Risk Scores in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients with Refractory Cardiogenic Shock and Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
ABSTRACT: Although many risk models have been tested in patients implanted by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), few scores assessed patients’ prognosis in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with refractory cardiogenic shock. We aimed at assessing the performance of risk scores, notably the prEdictioN of Cardiogenic shock OUtcome foR AMI patients salvaGed by VA-ECMO (ENCOURAGE) score, for predicting mortality in this particular population. This retrospective observational study included patients admitted to Tours University Hospital for STEMI with cardiogenic shock and requiring hemodynamic support by VA-ECMO. Among the fifty-one patients, the 30-day and 6-month survival rates were 63% and 56% respectively. Thirty days after VA-ECMO therapy, probabilities of mortality were 12, 17, 33, 66, 80% according to the ENCOURAGE score classes 0–12, 13–18, 19–22, 23–27, and ?28, respectively. The ENCOURAGE score (AUC of the Receiving Operating Characteristic curve = 0.83) was significantly better compared to other risk scores. The hazard ratio for survival at 30 days for each point of the ENCOURAGE score was 1.10 (CI 95% (1.06, 1.15); p < 0.001). Decision curve analysis indicated that the ENCOURAGE score had the best clinical usefulness of the tested risk scores and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test suggested an accurate calibration. Our data suggest that the ENCOURAGE score is valid and the most relevant score to predict 30-day mortality after VA-ECMO therapy in STEMI patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. It may help decision-making teams to better select STEMI patients with shock for VA-ECMO therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prediction scoring systems for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) have not yet been reported. This study was designed to develop a predictive score for in-hospital mortality for cardiogenic shock patients who received VA-ECMO after isolated CABG.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective cohort study of consecutive CABG patients supported with VA-ECMO (n?=?166) at the Beijing Anzhen Hospital between February 2004 and March 2017.<h4>Results</h4>One hundred and six patients (64%) could be weaned from VA-ECMO, and 74 patients (45%) survived to hospital discharge. On the basis of multivariable logistic regression analyses, the pRedicting mortality in patients undergoing veno-arterial Extracorporeal MEMBrane oxygenation after coronary artEry bypass gRafting (REMEMBER) score was created with six pre-ECMO parameters: older age, left main coronary artery disease, inotropic score >?75, CK-MB >?130?IU/L, serum creatinine >?150?umol/L, and platelet count <?100?×?10<sup>9</sup>/L. Four risk classes, namely class I (REMEMBER score 0-13), class II (14-19), class III (20-25), and class IV (>?25) with their corresponding mortality (13%, 55%, 70%, and 94%, respectively), were identified. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.85(95% CI 0.79-0.91) for the REMEMBER score was better than those for the SOFA, SAVE, EuroSCORE, and ENCOURAGE scores in this population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The REMEMBER score might help clinicians at bedside to predict in-hospital mortality for patients receiving VA-ECMO after isolated CABG for refractory cardiogenic shock. Prospective studies are needed to externally validate this scoring system.
Project description:<b>Background:</b>Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used to treat cardiogenic shock. However, VA-ECMO might hamper myocardial recovery. The Impella unloads the left ventricle. This study aimed to evaluate whether left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO was associated with lower mortality.<br><br><b>Methods:</b>Data from 686 consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO with or without left ventricular unloading using an Impella at 16 tertiary care centers in 4 countries were collected. The association between left ventricular unloading and 30-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort.<br><br><b>Results:</b>Left ventricular unloading was used in 337 of the 686 patients (49%). After matching, 255 patients with left ventricular unloading were compared with 255 patients without left ventricular unloading. In the matched cohort, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.98]; <i>P</i>=0.03) without differences in various subgroups. Complications occurred more frequently in patients with left ventricular unloading: severe bleeding in 98 (38.4%) versus 45 (17.9%), access site-related ischemia in 55 (21.6%) versus 31 (12.3%), abdominal compartment in 23 (9.4%) versus 9 (3.7%), and renal replacement therapy in 148 (58.5%) versus 99 (39.1%).<br><br><b>Conclusions:</b>In this international, multicenter cohort study, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO, despite higher complication rates. These findings support use of left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO and call for further validation, ideally in a randomized, controlled trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microcirculatory dysfunction develops in both septic and cardiogenic shock patients, and it is associated with poor prognosis in patients with septic shock. Information on the association between microcirculatory dysfunction and prognosis in cardiogenic shock patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is limited. METHODS:Sublingual microcirculation images were recorded using an incident dark-field video microscope at the following time points: within 12 h (T1), 24 h (T2), 48 h (T3), 72 h (T4), and 96 h (T5) after VA-ECMO placement. If a patient could be weaned off VA-ECMO, sublingual microcirculation images were recorded before and after VA-ECMO removal. Microcirculatory parameters were compared between 28-day nonsurvivors and survivors with VA-ECMO support. In addition, the microcirculation and clinical parameters were assessed as prognostic tests of 28-day mortality, and patients were divided into three subgroups according to microcirculation parameters for survival analysis. RESULTS:Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. At T1, the observed heart rate, mean arterial pressure, inotropic score and lactate level of 28-day nonsurvivors and survivors did not differ significantly, but the perfused small vessel density (PSVD) and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) were lower in the 28-day nonsurvivors than in the survivors. The PSVD and PPV were slightly superior to lactate levels in predicting 28-day mortality (area under curve of 0.68, 0.70, and 0.62, respectively). The subgroup with the lowest PSVD (< 15 mm/mm2) and PPV (< 64%) values exhibited less favorable survival compared with the other two subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Early microcirculatory parameters could be used to predict the survival of cardiogenic shock patients with VA-ECMO support. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393274 . Registered on 19 March 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has been increasingly used over the last decade in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. ECMO weaning can, however, be challenging and lead to circulatory failure and death. Recent data suggest a potential benefit of levosimendan for ECMO weaning. We sought to further investigate whether the use of levosimendan could decrease the rate of ECMO weaning failure in adult patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. METHODS:We performed an observational single-center cohort study. All patients undergoing VA-ECMO from January 2012 to December 2018 were eligible and divided into two groups: group levosimendan and group control (without levosimendan). The primary endpoint was VA-ECMO weaning failure defined as death during VA-ECMO treatment or within 24?h after VA-ECMO removal. Secondary outcomes were mortality at day 28 and at 6 months. The two groups were compared after propensity score matching. P?<?0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Two hundred patients were analyzed (levosimendan group: n?=?53 and control group: n?=?147). No significant difference was found between groups on baseline characteristics except for ECMO duration, which was longer in the levosimendan group (10.6?±?4.8 vs. 6.5?±?4.7?days, p?<?0.001). Levosimendan administration started 6.6?±?5.4?days on average following ECMO implantation. After matching of 48 levosimendan patients to 78 control patients, the duration of ECMO was similar in both groups. The rate of weaning failure was 29.1% and 35.4% in levosimendan and control groups, respectively (OR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.25-1.88). No significant difference was found between groups for all secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION:Levosimendan did not improve the rate of successful VA-ECMO weaning in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04323709 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) can be a rescue therapy for patients in cardiogenic shock or in refractory cardiac arrest. After cannulation, vasoplegia and cardiac depression are frequent. In literature, there are conflicting data on inotropic therapy in these patients. METHODS:Analysis of a retrospective registry of all patients treated with VA-ECMO in a university hospital center between October 2010 and December 2018 for cardiogenic shock or extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) with a focus on individual early inotropic therapy. RESULTS:A total of 231 patients (age 58.6 ± 14.3, 29.9% female, 58% eCPR, in-house survival 43.7%) were analyzed. Of these, 41.6% received no inotrope therapy within the first 24 h (survival 47.9%), 29.0% received an inodilator (survival 52.2%), and 29.0% received epinephrine (survival 25.0%). Survival of patients with epinephrine was significantly worse compared to other patient groups when evaluating 30-day survival (p = 0.034/p = 0.005) and cumulative incidence of in-hospital death (p = 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with epinephrine was associated with mortality in the whole cohort (OR 0.38, p = 0.011) as well as after propensity score matching (OR 0.24, p = 0.037). We found no significant differences between patients with inodilator treatment and those without. CONCLUSION:Early epinephrine therapy within the first 24 h after cannulation for VA-ECMO was associated with poor survival compared to patients with or without any inodilator therapy. Until randomized data are available, epinephrine should be avoided in patients on VA-ECMO.
Project description:In the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock, three primary treatment objectives include providing circulatory support, ventricular unloading, and restoring myocardial perfusion. In addition to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, each of these three objectives can be achieved with appropriate use of an acute mechanical circulatory support (AMCS) pump. Over the past decade, utilization of percutaneously-delivered AMCS devices including the Impella axial-flow catheter, TandemHeart left atrial-to-femoral artery bypass system, and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has grown exponentially. In this review, we will discuss the hemodynamic impact of each AMCS device and clinical data surrounding their use in the setting of STEMI complicated by cardiogenic shock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiogenic shock is a serious complication of a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We compared short- and long-term mortality among (1) STEMI patients with and without cardiogenic shock and (2) STEMI patients with cardiogenic shock with and without the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). METHODS:From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010, all patients presenting with STEMI and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were identified. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was estimated using a Cox regression model, controlling for potential confounding. RESULTS:The study cohort consisted of 4293 STEMI patients: 286 (6.7%) with and 4007 (93.3%) without cardiogenic shock. Compared with patients without cardiogenic shock, patients with cardiogenic shock were older, and more likely to have diabetes mellitus, multi-vessel disease, anterior myocardial infarction (MI) or bundle-branch block MI and a reduced creatinine clearance. Among patients with cardiogenic shock vs. without shock, 30-day cumulative mortality was 57.3% vs. 4.5% (p < 0.001), one-year cumulative mortality was 60.7% vs. 8.2% (p < 0.001) and five-year mortality was 65.0% vs. 18.9% (p < 0.001). STEMI with cardiogenic shock was associated with higher 30-day mortality (adjusted HR = 12.89 [95% CI: 9.72-16.66]), 1-year mortality (adjusted HR = 8.83 [95% CI: 7.06-11.05]) and five-year mortality (adjusted HR = 6.39 [95% CI: 5.22-7.80]). IABP was used in 71 (25%) patients with cardiogenic shock and was associated with improved 30-day outcome (adjusted HR = 0.48 [95% CI: 0.28-0.83]). CONCLUSION:Patients with STEMI and cardiogenic shock had substantial short- and long-term mortality that may be improved with IABP implantation. More studies on use of IABP in such patients are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, direct transport from the scene to the catheterisation laboratory bypassing the emergency department has been shown to shorten times to reperfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of emergency department bypass on mortality in both haemodynamically stable and unstable STEMI patients. METHODS:The analysis is based on a large cohort of STEMI patients prospectively included in the German multicentre Feedback Intervention and Treatment Times in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FITT-STEMI) trial. RESULTS:Out of 13,219 STEMI patients who were brought directly from the scene by emergency medical service transportation and were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, the majority were transported directly to the catheterisation laboratory bypassing the emergency department (n=6740, 51% with emergency department bypass). These patients had a significantly lower in-hospital mortality than their counterparts with no emergency department bypass (6.2% vs. 10.0%, P<0.0001). The reduced mortality related to emergency department bypass was observed in both stable (n=11,594, 2.8% vs. 3.8%, P=0.0024) and unstable patients presenting with cardiogenic shock (n=1625, 36.3% vs. 46.2%, P<0.0001). Regression models adjusted for the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score consistently confirmed a significant and independent predictive effect of emergency department bypass on survival in the total study population (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.74, P<0.0001) and in the subgroup of shock patients (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.88, P=0.0028). CONCLUSION:In STEMI patients, emergency department bypass is associated with a significant reduction in mortality, which is most pronounced in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock. Our data encourage treatment protocols for emergency department bypass to improve the survival of both haemodynamically stable patients and, in particular, unstable patients. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT00794001 ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00794001.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used in patients with critical cardiopulmonary failure. To investigate the association between hospital VA-ECMO procedure volume and outcomes in a large, nationwide registry.<h4>Methods</h4>By using administrative data from the German Federal Health Monitoring System, we analyzed all VA-ECMO procedures performed in Germany from 2013 to 2016 regarding the association of procedural volumes with outcomes and complications.<h4>Results</h4>During the study period, 10,207 VA-ECMO procedures were performed; mean age was 61?years, 43.4% had prior CPR, and 71.2% were male patients. Acute coronary syndrome was the primary diagnosis for VA-ECMO implantation (n?=?6202, 60.8%). The majority of implantations (n?=?5421) were performed at hospitals in the lowest volume category (??50 implantations per year). There was a significant association between annualized volume of VA-ECMO procedures and 30-day in-hospital mortality for centers with lower vs. higher volume per year. Multivariable logistic regression showed an increased 30-day in-hospital mortality at hospitals with the lowest volume category (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27, p?=?0.034). Similarly, higher likelihood for complications was observed at hospitals with lower vs. higher annual VA-ECMO volume (adjusted odds ratio 1.46, 95% CI 1.29-1.66, p?=?0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this analysis of more than 10,000 VA-ECMO procedures for cardiogenic shock, the majority of implantations were performed at hospitals with the lowest annual volume. Thirty-day in-hospital mortality and likelihood for complications were higher at hospitals with the lowest annual VA-ECMO volume.
Project description:Background:ECMO is increasingly used for patients with critical illnesses. This study examines ECMO use in patients with cardiogenic shock in US hospitals and associated outcomes (mortality, hospital length of stay, and total hospital charges). Methods:A matched cohort retrospective study was conducted using the 2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Cardiogenic shock visits were matched (1?:?1) and compared based on ECMO use. Results:Patients with ECMO (N = 802) were compared to patients without ECMO (N = 805). Mortality was higher in the ECMO group (48.9% versus 4.0%, p < 0.001). Visits with ECMO use also had higher average hospital charges ($580,065.8 versus $156,436.5, p < 0.001) and average hospital LOS (21.3 versus 11.6 days, p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, mortality (OR = 8.52 (95% CI: 2.84-25.58)) and charges (OR = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.05)) remained higher in the ECMO group, while LOS was similar (OR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99-1.02)). Conclusions:Patients with cardiogenic shock who underwent ECMO had increased mortality and higher cost of care without significant increase in LOS when compared to patients with cardiogenic shock without ECMO use. Prospective evaluation of this observed association is needed to improve outcomes and resources' utilization further.