Assignment of Absolute Configuration of Bromoallenes by Vacuum-Ultraviolet Circular Dichroism (VUVCD).
ABSTRACT: A new application of vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD), which enables the measurement of CD spectra in the vacuum-ultraviolet region (140-200 nm), for the assignment of the absolute configurations of bromoallenes is described. Bromoallene moieties are found in natural products obtained from many marine organisms. To date, the absolute configuration of bromoallenes has been assigned almost exclusively with Lowe's rule, which is based on specific rotation. However, exceptions to Lowe's rule have been reported arising from the presence of other substituents with large specific rotations. For the unambiguous assignment of the absolute configuration of the bromoallene moiety with its characteristic absorption wavelength at 180-190 nm due to the ?-?* transition, VUVCD was applied to four pairs of bromoallene diastereomers prepared by modifying the synthetic scheme of omaezallene. The VUVCD spectra clearly showed positive or negative Cotton effects around 180-190 nm according to the configuration of the bromoallene employed, revealing the potential of VUVCD for determining absolute stereochemistry.
Project description:Density functional theory/B3LYP has been employed to optimize the conformations of selected 4-arylflavan-3-ols and their phenolic methyl ether 3-O-acetates. The electronic circular dichroism spectra of the major conformers have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory to validate the empirical aromatic quadrant rule applied to the assignment of the absolute configuration of this class of compounds. The modest 6-31G* basis set was sufficient to produce reasonable spectra. The calculated Cotton effects at 220-240 nm, crucial for the assignment of the C-4 absolute configuration, result from electronic transitions of the molecular orbitals involving the pi-electrons of the spatially close aromatic A-ring and 4-aryl moieties. The sign of this Cotton effect is determined by the orientation of the 4-aryl substituent: the negative and positive Cotton effects are associated with 4alpha- and 4beta-aryl substituents, respectively.
Project description:The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190-250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190-250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties.
Project description:The assignment of absolute configurations is of critical importance for understanding the biochemical processing of DNA lesions. The diastereomeric spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) lesions are oxidation products of guanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), and the absolute configurations of the two diastereomers, Sp1 and Sp2, have been evaluated by experimental and computational optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) methods. In order to support our previous assignments by the ORD method, we calculated the electronic circular dichroism spectra (ECD) of the Sp stereoisomers. Comparison of the experimentally measured and computed ECD spectra indicates that Sp1 has (-)-S absolute configuration, while Sp2 has (+)-R absolute configuration. Thus, the S and R assignments, based on the ECD spectra of Sp1 and Sp2, are consistent with our previous assignments of absolute configurations. To further test the validity of this approach, we performed a proof-of-principle computation of the ECD and ORD of the R and S enantiomers of allantoin (similar in chemical composition to Sp) of known absolute configurations. The calculations provide the correct assignment of the absolute configurations of the allantoin enantiomers, indicating that the computational TDDFT approach is robust for identifying the absolute configurations of allantoins and probably the Sp stereoisomers, as has been shown previously for other organic molecules.
Project description:Photochemistry of an N2 ice and thermal reaction of the irradiated sample were studied with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron. Concurrent detection of infrared absorption and visible emission spectra provide evidence for the generation of energetic products N (2D) and N (2P) atoms, N2 (A) molecule and linear-N3 (l-N3) radical after excitation of icy N2 at 121.6 nm. Irradiation at 190 nm is shown to be an effective way to eliminate the l-N3 radical. After the photolysis and photoelimination of the l-N3, we initiate synthesis of l-N3 via the thermal ramping of the sample in temperature range 3.5 to 20 K. In addition, the emission from the N (2D) atom was observed during the thermal ramping process. These behaviors indicate that a long-lived N (2Dlong) atom is generated in the VUV-photolyzed N2 ice. A comparison of the variations of the visible emission of N (2D) and the infrared absorption of l-N3 with time indicates that the long-lived N (2Dlong) dominated the thermal synthesis of l-N3 The results have enhanced suggestion and understanding of the conversion for nitrogen species in cold astrophysical environments with VUV irradiation.
Project description:An investigation of anti-oxidative compounds from the brown alga Dictyopteris undulata has led to the isolation and identification of isozonarol, isozonarone, chromazonarol, zonaroic acid and isozonaroic acid. Their structures were identified by comparison of MS and NMR spectra. Full NMR assignment and absolute configuration of isozonaroic acid are described. Isozonarol showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity among the compounds isolated.
Project description:Mandelalides A-D are variously glycosylated, unusual polyketide macrolides isolated from a new species of Lissoclinum ascidian collected from South Africa, Algoa Bay near Port Elizabeth and the surrounding Nelson Mandela Metropole. Their planar structures were elucidated on submilligram samples by comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data, supported by mass spectrometry. The assignment of relative configuration was accomplished by consideration of homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. The absolute configuration was assigned for mandelalide A after chiral GC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed monosaccharide (2-O-methyl-?-L-rhamnose) and consideration of ROESY correlations between the monosaccharide and aglycone in the intact natural product. The resultant absolute configuration of the mandelalide A macrolide was extrapolated to propose the absolute configurations of mandelalides B-D. Remarkably, mandelalide B contained the C-4' epimeric 2-O-methyl-6-dehydro-?-L-talose. Mandelalides A and B showed potent cytotoxicity to human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells (IC(50), 12 and 44 nM, respectively) and mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells (IC(50), 29 and 84 nM, respectively).
Project description:The plants of the genus Kadsura are widely distributed in China, South Korea, and Japan. Their roots and stems are traditionally used to treat blood diseases and pain. The main bioactive constituents of Kadsura longipedunculata comprise highly oxygenated triterpenoids. Schiartane-type nortriterpenoids showed anti-HIV, anti-HBV, and cytotoxic bioactivities. For such compounds, the absolute configuration influences the bioactivities, and hence its unambiguous determination is essential. In this work, the absolute configurations of three highly oxygenated schiartane-type nortriterpenoids were unequivocally assigned using X-ray, ECD, and J-based configuration analysis and HSQC overlay data.The ethanol extract of Kadsura longipedunculata Finet et Gagnep was purified by column chromatography using silica, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS as substrates. To help assign the absolute configuration of schiartane-type nortriterpenoids, X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experiment compared to ab initio computed data, DP4+ analysis, HSQC overlay, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis were carried out. Hetero- and homo-nuclear coupling constants were extracted from HETLOC experiments.Three new highly oxygenated triterpenoids, micrandilactone I (1), micrandilactone J (2), and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) were isolated. Their 2D structures were solved using NMR and HRESIMS data and their absolute configurations were elucidated using X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experimental results compared to ab initio computed spectra, HSQC overlay, DP4+, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis. Micrandilactone I (1) and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells with cell survival rates of 53.0 and 50.2%, respectively, at 10?M (bicyclol, 49.0%), while micrandilactone J (2) was inactive.This is the first comprehensive stereochemical assignment of a non-crystalline schiartane-type nortriterpenoid like 3. This general protocol may contribute towards solving the problems hampering the assignment of the absolute configurations of other members of this class of nortriterpenoids.
Project description:A new secalonic acid derivative, F-7 (1), was isolated from the endophytic Aspergillus aculeatus MBT 102, associated with Rosa damascena. The planar structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-TOF-MS spectra. The relative configuration of 1 was determined applying a combined quantum mechanical/NMR approach and, afterward, the comparison of calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra determined the assignment of its absolute configuration. The compound possesses strong cytotoxic activity against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. It was found to induce apoptosis, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that 1 induced mitochondrial damage and reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis, arresting the G1 phase of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the compound causes significant microtubule disruption in TNBC cells. Subsequently, 1 restricted the cell migration leading to the concomitant increase in expression of cleaved caspase and PARP.
Project description:To elucidate the structure of denatured proteins, we measured the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectra from 260 to 172 nm of three proteins (metmyoglobin, staphylococcal nuclease, and thioredoxin) in the native and the acid-, cold-, and heat-denatured states, using a synchrotron-radiation VUVCD spectrophotometer. The circular dichroism spectra of proteins fully unfolded by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) were also measured down to 197 nm for comparison. These denatured proteins exhibited characteristic VUVCD spectra that reflected a considerable amount of residual secondary structures. The contents of alpha-helices, beta-strands, turns, poly-L-proline type II (PPII), and unordered structures were estimated for each denatured state of the three proteins using the SELCON3 program with Protein Data Bank data and the VUVCD spectra of 31 reference proteins reported in our previous study. Based on these contents, the characteristics of the four types of denaturation were discussed for each protein. In all types of denaturation, a decrease in alpha-helices was accompanied by increases in beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures. About 20% beta-strands were present even in the proteins fully unfolded by GdnHCl in which beta-sheets should be broken. From these results, we propose that denatured proteins constitute an ensemble of residual alpha-helices and beta-sheets, partly unfolded (or distorted) alpha-helices and beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures.
Project description:Four new acetylenes (1-4) and one new unsaturated ?-hydroxy fatty acid (5), together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1), tetradecenynetriol (2), and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4), respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher?s method based on the MPA determination rule of ?? RS values for diols.