Pilot study of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced mri for localized and metastatic prostate cancers.
ABSTRACT: OATP1B3 is expressed de novo in primary prostate cancer tissue and to a greater degree in prostate cancer metastases. Gadoxetate disodium is a substrate of OATP1B3, and its uptake has been shown to correlate with OATP1B3 expression in other cancers. We aimed to evaluate use of gadoxetate disodium to image prostate cancer and to track its utility as a biomarker. A single center open-label non-randomized pilot study recruited men with (1) localized, and (2) metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was performed at four timepoints post-injection. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare MRI contrast enhancement ratio (CER) pre-injection and post-injection. OATP1B3 expression was evaluated via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and a pharmacogenomic analysis of OATP1B3, NCTP and OATP1B1 was conducted. The mCRPC subgroup (n?=?9) demonstrated significant enhancement compared to pre-contrast images at 20-, 40- and 60-min timepoints (p??0.05). OATP1B3 expression on IHC trended higher contrast enhancement between 20-40 min (p???0.064) and was associated with contrast enhancement at 60 min (p?=?0.0422). OATP1B1 haplotype, with N130D and V174A substitutions, impacted enhancement at 40-60 min (p???0.038). mCRPC lesions demonstrate enhancement after injection of gadoxetate disodium on MRI and retention over 60 min. As inter-individual variability in OATP1B3 expression and function has both predictive and prognostic significance, gadoxetate disodium has potential as a biomarker in prostate cancer.
Project description:OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 mediate hepatic uptake of many drugs (e.g., statins) and can mediate transporter-mediated drug-drug-interactions (DDIs). Bortezomib is the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor drug approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple myeloma. The potential of bortezomib to cause OATP-mediated DDIs has not been assessed. The current study investigated the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 degradation and determined the effects of proteasome inhibitors on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport. Co-immunoprecipitation of FLAG-OATP1B1/1B3 and HA-ubiquitin was observed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells co-transfected with FLAG-tagged OATP1B1/OATP1B3 and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged ubiquitin, suggesting that OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 can be ubiquitin-modified. Although blocking proteasome activity by bortezomib treatment (50 nM, 7 h) increased the endogenous ubiquitin-conjugated FLAG-OATP1B1 and FLAG-OATP1B3 in HEK293-FLAG-OATP1B1 and-OATP1B3 cells, such treatment did not affect the total protein levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, suggesting that the UPS plays a minor role in degradation of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 under current constitutive conditions. Pretreatment with bortezomib (50-250 nM, 2-7 h) significantly decreased transport of [3H]CCK-8, a specific OATP1B3 substrate, in HEK293-OATP1B3 and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). However, bortezomib pretreatment had negligible effects on the transport of [3H]E217?G and [3H]pitavastatin, dual substrates of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, in HEK293-OATP1B1/1B3 cells and/or human SCH. Compared with vehicle control treatment, bortezomib pretreatment significantly decreased the maximal transport velocity (Vmax) of OATP1B3-mediated transport of CCK-8 (92.25 ± 14.2 vs. 133.95 ± 15.5 pmol/mg protein/min) without affecting the affinity constant (Km) values. Treatment with other proteasome inhibitors MG132, epoxomicin, and carfilzomib also significantly decreased OATP1B3-mediated [3H]CCK-8 transport. In summary, the current studies for the first time report ubiquitination of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and the apparent substrate-dependent inhibitory effect of bortezomib on OATP1B3-mediated transport. The data suggest that bortezomib has a low risk of causing OATP-mediated DDIs.
Project description:Microcystins are potent phosphatase inhibitors and cellular toxins. They require active transport by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters for uptake into human cells, and the high expression of these transporters in the liver accounts for their selective hepatic toxicity. Several human tumors have been shown to have high levels of expression of OATP1B3 but not OATP1B1, the main transporter in liver cells. We hypothesized that microcystin variants could be isolated that are transported preferentially by OATP1B3 relative to OATP1B1 to advance as anticancer agents with clinically tolerable hepatic toxicity. Microcystin variants have been isolated and tested for cytotoxicity in cancer cells stably transfected with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters. Microcystin variants with cytotoxic OATP1B1/OATP1B3 IC50 ratios that ranged between 0.2 and 32 were found, representing a 150-fold range in transporter selectivity. As microcystin structure has a significant impact on transporter selectivity, it is potentially possible to develop analogs with even more pronounced OATP1B3 selectivity and thus enable their development as anticancer drugs.
Project description:The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period.A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up.Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed.
Project description:Bile acids, the metabolites of cholesterol, are signaling molecules that play critical role in many physiological functions. They undergo enterohepatic circulation through various transporters expressed in intestine and liver. Human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 contribute to hepatic uptake of bile acids such as taurocholic acid. However, the transport properties of individual bile acids are not well understood. Therefore, we selected HEK293 cells overexpressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to evaluate the transport of five major human bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid) together withtheir glycine and taurine conjugates via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The present study revealed that cholic acid, chenodeoxyxcholic acid, and deoxycholic acid were transported by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, while ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were not significantly transported by OATPs. However, all the conjugated bile acids were taken up rapidly by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Kinetic analyses revealed the involvement of saturable OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of bile acids. The apparent Km values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 of the conjugated bile acids were similar (0.74-14.7 ?M for OATP1B1 and 0.47-15.3 ?M for OATP1B3). They exhibited higher affinity than cholic acid (47.1 ?M for OATP1B1 and 42.2 ?M for OATP1B3). Our results suggest that conjugated bile acids (glycine and taurine) are preferred to unconjugated bile acids as substrates for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.
Project description:PURPOSE:Evaluate Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced dual-energy CT for visualization of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma by exploiting the hepatobiliary uptake of Gadoxetate Disodium and viewing images at the k-edge of gadolinium on the spectrum of simulated monoenergetic energies available with Dual Energy CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In this prospective, IRB-approved study in patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma, subjects who underwent a clinically indicated Gadoxetate Disodium liver MRI were immediately scanned without further IV contrast administration using rapid kVp-switching dual energy CT (rsDECT). Initial Gadoxetate Disodium dose was the FDA approved clinical dose, 0.025 mmol/kg; after additional IRB/FDA approval, 10 subjects were scanned with 0.05 mmol/kg. Both 50 keV and 70 keV simulated monoenergetic images as well as gadolinium(-water) material density images were viewed qualitatively and measured quantitatively for gadolinium uptake in the hepatic parenchyma and any focal lesions identified. RESULTS:Of 18 subjects (mean age 55 years, 10M, 8F, weight 84 kg), eight were scanned with 0.025 mmol/kg (Group 1) and 10 with 0.05 mmol/kg Gadoxetate Disodium (Group 2). Five patients had cholangiocarcinoma (all in Group 1). On synthetic monoenergetic images using standard and double Gadoxetate Disodium dose, the liver parenchyma did not appear enhanced qualitatively. Comparison of mean hepatic parenchymal HU at 50 and 70 keV showed a measurable increase in attenuation at the lower viewing energy, which corresponded to the k-edge of gadolinium. No statistically significant difference was observed on quantitative gadolinium measurement of hepatic parenchyma for single versus double Gadoxetate Disodium dose using rsDECT gadolinium material density images. Of the five cholangiocarcinomas, the tumor to nontumoral hepatic tissue HU differences were 51.1 (32.2) (mean and std dev) and 49.0(26.5) at 50 and 70 keV, respectively. CONCLUSION:In this small pilot population, evaluation of potential hilar/perihilar cholangiocarcinoma using dual energy CT at both the single FDA-approved dose and double dose of gadolinium demonstrated observed differences in attenuation between the hepatic parenchyma and lesions. However, small sample size and heterogeneity of lesions warrants further investigation.
Project description:Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 are multispecific transporters that mediate uptake of amphipathic organic compounds into hepatocytes. The two OATPs contain 12 transmembrane domains (TMs) and share 80% amino acid sequence identity. Besides common substrates with OATP1B1, OATP1B3 specifically transports cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8). To determine which structural domains and/or residues are important for the substrate selectivity of OATP1B3, we constructed a series of chimeric proteins between OATP1B3 and 1B1, expressed them in HEK293 cells, and determined rates of uptake of CCK-8 along with surface expression of the proteins. Replacing TM10 in OATP1B3 with TM10 of OATP1B1 resulted in a dramatically reduced degree of CCK-8 transport, indicating that TM10 is crucial for recognition and/or translocation of CCK-8. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified three key residues within TM10, namely, Y537, S545, and T550. When we replaced these residues with the corresponding amino acid residues found in OATP1B1, the level of CCK-8 transport was similarly low as for the replacement of the whole TM10. Kinetic experiments showed that the K m values for CCK-8 transport in the TM10 replacement and triple mutant were only 1.3 and 1.1 microM, respectively, as compared to 16.3 microM for wild-type OATP1B3. Similarly, the V max values dropped from 495.5 pmol (normalized mg) (-1) min (-1) for wild-type OATP1B3 to 13.3 and 19.0 pmol (normalized mg) (-1) min (-1) for the TM10 replacement and triple mutant, respectively. Molecular modeling indicated that two of the three identified residues might form hydrogen bonds with CCK-8. In conclusion, we have identified three amino acid residues (Y537, S545, and T550) in TM10 of OATP1B3 that are important for CCK-8 transport.
Project description:Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 are important hepatic transporters that mediate the uptake of many clinically important drugs, including statins from the blood into the liver. Reduced transport function of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 can lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Considering the importance of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in hepatic drug disposition, substantial efforts have been given on evaluating OATP1B1/1B3-mediated DDIs in order to avoid unwanted adverse effects of drugs that are OATP substrates due to their altered pharmacokinetics. Growing evidences suggest that the transport function of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 can be regulated at various levels such as genetic variation, transcriptional and post-translational regulation. The present review summarizes the up to date information on the regulation of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transport function at different levels with a focus on potential impact on OATP-mediated DDIs.
Project description:Present studies determined the effects of pretreatment with rifampicin, an organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport, and evaluated the OATP-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of dasatinib using the static R-value and dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Rifampicin and dasatinib pretreatment significantly decreased OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport. Rifampicin pretreatment also significantly decreased [3H]-pitavastatin and [3H]-CCK-8 accumulation in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. Present studies revealed that estrone-3-sulfate is a less-sensitive OATP1B1 substrate than estradiol-17?-glucuronide in assessing rifampicin pretreatment effects. Pretreatment with rifampicin and dasatinib reduced the inhibition constant (Ki) values against OATP1B1 by 3 and 2.1 fold and against OATP1B3 by 2.4 and 2.1 fold, respectively. The in vitro rifampicin Ki values after preincubation are comparable to the estimated in vivo Ki reported previously. Models predict that dasatinib has a low potential to cause OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated drug-drug interactions. Time-lapse confocal microscopy demonstrated that rifampicin and dasatinib pretreatment did not affect plasma membrane localization of green-fluorescent protein-tagged OATP1B1 (GFP-OATP1B1) and GFP-OATP1B3 in human embryonic kidney 293 stable cell lines. In summary, we report novel findings that pretreatment with rifampicin and dasatinib potentiates the inhibitory effects toward OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 without affecting plasma membrane levels of the transporters.
Project description:Members of the organic anion transporter family (OATP) mediate the transmembrane uptake of clinical important drugs and hormones thereby affecting drug disposition and tissue penetration. Particularly OATP subfamily 1 is known to mediate the cellular uptake of anticancer drugs (e.g., methotrexate, derivatives of taxol and camptothecin, flavopiridol, and imatinib). Tissue-specific expression was shown for OATP1B1/OATP1B3 in liver, OATP4C1 in kidney, and OATP6A1 in testis, while other OATPs, for example, OATP4A1, are expressed in multiple cells and organs. Many different tumor entities show an altered expression of OATPs. OATP1B1/OATP1B3 are downregulated in liver tumors, but highly expressed in cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, breast, prostate, and lung. Similarly, testis-specific OATP6A1 is expressed in cancers in the lung, brain, and bladder. Due to their presence in various cancer tissues and their limited expression in normal tissues, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP6A1 could be a target for tumor immunotherapy. Otherwise, high levels of ubiquitous expressed OATP4A1 are found in colorectal cancers and their metastases. Therefore, this OATP might serve as biomarkers for these tumors. Expression of OATP is regulated by nuclear receptors, inflammatory cytokines, tissue factors, and also posttranslational modifications of the proteins. Through these processes, the distribution of the transporter in the tissue will be altered, and a shift from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic compartments is possible. It will modify OATP uptake properties and, subsequently, change intracellular concentrations of drugs, hormones, and various other OATP substrates. Therefore, screening tumors for OATP expression before therapy should lead to an OATP-targeted therapy with higher efficacy and decreased side effects.
Project description:Many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) undergo extensive hepatic metabolism, but mechanisms of their hepatocellular uptake remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that liver uptake of TKIs is mediated by the solute carriers OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.Transport of crizotinib, dasatinib, gefitinib, imatinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, vandetanib, and vemurafenib was studied in vitro using artificial membranes (PAMPA) and HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or the ortholog mouse transporter, Oatp1b2. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with Oatp1b2-knockout mice and humanized OATP1B1- or OATP1B3-transgenic mice.All 10 TKIs were identified as substrates of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or both. Transport of sorafenib was investigated further, as its diffusion was particularly low in the PAMPA assay (<4%) than other TKIs that were transported by both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Whereas Oatp1b2 deficiency in vivo had minimal influence on parent and active metabolite N-oxide drug exposure, plasma levels of the glucuronic acid metabolite of sorafenib (sorafenib-glucuronide) were increased more than 8-fold in Oatp1b2-knockout mice. This finding was unrelated to possible changes in intrinsic metabolic capacity for sorafenib-glucuronide formation in hepatic or intestinal microsomes ex vivo. Ensuing experiments revealed that sorafenib-glucuronide was itself a transported substrate of Oatp1b2 (17.5-fold vs. control), OATP1B1 (10.6-fold), and OATP1B3 (6.4-fold), and introduction of the human transporters in Oatp1b2-knockout mice provided partial restoration of function.These findings signify a unique role for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in the elimination of sorafenib-glucuronide and suggest a role for these transporters in the in vivo handling of glucuronic acid conjugates of drugs.