Higher-Order Chromatin Structures of Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6A Predict Integration Sites.
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus -6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes. Viral integration can occur in several cell types, including germinal cells, resulting in individuals that harbor the viral genome in every cell of their body. The integrated genome is efficiently silenced but can sporadically reactivate resulting in various clinical symptoms. To date, the integration mechanism and the subsequent silencing of HHV-6A/B genes remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the genome-wide chromatin contacts of the integrated HHV-6A in latently-infected cells. We show that HHV-6A becomes transcriptionally silent upon infection of these cells over the course of seven days. In addition, we established an HHV-6-specific 4C-seq approach, revealing that the HHV-6A 3D interactome is associated with quiescent chromatin states in cells harboring integrated virus. Furthermore, we observed that the majority of virus chromatin interactions occur toward the distal ends of specific human chromosomes. Exploiting this finding, we established a 4C-seq method that accurately detects the chromosomal integration sites. We further implement long-read minION sequencing in the 4C-seq assay and developed a method to identify HHV-6A/B integration sites in clinical samples.
Project description:Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are two closely related betaherpesviruses that are associated with various diseases including seizures and encephalitis. The HHV-6A/B genomes have been shown to be present in an integrated state in the telomeres of latently infected cells. In addition, integration of HHV-6A/B in germ cells has resulted in individuals harboring this inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B (iciHHV-6) in every cell of their body. Until now, the viral transcriptome and the epigenetic modifications that contribute to the silencing of the integrated virus genome remain elusive. In the current study, we used a patient-derived iciHHV-6A cell line to assess the global viral gene expression profile by RNA-seq, and the chromatin profiles by MNase-seq and ChIP-seq analyses. In addition, we investigated an in vitro generated cell line (293-HHV-6A) that expresses GFP upon the addition of agents commonly used to induce herpesvirus reactivation such as TPA. No viral gene expression including miRNAs was detected from the HHV-6A genomes, indicating that the integrated virus is transcriptionally silent. Intriguingly, upon stimulation of the 293-HHV-6A cell line with TPA, only foreign promoters in the virus genome were activated, while all HHV-6A promoters remained completely silenced. The transcriptional silencing of latent HHV-6A was further supported by MNase-seq results, which demonstrate that the latent viral genome resides in a highly condensed nucleosome-associated state. We further explored the enrichment profiles of histone modifications via ChIP-seq analysis. Our results indicated that the HHV-6 genome is modestly enriched with the repressive histone marks H3K9me3/H3K27me3 and does not possess the active histone modifications H3K27ac/H3K4me3. Overall, these results indicate that HHV-6 genomes reside in a condensed chromatin state, providing insight into the epigenetic mechanisms associated with the silencing of the integrated HHV-6A genome.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are two different species of betaherpesviruses that integrate into sub-telomeric ends of human chromosomes, for which different prevalence rates of integration have been reported. It has been demonstrated that integrated viral genome is stable and is fully retained. However, study of chromosomally integrated viral genome in individuals carrying inherited HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) showed unexpected number of viral DR copies. Hence, we created an in vitro infection model and studied retention of full or partial viral genome over a period of time. We observed an exceptional event where cells retained viral direct repeats (DRs) alone in the absence of the full viral genome. Finally, we found evidence for non-telomeric integration of HHV-6A DR in both cultured cells and in an iciHHV-6 individual. Our results shed light on several novel features of HHV-6A chromosomal integration and provide valuable information for future screening techniques.
Project description:Human herpesviruses 6-A and -B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) are ubiquitous in human populations worldwide. These viruses have been associated with several diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma or encephalitis. Despite of the need to understand the genetic diversity and geographic stratification of these viruses, the availability of complete viral sequences from different populations is still limited. Here, we present nine new inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 sequences from diverse geographical origin which were generated through target DNA enrichment on lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from healthy individuals. Integration with available HHV-6 sequences allowed the assessment of HHV-6A and -6B phylogeny, patterns of recombination and signatures of natural selection. Analysis of the intra-species variability showed differences between A and B diversity levels and revealed that the HHV-6B reference (Z29) is an uncommon sequence, suggesting the need for an alternative reference sequence. Signs of geographical variation are present and more defined in HHV-6A, while they appear partly masked by recombination in HHV-6B. Finally, we conducted a scan for signatures of selection in protein coding genes that yielded at least 6 genes (4 and 2 respectively for the A and B species) showing significant evidence for accelerated evolution, and 1 gene showing evidence of positive selection in HHV-6A.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6, iciHHV6). We reconstructed the population structure of HHV-6 and we show that HHV-6A genomes diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the ancestral common HHV-6A/B population. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, exogenous viral and iciHHV-6B populations were similar in terms of ancestry components, with no evident geographic structuring. Most HHV-6B genomes sampled to date derive from viral populations that experienced considerable drift. However, a population of HHV-6 exogenous viruses, currently classified as HHV-6B and sampled in New York state, formed a separate cluster (NY cluster) and harbored a considerable portion of HHV-6A-like ancestry. Recombination detection methods identified these viruses as interspecies recombinants, but phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the recombination signals are due to shared ancestry. In analogy to iciHHV-6A, NY cluster viruses have high nucleotide diversity and constant population size. We propose that HHV-6A sequences and the NY cluster population diverged from an ancestral HHV-6A-like population. A relatively recent bottleneck of the NY (or a related) population with subsequent expansion originated most HHV-6B genomes currently sampled. Our findings indicate that the distinction between HHV-6A and -6B is not as clear-cut as previously thought. More generally, epidemiological and clinical surveys would benefit from taking HHV-6 genetic diversity into account.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/HHV-6B, iciHHV-6A/iciHHV-6B). We reconstructed the population structures of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, showing that HHV-6A diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the projected common ancestral population. Thus, HHV-6B genomes experienced stronger drift, as also supported by calculation of nucleotide diversity and Tajima's D. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, ancestry proportions were similar in exogenous HHV-6B viruses and iciHHV-6B. In line with previous indications, this suggests the distinct exogenous viral populations that originated iciHHV-6B in subjects with European and Asian ancestry are still causing infections in the corresponding geographic areas. Notably, for both iciHHV-6A and iciHHV-6B, we found that European and American sequences tend to have high proportions of ancestry from viral populations that experienced considerable drift, suggesting that they underwent one or more bottlenecks followed by population expansion. Finally, analysis of HHV-6B exogenous viruses sampled in Japan indicated that proportions of ancestry components of most of these viruses are different from the majority of those sampled in the USA. More generally, we show that, in both viral species, both integrated and exogenous viral genomes have different ancestry components, partially depending on geographic location. It would be extremely important to determine whether such differences account for the diversity of HHV-6A/HHV-6B-associated clinical symptoms and epidemiology. Also, the sequencing of additional exogenous and integrated viral genomes will be instrumental to confirm and expand our conclusions, which are based on a relatively small number of genomes, sequenced with variable quality, and with unequal sampling in terms of geographic origin.
Project description:A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we examine the prevalence of ciHHV-6 in 936 cases of cHL and 563 controls by screening with a duplex TaqMan assay and confirming with droplet digital PCR. ciHHV-6 was detected in 10/563 (1.8%) controls and in all but one individual the virus was HHV-6B. Amongst cases 16/936 (1.7%) harboured ciHHV-6, thus demonstrating no association between ciHHV-6 and risk of cHL.
Project description:Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are human viruses capable of chromosomal integration. Approximately 1% of the human population carries one copy of HHV-6A/B integrated into every cell in their body, referred to as inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A/B (iciHHV-6A/B). Whether iciHHV-6A/B is transcriptionally active in vivo and how it shapes the immunological response are still unclear. In this study, we screened DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data for 650 individuals available through the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and identified 2 iciHHV-6A- and 4 iciHHV-6B-positive candidates. When corresponding tissue-specific gene expression signatures were analyzed, low levels HHV-6A/B gene expression was found across multiple tissues, with the highest levels of gene expression in the brain (specifically for HHV-6A), testis, esophagus, and adrenal gland. U90 and U100 were the most highly expressed HHV-6 genes in both iciHHV-6A- and iciHHV-6B-positive individuals. To assess whether tissue-specific gene expression from iciHHV-6A/B influences the immune response, a cohort of 15,498 subjects was screened and 85 iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects were identified. Plasma samples from iciHHV-6A/B+ and age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed for antibodies to control antigens (cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], and influenza virus [FLU]) or HHV-6A/B antigens. Our results indicate that iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects have significantly more antibodies against the U90 gene product (IE1) than do non-iciHHV-6-positive individuals. Antibody responses against EBV and FLU antigens or HHV-6A/B gene products either not expressed or expressed at low levels, such as U47, U57, and U72, were identical between controls and iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects. CMV-seropositive individuals with iciHHV-6A/B+ have more antibodies against CMV pp150 than do CMV-seropositive controls. These results argue that spontaneous gene expression from integrated HHV-6A/B leads to an increase in antigenic burden that translates into a more robust HHV-6A/B-specific antibody response.IMPORTANCE HHV-6A and -6B are human herpesviruses that have the unique property of being able to integrate into the telomeric regions of human chromosomes. Approximately 1% of the world's population carries integrated HHV-6A/B genome in every cell of their body. Whether viral genes are transcriptionally active in these individuals is unclear. By taking advantage of a unique tissue-specific gene expression data set, we showed that the majority of tissues from iciHHV-6 individuals do not show HHV-6 gene expression. Brain and testes showed the highest tissue-specific expression of HHV-6 genes in two separate data sets. Two HHV-6 genes, U90 (immediate early 1 protein) and U100 (glycoproteins Q1 and Q2), were found to be selectively and consistently expressed across several human tissues. Expression of U90 translates into an increase in antigen-specific antibody response in iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects relative to controls. Future studies will be needed to determine the mechanism of gene expression, the effects of these genes on human gene transcription networks, and the pathophysiological impact of having increased viral protein expression in tissue in conjunction with increased antigen-specific antibody production.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are ubiquitous betaherpesviruses that infects humans within the first years of life and establishes latency in various cell types. Both viruses can integrate their genomes into telomeres of host chromosomes in latently infected cells. The molecular mechanism of viral integration remains elusive. Intriguingly, HHV-6A, HHV-6B and several other herpesviruses harbor arrays of telomeric repeats (TMR) identical to human telomere sequences at the ends of their genomes. The HHV-6A and HHV-6B genomes harbor two TMR arrays, the perfect TMR (pTMR) and the imperfect TMR (impTMR). To determine if the TMR are involved in virus integration, we deleted both pTMR and impTMR in the HHV-6A genome. Upon reconstitution, the TMR mutant virus replicated comparable to wild type (wt) virus, indicating that the TMR are not essential for HHV-6A replication. To assess the integration properties of the recombinant viruses, we established an in vitro integration system that allows assessment of integration efficiency and genome maintenance in latently infected cells. Integration of HHV-6A was severely impaired in the absence of the TMR and the virus genome was lost rapidly, suggesting that integration is crucial for the maintenance of the virus genome. Individual deletion of the pTMR and impTMR revealed that the pTMR play the major role in HHV-6A integration, whereas the impTMR only make a minor contribution, allowing us to establish a model for HHV-6A integration. Taken together, our data shows that the HHV-6A TMR are dispensable for virus replication, but are crucial for integration and maintenance of the virus genome in latently infected cells.
Project description:The genomes of human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B have the capacity to integrate into telomeres, the essential capping structures of chromosomes that play roles in cancer and ageing. About 1% of people worldwide are carriers of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6), which is inherited as a genetic trait. Understanding the consequences of integration for the evolution of the viral genome, for the telomere, and for the risk of disease associated with carrier status is hampered by a lack of knowledge about ciHHV-6 genomes. Here, we report an analysis of 28 ciHHV-6 genomes and show that they are significantly divergent from the few modern nonintegrated HHV-6 strains for which complete sequences are currently available. In addition, ciHHV-6B genomes in Europeans are more closely related to each other than to ciHHV-6B genomes from China and Pakistan, suggesting regional variation of the trait. Remarkably, at least one group of European ciHHV-6B carriers has inherited the same ciHHV-6B genome, integrated in the same telomere allele, from a common ancestor estimated to have existed 24,500 ± 10,600 years ago. Despite the antiquity of some, and possibly most, germ line HHV-6 integrations, the majority of ciHHV-6B (95%) and ciHHV-6A (72%) genomes contain a full set of intact viral genes and therefore appear to have the capacity for viral gene expression and full reactivation.IMPORTANCE Inheritance of HHV-6A or HHV-6B integrated into a telomere occurs at a low frequency in most populations studied to date, but its characteristics are poorly understood. However, stratification of ciHHV-6 carriers in modern populations due to common ancestry is an important consideration for genome-wide association studies that aim to identify disease risks for these people. Here, we present full sequence analysis of 28 ciHHV-6 genomes and show that ciHHV-6B in many carriers with European ancestry most likely originated from ancient integration events in a small number of ancestors. We propose that ancient ancestral origins for ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B are also likely in other populations. Moreover, despite their antiquity, all of the ciHHV-6 genomes appear to retain the capacity to express viral genes, and most are predicted to be capable of full viral reactivation. These discoveries represent potentially important considerations in immunocompromised patients, in particular in organ transplantation and in stem cell therapy.
Project description:Primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) and usually occur in immunocompromised individuals. However, there are numerous reports of HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphomas with unknown aetiology. Here we characterize an HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma in an elderly woman who was negative for human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, and hepatitis B and C. The woman was, however, a carrier of an inherited-chromosomally-integrated human herpesvirus-6A (iciHHV-6A) genome in one 19q telomere. The iciHHV-6A genome was complete in blood DNA, encoding a full set of protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the entire iciHHV-6A genome was absent from the HHV-8-unrelated-PEL-like lymphoma cells despite retention of both copies of chromosome 19. The somatic loss of the 19q-iciHHV-6A genome occurred very early during lymphoma development and we propose it occurred via telomere-loop formation and excision to release a circular viral genome that was subsequently lost. Whether release of the HHV-6A genome from the telomere contributed to lymphomagenesis, or was coincidental, remains unclear but this event may have deregulated the expression of HHV-6A or 19q genes or else disrupted telomere function. To establish the frequency and importance of iciHHV-6 loss from telomeres, the HHV-6 copy number should be assessed in tumours that arise in iciHHV-6 carriers.