were cultured under type 17 helper T cell (Th17) polarisation conditions with or without IL-18BP. In addition, PBMCs were cultured in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) or IL-17A with or without IL-18BP, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for expression levels of osteoclast-related genes were performed.<h4>Results</h4>IL-18 levels were higher in the serum and SF of patients with RA, whereas IL-18BP was lower in the SF of patients with RA than in the control group. Treatment of patients' PBMCs with IL-18BP decreased the differentiation of CD4<sup>+</sup> IL-17A<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> RANKL<sup>+</sup> T cells, whereas the differentiation of CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>high</sup>FOXP3<sup>+</sup> T cell population increased in a dose-dependent manner. These changes in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell differentiation were also observed in the SFMCs of patients with RA. The levels IL-17A and soluble RANKL in the culture medium were significantly decreased by IL-18BP. IL-18BP administration decreased TRAP<sup>+</sup> cell counts in a dose-dependent manner on the background of stimulation with RANKL-and IL-17A. In addition, expression levels of TRAP, NFATC1, CTSK, and TNFRSF11A (RANK) genes were lower in the IL-18BP treated cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We showed that IL-18BP can rectify the Th17/Treg imbalance and decrease IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis in PBMCs from patients with RA. Therefore, IL-18BP may have therapeutic potential for RA treatment.
Project description:The role of Interleukin(IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of joint and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) has been clearly demonstrated. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 contributes to the pathogenesis are not completely understood. This study investigates whether IL-6 affects, alone or upon toll like receptor (TLR) ligand stimulation, the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), synovial fluid mononuclear cells from JIA patients (SFMCs) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA synoviocytes) and signalling pathways involved. PBMCs were pre-treated with IL-6 and soluble IL-6 Receptor (sIL-6R). SFMCs and RA synoviocytes were pre-treated with IL-6/sIL-6R or sIL-6R, alone or in combination with Tocilizumab (TCZ). Cells were stimulated with LPS, S100A8-9, poly(I-C), CpG, Pam2CSK4, MDP, IL-1?. Treatment of PBMCs with IL-6 induced production of TNF-?, CXCL8, and CCL2, but not IL-1?. Addition of IL-6 to the same cells after stimulation with poly(I-C), CpG, Pam2CSK4, and MDP induced a significant increase in IL-1? and CXCL8, but not TNF-? production compared with TLR ligands alone. This enhanced production of IL-1? and CXCL8 paralleled increased p65 NF-?B activation. In contrast, addition of IL-6 to PBMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8-9 (TLR-4 ligands) led to reduction of IL-1?, TNF-? and CXCL8 with reduced p65 NF-?B activation. IL-6/IL-1? co-stimulation increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-6 production. Addition of IL-6 to SFMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8 increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-1? production. Treatment of RA synoviocytes with sIL-6R increased IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 production, with increased STAT3 and p65 NF-?B phosphorylation. Our results suggest that IL-6 amplifies TLR-induced inflammatory response. This effect may be relevant in the presence of high IL-6 and sIL-6R levels, such as in arthritic joints in the context of stimulation by endogenous TLR ligands.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), we sought to identify the characteristics of lung-infiltrating cells in SKG mice with ILD.<h4>Methods</h4>We injected curdlan in SKG mice at 8?weeks of age, and identified the presence of ILD by PET-MRI at 20?weeks post-injection and histological analysis at 22?weeks post-injection. Lung-infiltrating cells were examined by flow cytometry. Analysis of serum cytokines by the Luminex multiplex cytokine assay was performed at 14 and 22?weeks post-injection, and cytokine profiles before and after the development of ILD were compared. Opal multiplexed immunofluorescent staining of lung tissue was also performed.<h4>Results</h4>At 20?weeks post-injection, curdlan-treated SKG mice developed not only arthritis but also lung inflammation combined with fibrosis, which was identified by PET-MRI and histological analysis. The majority of inflammatory cells that accumulated in the lungs of curdlan-treated SKG mice were CD11b<sup>+</sup>Gr1<sup>+</sup> neutrophils, which co-express IL-17A and GM-CSF, rather than TNF-?. Compared with 14?weeks post-injection, serum levels of GM-CSF, MCP1, IL-17A, IL-23, TSLP, and soluble IL-7R? had increased at 22?weeks post-injection, whereas those of IFN-?, IL-22, IL-6, and TNF-? remained unchanged. Furthermore, IL-23, CXCL5, IL-17A, and GM-CSF, but not TNF-?, were observed in immunofluorescent-stained lung tissue.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We found that IL-17A<sup>+</sup>GM-CSF<sup>+</sup> neutrophils represented the major inflammatory cells in the lungs of curdlan-treated SKG mice. In addition, GM-CSF and IL-17A appear to play a more important role than TNF-? in ILD development.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by inflammation, articular bone erosions and pathologic new bone formation. Targeting TNF? or IL-17A with current available therapies reduces inflammation in SpA, however, treatment of the bone pathology in SpA remains an unmet clinical need. Activation of the mammalian target Of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes IL-17A expression and osteogenesis. Therefore, the inhibition of mTOR (with rapamycin) could be a promising therapeutic avenue in SpA. <b>Objectives:</b> To investigate the effect of blocking mTOR on inflammation, bone erosions and new bone formation in SpA. <b>Methods:</b> Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with SpA were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of rapamycin and the resulting cytokine expression was assessed. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from SpA patients were assessed for osteogenic differentiation potential in conditions with TNF?, IL-17A, or TNF? plus IL-17A, in the presence or absence of rapamycin. HLA-B27/Hu?2m transgenic rats were immunized with low dose heat-inactivated <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tub)</i>, treated with 1.5 mg/kg rapamycin prophylactically or therapeutically and monitored for arthritis and spondylitis. Histology and mRNA analysis were performed after 5 weeks of treatment to assess inflammation and bone pathology. <b>Results:</b> <i>In vitro</i> TNF? and IL-17A protein production by SpA PBMCs was inhibited in the presence of rapamycin. Rapamycin also inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human SpA FLS. <i>Ex vivo</i> analysis of SpA synovial biopsies indicated activation of the mTOR pathway in the synovial tissue of SpA patients. <i>In vivo</i>, prophylactic treatment of HLA-B27/Hu?2m transgenic rats with rapamycin significantly inhibited the development and severity of inflammation in peripheral joints and spine (arthritis and spondylitis), with histological evidence of reduced bone erosions and new bone formation around peripheral joints. In addition, therapeutic treatment with rapamycin significantly decreased severity of arthritis and spondylitis, with peripheral joint histology showing reduced inflammation, bone erosions and new bone formation. <i>IL-17A</i> mRNA expression was decreased in the metacarpophalangeal joints after rapamycin treatment. <b>Conclusion:</b> mTOR blockade inhibits IL-17A and TNF? production by PBMCs, and osteogenic differentiation of FLS from patients with SpA <i>in vitro</i>. In the HLA-B27 transgenic rat model of SpA, rapamycin inhibits arthritis and spondylitis development and severity, reduces articular bone erosions, decreases pathologic new bone formation and suppresses IL-17A expression. These results may support efforts to evaluate the efficacy of targeting the mTOR pathway in SpA patients.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) immune activation and presence of autoantibodies may precede clinical onset of disease, and joint destruction can progress despite remission. However, the underlying temporal changes of such immune system abnormalities in the inflammatory response during treat-to-target strategies remain poorly understood. We have previously reported low levels of the soluble form of CD18 (sCD18) in plasma from patients with chronic RA and spondyloarthritis. Here, we study the changes of sCD18 before and during treatment of early RA and following arthritis induction in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis.<h4>Methods</h4>The level of sCD18 was analyzed with a time-resolved immunoflourometric assay in 1) plasma from early treatment naïve RA patients during a treat-to-target strategy (the OPERA cohort), 2) plasma from chronic RA patients, 3) serum from SKG and CIA mice following arthritis induction, and 4) supernatants from synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 6 RA patients cultured with TNFα or adalimumab.<h4>Results</h4>Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in chronic RA patients compared with early RA patients and in early RA patients compared with healthy controls. After 12 months of treatment the levels in early RA patients were similar to healthy controls. This normalization of plasma sCD18 levels was more pronounced in patients with very early disease who achieved an early ACR response. Plasma sCD18 levels were associated with radiographic progression. Correspondingly, the serum level of sCD18 was decreased in SKG mice 6 weeks after arthritis induction compared with healthy littermates. The sCD18 levels in both SKG and CIA mice exhibited a biphasic course after arthritis induction with an initial increase above baseline followed by a decline. Shedding of CD18 from RA SFMC and RA PBMC cultures was increased by TNFα and decreased by adalimumab.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The plasma sCD18 levels were altered in patients with RA, in mice with autoimmune arthritis and in cell cultures treated with TNFα and adalimumab. Decreased levels of plasma sCD18 could reflect autoimmunity in transition from early to chronic disease and normalization in response to treatment could reflect autoimmunity in remission.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recognized as route of communication in the microenvironment. They transfer proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) between cells, and possess immunoregulatory properties. However, their role in immune-mediated diseases remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized a role for EVs in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint, potentially involving the development of T cell exhaustion and transfer of the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1).Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from RA patients were investigated for PD-1 and other markers of T cell inhibition. EVs were isolated from RA plasma and synovial fluid. In addition, healthy control (HC) and RA PBMCs and SFMCs were cultured to produce EVs. These were isolated and investigated by immunogold electron microscopy (EM) and also co-cultured with lymphocytes and PD-1 negative cells to investigate their functions. Finally, the miRNA expression profiles were assessed in EVs isolated from RA and HC cell cultures.Cells from the RA joint expressed several T cell co-inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, TIM-3, and Tigit. ELISA demonstrated the presence of PD-1 in EVs from RA plasma and synovial fluid. Immunogold EM visualized PD-1 expression by EVs. Co-culturing lymphocytes and the PD-1 negative cell line, U937 with EVs resulted in an induction of PD-1 on these cells. Moreover, EVs from RA PBMCs increased proliferation in lymphocytes when co-cultured with these. All EVs contained miRNAs associated with PD-1 and other markers of T cell inhibition and the content was significantly lower in EVs from RA PBMCs than HC PBMCs. Stimulation of the cells increased the miRNA expression. However, EVs isolated from stimulated RA SFMCs did not change their miRNA expression profile to the same extend.EVs carrying both the PD-1 receptor and miRNAs associated with T cell inhibition were present in RA cell cultures. Upon stimulation, these miRNAs failed to be upregulated in EVs from RA SFMCs. This was in line with increased expression of T cell co-inhibitory markers on SFMCs. In conclusion, we suggest EVs to play a significant role in the RA microenvironment, potentially favoring the progression of T cell exhaustion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is normally associated with autoimmune arthritis and other pro-inflammatory conditions. Recently, IL-17A has emerged as a critical factor in enhancing breast cancer (BC)-associated metastases. We generated immune competent arthritic mouse models that develop spontaneous BC-associated bone and lung metastasis. Using these models, we have previously shown that neutralization of IL-17A resulted in significant reduction in metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism/s remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>We have utilized two previously published mouse models for this study: 1) the pro-arthritic mouse model (designated SKG) injected with metastatic BC cell line (4T1) in the mammary fat pad, and 2) the PyV MT mice that develop spontaneous mammary gland tumors injected with type II collagen to induce autoimmune arthritis. Mice were treated with anti-IL-17A neutralizing antibody and monitored for metastasis and assessed for pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with BC-associated metastasis.<h4>Results</h4>We first corroborate our previous finding that in vivo neutralization of IL-17A significantly reduced metastasis to the bones and lungs in both models. Next, we report that treatment with anti-IL17A antibody significantly reduced the expression of a key chemokine, CXCL12 (also known as stromal derived factor-1 (SDF - 1)) in the bones and lungs of treated mice. CXCL12 is a ligand for CXCR4 (expressed on BC cells) and their interaction is known to be critical for metastasis. Interestingly, levels of CXCR4 in the tumor remained unchanged with treatment. Consequently, protein lysates derived from the bones and lungs of treated mice were significantly less chemotactic for the BC cells than lysates from untreated mice; and addition of exogenous SDF-1 to the lysates from treated mice completely restored BC cell migration. In addition, cytokines such as IL-6 and M-CSF were significantly reduced in the lung and bone lysates following treatment. The data presented suggests that systemic neutralization of IL-17A can block the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling pathway by reducing the expression of SDF-1 in the metastatic niches and significantly reducing metastasis in both mouse models.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In our model, neutralization of IL-17A regulates SDF-1 expression in the metastatic niches either directly or indirectly via reducing levels of IL-6 and M-CSF.
Project description:Arthritis in a genetically susceptible SKG strain of mice models a theoretical paradigm wherein autoimmune arthritis arises because of interplay between preexisting autoreactive T cells and environmental stimuli. SKG mice have a point mutation in ZAP-70 that results in attenuated TCR signaling, altered thymic selection, and spontaneous production of autoreactive T cells that cause arthritis following exposure to microbial ?-glucans. In this study, we identify Nod2, an innate immune receptor, as a critical suppressor of arthritis in SKG mice. SKG mice deficient in Nod2 (Nod2-/-SKG) developed a dramatically exacerbated form of arthritis, which was independent of sex and microbiota, but required the skg mutation in T cells. Worsened arthritis in Nod2-/-SKG mice was accompanied by expansion of Th17 cells, which to some measure coproduced TNF, GM-CSF, and IL-22, along with elevated IL-17A levels within joint synovial fluid. Importantly, neutralization of IL-17A mitigated arthritis in Nod2-/-SKG mice, indicating that Nod2-mediated protection occurs through suppression of the Th17 response. Nod2 deficiency did not alter regulatory T cell development or function. Instead, Nod2 deficiency resulted in an enhanced fundamental ability of SKG CD4+ T cells (from naive mice) to produce increased levels of IL-17 and to passively transfer arthritis to lymphopenic recipients on a single-cell level. These data reveal a previously unconsidered role for T cell-intrinsic Nod2 as an endogenous negative regulator of Th17 responses and arthritogenic T cells. Based on our findings, future studies aimed at understanding a negative regulatory function of Nod2 within autoreactive T cells could provide novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of patients with arthritis.
Project description:Although Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, their roles in malignancies are currently under debate. The role and mechanism of Th17 cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-1?, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 were significantly increased in blood and bone marrow in AML patients compared with healthy donors. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23, but not TGF-?1 promoted the generation and differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) T cells in humans. IL-17A, a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, induced the proliferation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-positive AML cells via IL-17R, in which activation of PI3K/Akt and Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway may play important roles. In addition, combination of IL-17A and IL-22 significantly reduced the generation of Th1 cells and the production of interferon (IFN)-? from healthy donor or AML patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high Th17 cell frequency had poor prognosis, whereas patients with high Th1 cell frequency had prolonged survival. Combined analysis of Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies improved the ability to predict patient outcomes. In conclusion, Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AML and may be an important therapeutic target and prognostic predictor.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Schnitzler syndrome (SchS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease characterized by urticarial exanthema, bone and joint alterations, fever and monoclonal IgM gammopathy. Overactivation of the interleukin(IL)-1 system is reported, even though the exact pathophysiological pathways remain unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine <i>ex</i> v<i>ivo</i> cytokine profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from SchS patients prior to treatment and after initiation of anti-IL-1 therapy (anakinra). The sera cytokine profile was studied in parallel.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected blood samples from thirty-six untreated or treated SchS. PBMCs were cultured with and without LPS or anti-CD3/CD28. Cytokine levels were evaluated in serum and cell culture supernatants using Luminex technology.<h4>Results</h4>Spontaneous TNF?, IL-6, IL-1?, IL-1?, and IL-1RA release by PBMCs of SchS patients were higher than in controls. LPS-stimulation further induced the secretion of these cytokines. In contrast, after T-cell stimulation, TNF?, IL-10, IFN?, IL-17A, and IL-4 production decreased in SchS patients compared to healthy controls, but less in treated patients. Whereas IL-1? serum level was not detected in most sera, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF? serum levels were higher in patients with SchS and IFN? and IL-4 levels were lower. Of note, IL-6 decreased after treatment in SchS (<i>p</i> = 0.04).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data strengthen the hypothesis of myeloid inflammation in SchS, mediated in particular by IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-6, associated with overproduction of the inhibitors IL-1RA and IL-10. In contrast, we observed a loss of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell functionalities that tends to be reversed by anakinra.