Treatment Patterns and Clinical Outcomes in Korean Cancer Patients With Venous Thromboembolism: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: This study assessed epidemiologic data and clinical outcomes, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and bleeding events, in patients with cancer-associated VTE, and assessed factors associated with clinical outcomes. Data were extracted from retrospective medical-chart review of adult patients diagnosed with cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who received anticoagulation treatment for ≥3 months. Patients were classified by: low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), and other anticoagulants. First VTE recurrence and bleeding events, and factors associated with their occurrence, were assessed during the initial 6 months of treatment. Overall, 623 patients (age: 63.7 ± 11.3 years, 49.3% male) were included (119, 132, and 372 patients in LMWH, DOACs and other anticoagulants groups, respectively). The cumulative 6-month incidence of VTE recurrence was 16.6% (total), 8.3% (LMWH), 16.7% (DOACs), and 20.7% (other); respective bleeding events were 22.5%, 11.0%, 12.3%, and 30.7%). VTE recurrence and bleeding rates differed only between LMWH and other anticoagulants (HR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0 and 3.6, 1.9-6.8, respectively). These results highlight the importance of initial VTE treatment choice for preventing VTE recurrence and bleeding events. LMWH or DOACs for ≥3 months can be considered for effective VTE management in cancer patients.
Project description:Anticoagulation for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be challenging due to complications-including bleeding and potential drug-drug interactions with chemotherapy-associated with vitamin K antagonists and inconvenience of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) could partially overcome these issues, but until recently there were no large clinical trials assessing their efficacy and safety in cancer patients. This review summarizes clinical treatment guidelines, prior clinical and real-world evidence for anticoagulant choice, recent clinical trials assessing DOACs for cancer-associated VTE (i.e. Hokusai-VTE Cancer, SELECT-D, CARAVAGGIO, and ADAM VTE), and special considerations for DOAC use. Based on established data, clinical guidelines recommend patients with cancer-associated VTE receive LMWH treatment of at least 3-6?months. Nevertheless, LMWH is underused and associated with poor compliance and persistence in these patients relative to oral anticoagulants. Clinical data supporting DOAC use in cancer patients are becoming available. In Hokusai-VTE Cancer, edoxaban was noninferior to dalteparin for the composite of recurrent VTE and major bleeding (12.8% versus 13.5%), with numerically lower recurrent VTE (7.9% versus 11.3%) and significantly higher major bleeding (6.9% versus 4.0%); only patients with gastrointestinal cancer had significantly higher risk of bleeding with edoxaban. In SELECT-D, rivaroxaban had numerically lower VTE recurrence (4% versus 11%), comparable major bleeding (6% versus 4%), and numerically higher clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (13% versus 4%) versus dalteparin. Most bleeding events were gastrointestinal or urologic; patients with esophageal/gastroesophageal cancer had higher rates of major bleeding with rivaroxaban (36% versus 11%). For comparison of apixaban versus dalteparin, CARAVAGGIO is ongoing, and preliminary results from ADAM VTE are favorable. This review concludes that DOACs appear to be reasonable alternatives to LMWH for treatment of cancer-associated VTE. In patients with gastrointestinal cancer, DOAC use should be considered on a case-by-case basis with consideration of the relative risks and benefits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical guidelines have supported the use of direct anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (Ca-VTE). However, recent trials have reported increased bleeding risks associated with DOACs usage, raising concerns regarding its efficacy.<h4>Objectives</h4>The authors conducted a meta-analysis to study the efficacy and safety of DOACs for the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, compared with Low-weight molecular heparin (LMWH) and Vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs).<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines from inception to June 17th, 2021.The primary outcomes studied were VTE recurrence and major bleeding.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling almost 7000 patients were included. Direct oral anticoagulants significantly reduced VTE Recurrence in cancer patients when compared to patients treated with LMWH or VKAs (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.83; P = 0.002; I<sup>2</sup> = 26%). There were no statistically significant differences for major bleeding (HR 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-1.33; P = 0.50; I<sup>2</sup> = 34%), clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-1.91; P = 0.35; I<sup>2</sup> = 66%), pulmonary embolism (HR 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.06; P = 0.10; I<sup>2</sup> = 7%), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.12; P = 0.78; I<sup>2</sup> = 1%), between DOACs and LMWH.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This analysis shows that DOACs are the optimal regimen to treat Ca-VTE. They have a similar to slightly increased bleeding risk compared with LMWH and are a safer alternative to VKAs.
Project description:Essentials Bleeding risk by anticoagulant choice for cancer-associated venous thrombosis (CA-VTE) is unknown. 26 894 people with CA-VTE were followed for bleeding in a claims database in the United States. Hospitalized bleeding risk was similar with direct acting oral anticoagulants vs. warfarin. Relative hospitalized bleeding risk varied by cancer type and anticoagulant choice. SUMMARY: Background Direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are associated with less bleeding than traditional venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatments in the general population but are little studied in cancer-associated VTE (CA-VTE). Objective To determine whether different anticoagulation strategies for CA-VTE have different hospitalized bleeding rates. Patients/Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients with CA-VTE, diagnosed between 2011 and 2015, in a large administrative database. Using validated algorithms, we identified 26 894 CA-VTE patients treated with anticoagulants and followed them for hospitalized severe bleeding. Cox models were used to assess bleeding risk, adjusted for age, sex, high dimensional propensity score and frailty. Results Over 27 281 person-years of follow-up (median 0.6 years), 1204 bleeding events occurred, for a bleeding rate of 4.4% per patient-year. Bleeding rates varied by cancer type, with the highest rate for upper gastrointestinal cancers (8.6%) and the lowest for breast cancer (2.9%). In Cox models (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]), compared with warfarin, DOACS and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) had similar hazards of bleeding (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11 and 0.98; 0.85-1.13). Compared with LMWH, there was no difference in hazard of bleeding with DOACs (0.86; 0.66-1.12). There was heterogeneity in bleeding risk with DOACs by cancer type, with a higher risk of bleeding in upper gastrointestinal cancers and lower risk of bleeding in prostate cancer and hematologic cancers. Conclusions In this practice-based sample of CA-VTE patients, DOACs were associated with similar bleeding risks to warfarin and LMWH. These findings suggest a complex association of bleeding risk with anticoagulant choice in cancer patients.
Project description:Anticoagulation is used to treat venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients, but may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. VTE recurrence and major bleeding were assessed in cancer patients treated for VTE with the most currently prescribed anticoagulants in clinical practice. Newly diagnosed cancer patients (first VTE 1/1/2013-05/31/2015) who initiated rivaroxaban, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), or warfarin were identified from Humana claims data and observed until end of eligibility or end of data availability. VTE recurrence was a hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of VTE ?7 days after first VTE. Major bleeding events on treatment were identified using validated criteria. Cohorts were compared using Kaplan-Meier rates at 6 and 12 months and Cox proportional hazards models. Cohorts were adjusted for their differences at baseline. A total of 2428 patients (rivaroxaban: 707; LMWH: 660; warfarin: 1061) met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics were well balanced after weighting. There was a trend for lower VTE recurrence rates in rivaroxaban users compared to LMWH users at 6 months (13.2% vs. 17.1%; P?=?.060) and significantly lower at 12 months (16.5% vs. 22.2%; P?=?.030) [HR: 0.72, 95% CI: (0.52-0.95); P?=?.024]. VTE recurrence rates were also lower for rivaroxaban than warfarin users at 6 months (13.2% vs. 17.5%; P?=?.014) and 12 months (15.7% vs. 19.9%; P?=?.017) [HR: 0.74, 95% CI: (0.56-0.96); P?=?.028]. Major bleeding rates were similar across cohorts. This real-world analysis suggests cancer patients with VTE treated with rivaroxaban had significantly lower risk of recurrent VTE and similar risk of bleeding compared to those treated with LMWH or warfarin.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Compared with the general population, cancer patients with VTE have higher rates of both VTE recurrence and bleeding. While low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been the mainstay of treatment for cancer-associated VTE for over a decade, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option due to their ease of administration and because they do not require laboratory monitoring. Several large randomized clinical trials have been performed or are ongoing at the time of writing, comparing DOACs with LMWH in this population. Three of these trials have thus far been published and suggest that DOACs are a reasonable alternative to LMWH for management of cancer-associated VTE. Despite the advantages offered by DOACs, these agents may not be appropriate for certain patient groups owing to increased risk of bleeding, organ compromise, extremes of weight, and other issues. Finally, data are emerging suggesting that DOACs may be useful for primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients in conjunction with validated risk assessment scores. In this evidence-based review, data for the use of DOACs to treat cancer-associated VTE will be examined, focusing on efficacy, safety, and timing of treatment. Guidance on choosing the optimal anticoagulant for a given patient is also offered.
Project description:To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT). We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and conference abstracts through March 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling adults with CAT comparing 2 or more full-dose anticoagulants (LMWH, VKA, and DOAC) and evaluating recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), major bleeding, and/or all-cause mortality were included. Reviewers identified studies, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence in duplicate. A frequentist network meta-analysis, which uses direct and indirect evidence to simultaneously compare multiple interventions, was performed using a random-effects approach. Results are reported as pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 13 RCTs (n = 6292): 7 compared LMWHs with VKAs, 4 compared DOACs with VKAs, and 2 compared DOACs with LMWHs. The risk of recurrent VTE was significantly reduced by 28% and 54% with a DOAC compared to an LMWH and a VKA, respectively. Low-molecular-weight heparins significantly reduced the risk of recurrent VTE by 36% versus VKAs. The risk of major bleeding was 14% higher with DOACs compared to LMWHs and 15% and 25% lower with DOACs and LMWHs versus VKAs, although 95% CIs included unity for each. The risk of all-cause mortality appeared similar for all 3 comparisons (RR = 1.0 for each comparison). Direct-acting oral anticoagulants appeared superior in reducing recurrent VTE in patients with CAT compared to LMWH and VKAs, but an increased risk of major bleeding versus LMWH cannot be ruled out.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the standard of care for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Primary VTE prophylaxis with LMWH is recommended after cancer surgery and in hospitalized patients with reduced mobility. However, owing to wide variations in VTE and bleeding risk, based on disease stage, anti-cancer treatments, and individual patient characteristics, routine primary prophylaxis is not recommended in ambulatory cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Efforts are under way to validate risk assessment models that will help identify those patients in whom the benefits of primary prophylaxis will outweigh the risks. In recent months, long-awaited dedicated clinical trials assessing the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with cancer have reported promising results. In comparison with the LMWHs, the DOACs were reported to be non-inferior to prevent VTE recurrence. However, there was an increased risk of bleeding, particularly in gastrointestinal cancers. Safe and optimal treatment with the DOACs in the patient with cancer will require vigilant patient selection based on patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and the potential for drug-drug interactions.
Project description:Patients with cancer are at significantly higher risk of developing, and dying from, venous thromboembolism (VTE). The CLOT trial demonstrated superiority of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) over warfarin for recurrent VTE and established LMWH as the standard of care for cancer-associated VTE. However, with patients living longer with metastatic cancer, long-term injections are associated with significant cost and injection fatigue. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an attractive alternative for treatment of cancer-associated VTE. Meta-analysis of subgroup data of patients with cancer from the large DOAC VTE trials and small non-randomized studies have found no difference in VTE recurrence or major bleeding. With this limited evidence, clinicians may decide to switch their patients who require long-term anticoagulation from LMWH to a DOAC. This requires careful consideration of the interplay between the patient's cancer and treatment course, with their underlying comorbidities.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with cancer. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been proved to be effective on anticoagulation therapy in many diseases. However, the efficacy and the safety of DOACs in the secondary prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) remain unclear. To assess the value of DOACs in patients with CAT, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. <b>Methods:</b> Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest date through to June 2018. Two investigators independently assessed eligibility. Data were extracted by one investigator and verified by the second investigator. The efficacy outcome of this study was recurrent VTE, whereas the safety outcome was major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Relative risks (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. To pool the results, the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects or random-effects models were used. <b>Results:</b> A total of nine articles (six randomized controlled trials and three prospective studies) involving 2,697 patients with CAT who were prescribed DOACs (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, or dabigatran) and 2,852 patients who were prescribed traditional anticoagulants [vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), dalteparin, or enoxaparin] were compared. VTE recurrence in the DOAC group was significantly lower than that observed in the traditional anticoagulant group (RR: 0.60; 95%CI: 0.49-0.75; <i>I</i> <sup>2</sup>: 0%; <i>p</i> < 0.00001). No significant difference in bleeding risk between both groups was found (RR: 0.95; 95%CI: 0.67-1.36; <i>I</i> <sup>2</sup>: 75%; <i>p</i> = 0.79). <b>Conclusions:</b> Our findings showed that anticoagulant therapy with DOACs may be more effective than traditional anticoagulants to prevent recurrent VTE in patients with CAT, while the safety of DOACs may be equal to that of traditional anticoagulants. These findings support the use of DOACs as the first-line therapy for secondary prevention of CAT in most cancer patients.
Project description:Background ?The efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in fragile patients (age ? 75 years and/or creatinine clearance levels ? 50 mL/min and/or body weight ? 50kg) with venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been evaluated. Methods ?We used the RIETE database to compare the rates of the composite of VTE recurrences or major bleeding during anticoagulation in fragile patients with VTE, according to the use of DOACs or standard anticoagulant therapy. Results ?From January 2013 to April 2018, 24,701 patients were recruited. Of these, 10,054 (41%) were fragile. Initially, 473 fragile patients (4.7%) received DOACs and 8,577 (85%) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). For long-term therapy, 1,298 patients (13%) received DOACs and 5,038 (50%) vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Overall, 95 patients developed VTE recurrences and 262 had major bleeding. Patients initially receiving DOACs had a lower rate of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.88) than those on LMWH. Patients receiving DOACs for long-term therapy had a nonsignificantly lower rate of the composite outcome (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46-1.03) than those on VKAs. On multivariable analysis, patients initially receiving DOACs had a nonsignificantly lower risk for the composite outcome (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.11-1.15) than those on LMWH, while those receiving DOACs for long-term therapy had a significantly lower risk (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41-0.92) than those on VKAs. Conclusions ?Our data suggest that the use of DOACs may be more effective and safe than standard therapy in fragile patients with VTE, a subgroup of patients where the risk for bleeding is particularly high.