A Rapid NGS-Based Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Chromosomal Abnormalities in Day-3 Blastomere Biopsy Allows Embryo Transfer Within the Same Treatment Cycle.
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, most of the preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is performed with a strategy of comprehensive chromosome screening and trophectoderm biopsy. Nevertheless, patients with ovarian insufficiency may not have competent blastocysts. In the present study, we aimed to establish the value of multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycle (MALBAC)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) for PGT in day-3 embryos. A total of 94.3% (1168/1239) of embryos yielded informative results, and the overall embryo euploid rate was 21.9% (256/1168). Overall, 225 embryos were transferred in 169 cycles with a clinical pregnancy rate of 49.1% (83/169). The live birth and implantation rates were 47.3% (80/169) and 44.4% (100/225), respectively. Double embryos transfer showed higher clinical pregnancy and live birth rates compared with single embryo transfer, but the implantation rates were similar (44.2% vs. 44.6%, P > 0.05). The euploid rate for reciprocal translocations (16.1%) was significantly lower than that for Robertsonian translocations (28.0%, P < 0.01) and inversions (28.0%, P < 0.01). However, higher percentages of embryos with de novo abnormalities were observed with Robertsonian translocations (23.3%, P < 0.01) and inversions (30.5%, P < 0.01) than with reciprocal translocations (11.6%). We demonstrated that NGS for PGT on day-3 embryos is an effective clinical application, particularly for patients with a diminished ovarian reserve and limited embryos.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To explore a new preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) method for de novo mutations (DNMs) combined with chromosomal balanced translocations by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the MGISEQ-2000 sequencer.<h4>Methods</h4>Two families, one with maternal Olmsted syndrome caused by DNM (c.1246C>T) in TRPV3 and a paternal Robertsonian translocation and one with paternal Marfan syndrome caused by DNM (c.4952_4955delAATG) in FBN1 and a maternal reciprocal translocation, underwent PGT for monogenetic disease (PGT-M), chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural rearrangement. WGS of embryos and family members were performed. Bioinformatics analysis based on gradient sequencing depth was performed, and parent-embryo haplotyping was conducted for DNM diagnosis. Sanger sequencing, karyotyping, and chromosomal microarray analysis were performed using an amniotic fluid sample to confirm the PGT results.<h4>Results</h4>After 1 PGT cycle, WGS of 2 embryos from the Olmsted syndrome family revealed euploid embryos without DNMs; after 2 cycles, the 11 embryos from the Marfan syndrome family showed only 1 normal embryo without DNM, copy number variations (CNVs), or aneuploidy. Moreover, 1 blastocyst from the Marfan syndrome family was transferred back to the uterus; the amniocentesis test results were confirmed by PGT and a healthy infant was born.<h4>Conclusions</h4>WGS based on parent-embryo haplotypes was an effective strategy for PGT of DNMs combined with a chromosomal balanced translocation. Our results indicate this is a reliable and effective diagnostic method that is useful for clinical application in PGT of patients with DNMs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Balanced complex chromosome rearrangements (BCCR) are balanced chromosomal structural aberrations that involve two or more chromosomes and at least three breakpoints. It is very rare in the population. The objective is to explore the difference of influence of three types of BCCR on early embryonic development and molecular karyotype. RESULTS:Twelve couples were recruited including four couples of three-way rearrangements carriers (group A), three couples of double two-way translocations carriers (group B) and five couples of exceptional CCR carriers (group C). A total of 243 oocytes were retrievedin the seventeen preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) cycles, and 207 of these were available for fertilization. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 181oocytes normally fertilized. The rates of embryos forming on day3 in three groups were 87.88, 97.78 and77.14%, which was significantly different (P?=?0.01). Compared with group B, the rate of embryo formation was statistically significantly lower in group C (P?=?0.01). Furthermore, the rates of high-quality blastocysts in three group were 14.71, 48.15 and 62.96%, respectively, which was significantly different (P?=?0.00). Compared with group B andC, the rate of high-quality blastocysts in group A was statistically significantly lower (P?=?0.00;P?=?0.00). Comprehensive chromosome analysis was performed on 83 embryos, including 75 trophectodermcellsand 8 blastomeres. Except 7 embryos failed to amplify, 9.01%embryos were diagnosed as euploidy, and 90.91% were diagnosed as abnormal. As for group A, the euploid embryo rate was 10.71%and the abnormal embryo rate was 89.29%. In group B,the euploid embryo rate was 3.85%, the abnormal embryo rate was 96.15%. The euploid embryo rate was 13.04%, the abnormal embryo rate was 86.96% in group C. There were no significant differences among the three groups (P?=?0.55). CONCLUSIONS:The lowest rate of high quality blastocysts has been for three-way rearrangements and the lowest rate of euploidy has been for double two-way translocations, although no significant difference. Different types of BCCR maybe have little effect on the embryonic molecular karyotype. The difference of influence of BCCR on early embryonic developmentandmolecular karyotypeshould be further studied.
Project description:<h4>Study question</h4>Do donor oocyte recipients benefit from preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A)?<h4>Summary answer</h4>PGT-A did not improve the likelihood of live birth for recipients of vitrified donor oocytes, but it did avoid embryo transfer in cycles with no euploid embryos.<h4>What is known already</h4>Relative to slow freeze, oocyte vitrification has led to increased live birth from cryopreserved oocytes and has led to widespread use of this technology in donor egg IVF programs. However, oocyte cryopreservation has the potential to disrupt the meiotic spindle leading to abnormal segregation of chromosome during meiosis II and ultimately increased aneuploidy in resultant embryos. Therefore, PGT-A might have benefits in vitrified donor egg cycles. In contrast, embryos derived from young donor oocytes are expected to be predominantly euploid, and trophectoderm biopsy may have a negative effect relative to transfer without biopsy.<h4>Study design, size, duration</h4>This is a paired cohort study analyzing donor oocyte-recipient cycles with or without PGT-A performed from 2012 to 2018 at 47 US IVF centers.<h4>Participants/materials, setting, methods</h4>Vitrified donor oocyte cycles were analyzed for live birth as the main outcome measure. Outcomes from donors whose oocytes were used by at least two separate recipient couples, one couple using PGT-A (study group) and one using embryos without PGT-A (control group), were compared. Generalized estimating equation models controlled for confounders and nested for individual donors contributing to both PGT-A and non-PGT-A cohorts, enabling a single donor to serve as her own control.<h4>Main results and the role of chance</h4>In total, 1291 initiated recipient cycles from 223 donors were analyzed, including 262 cycles with and 1029 without PGT-A. The median aneuploidy rate per recipient was 25%. Forty-three percent of PGT-A cycles had only euploid embryos, whereas only 12.7% of cycles had no euploid embryos. On average 1.09 embryos were transferred in the PGT-A group compared to 1.38 in the group without PGT-A (P < 0.01). Live birth occurred in 53.8% of cycles with PGT-A versus 55.8% without PGT-A (P = 0.44). Similar findings persisted in cumulative live birth from per recipient cycle.<h4>Limitations, reasons for caution</h4>Pooled clinical data from 47 IVF clinics introduced PGT-A heterogeneity as genetic testing were performed using different embryology laboratories, PGT-A companies and testing platforms.<h4>Wider implications of the findings</h4>PGT-A testing in donor oocyte-recipient cycles does not improve the chance for live birth nor decrease the risk for miscarriage in the first transfer cycle but does increase cost and time for the patient. Further studies are required to test if our findings can be applied to the young infertility patient population using autologous oocytes.<h4>Study funding/competing interest(s)</h4>No external funding was used for this study. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>N/A.
Project description:Background: Balanced chromosomal aberrations, especially balanced translocations, can cause infertility, recurrent miscarriage or having chromosomally defective offspring. Preimplantation genetic testing for structural rearrangement (PGT-SR) has been widely implemented to improve the clinical outcomes by selecting euploid embryos for transfer, whereas embryos with balanced translocation karyotype were difficult to be distinguished by routine genetic techniques from those with a normal karyotype. Method: In this present study, we developed a clinically applicable method for reciprocal translocation carriers to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss. In the preclinical phase, we identified reciprocal translocation breakpoints in blood of translocation carriers by long-read Oxford Nanopore sequencing, followed by junction-spanning polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. In the clinical phase of embryo diagnosis, aneuploidies and unbalanced translocations were screened by comprehensive chromosomal screening (CCS) with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray, carrier embryos were diagnosed by junction-spanning PCR and family haplotype linkage analysis of the breakpoints region. Amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis of fetuses in the second trimester were performed after embryo transfer to conform the results diagnosed by the presented method. Results: All the accurate reciprocal translocation breakpoints were effectively identified by Nanopore sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Twelve embryos were biopsied and detected, the results of junction-spanning PCR and haplotype linkage analysis were consistent. In total, 12 biopsied blastocysts diagnosed to be euploid, in which 6 were aneuploid or unbalanced, three blastocysts were identified to be balanced translocation carriers and three to be normal karyotypes. Two euploid embryos were subsequently transferred back to patients and late prenatal karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells was performed. The outcomes diagnosed by the current approach were totally consistent with the fetal karyotypes. Conclusions: In summary, these investigations in our study illustrated that chromosomal reciprocal translocations in embryos can be accurately diagnosed. Long-read Nanopore sequencing and breakpoint analysis contributes to precisely evaluate the genetic risk of disrupted genes, and provides a way of selecting embryos with normal karyotype, especially for couples those without a reference.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of the study is to investigate how blastocyst contraction behaviour affects the reproductive competence in high-quality euploid embryos. METHODS:Eight hundred ninety-six high-quality blastocysts derived from 190 patients (mean age 38.05 (SD = 2.9) years) who underwent preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) from January 2016 to October 2017 were included in this study. PGT-A results were reported as euploid or aneuploid. Aneuploid embryos were sub-classified into three categories: monosomy, trisomy and complex aneuploid. Retrospective studies of time-lapse monitoring (TLM) of those embryos were analysed and reproductive outcome of transferred embryos was collected. RESULTS:A total of 234/896 were euploid (26.1%) whilst 662/896 (73.9%) blastocysts were proven to be aneuploid from which 116 (17.6%) presented monosomies, 136 (20.5%) trisomies and 410 (61.9%) were complex aneuploid. The most frequent chromosomal complements were trisomies affecting chromosome 21 and monosomies involving chromosomes 16 and 22. Data analysis showed a statistical difference in the number of contractions being reported greater in aneuploid when compared to euploid embryos (0.6 vs 1.57; p < 0.001). Analysis of the aneuploid embryos showed that monosomies present less number of contractions when compared to embryos affected with trisomies or complex aneuploidies (1.23 vs 1.53 and 1.40; p < 0.05). No difference was observed when comparing the latter two groups. Euploid embryos presenting at least one contraction resulted in lower implantation and clinical pregnancy rates when compared to blastocysts that do not display this event (47.6 vs 78.5% and 40.0 vs 59.0% respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Most aneuploid blastocysts diagnosed by PGT-A have complex aneuploidies, showing that aneuploid embryos can develop after genomic activation and reaching high morphological scores. It becomes clear that embryo contraction, despite being a physiological feature during blastulation, is conditioned by the ploidy status of the embryo. Furthermore, the presence of contractions may compromise implantation rates.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study evaluated the potential viability of embryos with low mosaicism level (< 50%) by comparing the clinical outcomes of single mosaic versus euploid blastocyst transfer. In addition, the live birth outcomes for various types of mosaicism with respect to abnormalities in chromosome structure and content were analyzed.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included patients who underwent in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). The PGT-A cycles performed through next-generation sequencing with single euploid or mosaic embryo transfers were included. We collected 299 frozen single embryo transfer cycles-216 single euploid and 83 mosaic-between July 2016 and July 2018. This study analyzed clinical outcomes, including fetal karyotyping by using amniocentesis, gestational age at delivery, and live birth weight after single mosaic embryo transfer.<h4>Results</h4>The average birth weight of infants in the euploid and mosaic blastocyst transfer groups was 3146.2 and 2997.7 g, respectively. The karyotyping results of prenatal diagnosis in all pregnant women were normal. Our study indicated that mosaic embryos can develop into euploid healthy infants with various levels or types of mosaicism. No significant difference was observed between infants from euploid and mosaic blastocyst transfers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>If patients have no euploid embryos, mosaic embryos can be transferred as they have potential for implantation and development into euploid healthy infants. This study is invaluable for counseling clinical results after single mosaic embryo transfers.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the efficacy of preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) for ?- and ?-double thalassemia combined with aneuploidy screening using next-generation sequencing (NGS).<h4>Methods</h4>An NGS-based PGT protocol was performed between 2017 and 2018 for twelve couples, each of which carried both ?- and ?-thalassemia mutations. Trophectoderm biopsy samples underwent whole-genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification (MDA), followed by NGS for thalassemia detection and aneuploidy screening. A selection of several informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) established haplotypes. Aneuploidy screening was performed only on unaffected noncarriers and carriers. Unaffected and euploid embryos were transferred into the uterus through frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 280 oocytes were retrieved following 18 ovum pick-up (OPU) cycles, with 182 normally fertilized and 112 cultured to become blastocysts. One hundred and seven (95.5%, 107/112) blastocysts received conclusive PGT results, showing 56 (52.3%, 56/107) were unaffected. Thirty-seven (66.1%, 37/56) of the unaffected were also identified as euploid. One family had no transferable embryos. Unaffected and euploid embryos were then transferred into the uterus of the other 11 couples resulting in 11 healthy live births. The clinical pregnancy rate was 61.1% (11/18) per OPU and 68.8% (11/16) per FET, with no miscarriage reported. Seven families accepted the prenatal diagnosis and received consistent results with the NGS-based PGT.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study indicated that NGS could realize the simultaneous PGT of double thalassemia and aneuploidy screening in a reliable and accurate manner. Moreover, it eliminated the need for multiple biopsies, alleviating the potential damages to the pre-implanted blastocysts.
Project description:Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) is widely used to select embryos having normal ploidy for transfer, but they require an invasive embryo biopsy procedure that may cause harm to the embryos and offspring. Therefore, a non-invasive approach to select embryos with normal ploidy for implantation is highly demanded. Non-invasive chromosome screening (NICS) methods have been proposed and applied in clinical practices, but a large-scale validation versus invasive preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) and the whole embryo ploidy has not yet been reported. In this study, by using the whole embryo as a gold standard, we validated NICS assay in a total of 265 donated human embryos and compared its performance with conventional trophectoderm (TE) biopsy PGT. The NICS assay showed promising performance, which is comparable to PGT-TE [sensitivity: 87.36 versus 89.66%; specificity: 80.28 versus 82.39%; negative predictive value (NPV): 91.2 versus 92.86%; positive predictive value (PPV): 73.08 versus 75.73%]. Additionally, NICS provides a scoring system for prioritizing embryo: embryos can be categorized into three groups with euploid prediction probabilities of 90.0, 27.8, and 72.2% for group euploid (A), aneuploid (B), and multiple abnormal chromosomes (MAC) (C), respectively. When an addition of TE assay is provided as a secondary validation, the accuracy significantly increases from 72.2 to 84.3% for group B and from 27.8 to 83.3% for group C. Our results suggest that NICS is a good rule in assay for identifying chromosomal normal embryos for transfer and might serve as a non-invasive approach for prioritizing embryos instead of preventing transfer of aneuploid and MAC embryos. It will help to ensure the safety of offspring and efficient utilization of embryos.
Project description:PURPOSE:Balanced carriers of structural rearrangements have an increased risk of unbalanced embryos mainly due to the production of unbalanced gametes during meiosis. Aneuploidy for other chromosomes not involved in the rearrangements has also been described. The purpose of this work is to know if the incidence of unbalanced embryos, interchromosomal effect (ICE) and clinical outcomes differ in carriers of different structural rearrangements. METHODS:Cohort retrospective study including 359 preimplantation genetic testing cycles for structural rearrangements from 304 couples was performed. Comparative genomic hybridisation arrays were used for chromosomal analysis. The results were stratified and compared according to female age and carrier sex. The impact of different cytogenetic features of chromosomal rearrangements was evaluated. RESULTS:In carriers of translocations, we observed a higher percentage of abnormal embryos from day 3 biopsies compared with day 5/6 biopsies and for reciprocal translocations compared with other rearrangements. We observed a high percentage of embryos with aneuploidies for chromosomes not involved in the rearrangement that could be attributed to total ICE (aneuploid balanced and unbalanced embryos). No significant differences were observed in these percentages between types of rearrangements. Pure ICE (aneuploid balanced embyos) was independent of female age only for Robertsonian translocations, and significantly increased in day 3 biopsies for all types of abnormalities. Furthermore, total ICE for carriers of Robertsonian translocations and biopsy on day 3 was independent of female age too. High ongoing pregnancy rates were observed for all studied groups, with higher pregnancy rate for male carriers. CONCLUSION:We observed a higher percentage of abnormal embryos for reciprocal translocations. No significant differences for total ICE was found among the different types of rearrangements, with higher pure ICE only for Robertsonian translocations. There was a sex effect for clinical outcome for carriers of translocations, with higher pregnancy rate for male carriers. The higher incidence of unbalanced and aneuploid embryos should be considered for reproductive counselling in carriers of structural rearrangements.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the expected out-of-pocket costs of IVF with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) to attain a 50%, 75%, or 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst based on individual age and AMH, and develop a personalized counseling tool. METHODS:A cost analysis was performed and a counseling tool was developed using retrospective data from IVF cycles intended for PGT or blastocyst freeze-all between January 1, 2014 and August 31, 2017 (n = 330) and aggregate statistics on euploidy rates of > 149,000 embryos from CooperGenomics. Poisson regression was used to determine the number of biopsiable blastocysts obtained per cycle, based on age and AMH. The expected costs of attaining a 50%, 75%, and 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst were determined via 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations for each age and AMH combination, incorporating age-based euploidy rates and IVF/PGT-A cost assumptions. RESULTS:The cost to attain a 50% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst ranges from approximately $15,000 U.S. dollars (USD) for younger women with higher AMH values (≥ 2 ng/mL) to > $150,000 for the oldest women (44 years) with the lowest AMH values (< 0.1 ng/mL) in this cohort. The cost to attain a 75% versus 90% likelihood of a euploid blastocyst is similar (~ $16,000) for younger women with higher AMH values, but varies for the oldest women with low AMH values (~ $280,000 and > $450,000, respectively). A typical patient (36-37 years, AMH 2.5 ng/mL) should expect to spend ~ $30,000 for a 90% likelihood of attaining a euploid embryo. CONCLUSIONS:This tool can serve as a counseling adjunct by providing individualized cost information for patients regarding PGT-A.