Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Withdrawal Symptoms and Response to Cigarette Smoking After Abstinence.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism, as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), on tobacco dependence. We stratified 136 smokers on the basis of saliva NMR as fast (n = 65) and slow (n = 71) metabolizers. Two "loading cigarettes" were smoked after overnight, and a "reward cigarette" was smoked after 6 hours of daytime, abstinence. Blood nicotine concentrations, expired carbon monoxide, withdrawal/craving, and reward questionnaires were collected before/after smoking and during daytime abstinence. Compared with slow metabolizers, fast metabolizers had a shorter nicotine elimination half-life (P < 0.001), lower plasma nicotine concentrations (P < 0.001), and higher withdrawal/craving scores (P < 0.05) for most times during daytime abstinence, indicating that fast metabolizers are likely smoking more to relieve withdrawal symptoms (negative reinforcement). Reward/satisfaction scores were similar in fast and slow metabolizers, suggesting that faster nicotine metabolism, assessed by NMR, is not associated with greater positive reinforcement. CYP2A6 normal (n = 82) and reduced (n = 42) genotype predicted plasma nicotine concentrations but not withdrawal symptoms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A faster rate of nicotine metabolism has been associated with smoking more cigarettes, greater nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and lower smoking quit rates. However, the association between nicotine metabolic rate (NMR) and cognitive functioning during withdrawal has not been determined.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared cognitive function in 121 fast or slow nicotine metabolizers after smoking, and at 3 and 6 h of nicotine abstinence. Cognitive functioning was assessed using N-back working memory tests with outcomes of accuracy and processing speed. Participants smoked two cigarettes and then abstained from smoking for 6 h. N-back tests were administered after smoking (0 h) and at 3 and 6 h of nicotine abstinence.<h4>Results</h4>An effect of processing speed was found over time on the 2-back, in that participants had significantly longer average reaction times when the stimuli presented did not match the target letter. NMR was not significantly associated with the processing speed change over time. Within-race differences in working memory were evident in that Caucasian fast metabolizers had significantly poorer accuracy and processing speed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Minimal change in working memory over 6 h of nicotine abstinence was observed. Overall, NMR was not significantly associated with the change in processing speed, however Caucasian fast metabolizers displayed poorer accuracy and processing speed at discrete time points.
Project description:In samples from controlled randomized clinical trials, a smoker's rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the 3-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (NMR), predicts response to transdermal nicotine. Replication of this relationship in community-based samples of treatment-seeking smokers may help guide the implementation of the NMR for personalized treatment for nicotine dependence.Data from a community-based sample of treatment seeking smokers (N=499) who received 8weeks of transdermal nicotine and 4 behavioral counseling sessions were used to evaluate associations between the NMR and smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes included withdrawal and craving, depression and anxiety, side effects, and treatment adherence.The NMR was a significant predictor of abstinence (OR=.56, 95% CI: 0.33-0.95, p=.03), with faster metabolizers showing lower quit rates than slower metabolizers (24% vs. 33%). Faster nicotine metabolizers exhibited significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms over time during treatment, vs. slower metabolizers (NMR x Time interaction: F[3,357]=3.29, p=.02). NMR was not associated with changes in withdrawal, craving, depression, side effects, and treatment adherence (p's>.05).In a community-based sample of treatment-seeking smokers, faster nicotine metabolizers were significantly less likely to quit smoking and showed higher rates of anxiety symptoms during a smoking cessation treatment program, vs. slower nicotine metabolizers. These results provide further evidence that transdermal nicotine is less effective for faster nicotine metabolizers and suggest the need to address cessation-induced anxiety symptoms among these smokers to increase the chances for successful smoking cessation.
Project description:The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a stable measure of hepatic nicotine metabolism via the CYP2A6 pathway and total nicotine clearance, is a predictive biomarker of response to nicotine replacement therapy, with increased quit rates in slower metabolizers. Nicotine binds directly to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to exert its psychoactive effects. This study examined the relationship between NMR and nAChR (?4?2* subtype) availability using PET imaging of the radiotracer 2-(18)F-fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-(18)F-FA-85380, or 2-(18)F-FA).Twenty-four smokers-12 slow metabolizers (NMR < 0.26) and 12 normal metabolizers (NMR ? 0.26)-underwent 2-(18)F-FA-PET brain imaging after overnight nicotine abstinence (18 h before scanning), using a validated bolus-plus-infusion protocol. Availability of nAChRs was compared between NMR groups in a priori volumes of interest, with total distribution volume (VT/fP) being the measure of nAChR availability. Cravings to smoke were assessed before and after the scans.Thalamic nAChR ?4?2* availability was significantly reduced in slow nicotine metabolizers (P = 0.04). Slow metabolizers exhibited greater reductions in cravings after scanning than normal metabolizers; however, craving was unrelated to nAChR availability.The rate of nicotine metabolism is associated with thalamic nAChR availability. Additional studies could examine whether altered nAChR availability underlies the differences in treatment response between slow and normal metabolizers of nicotine.
Project description:Nicotine metabolism and genetic variation have an impact on nicotine addiction and smoking abstinence; however, further research is required. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) is a robust biomarker of nicotine metabolism used to categorize slow and normal nicotine metabolizers (lower 25th quartile cut off). In two randomized clinical trials of smoking abstinence treatments, we conducted NMR-stratified analyses on smoking abstinence across 13 regions coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and proteins involved in the dopamine reward system. Gene×NMR interaction P-values were adjusted for multiple correlated tests, and we used a Bonferroni-corrected ?-level of 0.004 to determine system-wide significance. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DRD1 (rs11746641, rs2168631, and rs11749035) had significant interactions (0.001 ? adjusted P-values ? 0.004) with increased odds of abstinence within slow metabolizers (odds ratios=3.1-3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-6.7). Our findings support the role of DRD1 in nicotine dependence, and identify genetic and nicotine metabolism profiles that may interact to impact nicotine dependence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The rate of nicotine metabolism, estimated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), is an important determinant of tobacco dependence. This study investigated the effect of NMR on smoking behavior due to nicotine reinforcement during ad libitum smoking. AIMS AND METHODS:As part of a larger study, participants were stratified based on saliva NMR as fast and slow metabolizers. After smoking a cigarette and measuring nicotine blood concentrations, participants smoked as desired over a 90-minute period. Analysis included time to first cigarette, total number of cigarettes, total number of puffs, and weight of tobacco consumed. RESULTS:Sixty-one (48%) participants were fast metabolizers and 66 (52%) slow metabolizers by NMR. No significant differences were found regarding the smoking topography variables by NMR. Normal metabolizers by genotype (n = 79) had a shorter time to first cigarette than reduced metabolizers (n = 39; p = .032). Blacks smoked fewer cigarettes (p = .008) and took fewer total puffs (p = .002) compared with Whites. Among Whites, fast metabolizers by NMR had a shorter time to first cigarette compared with slow metabolizers (p = .014). Among fast metabolizers, Whites had, compared with Blacks, shorter latency to first cigarette (p = .003) and higher number of total puffs (p = .014) and cigarettes smoked (p = .014). Baseline cigarettes per day and nicotine elimination half-life significantly predicted topography outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Saliva NMR did not predict cigarette reinforcement during a relatively brief period of ad libitum smoking. Differences were seen by race, with White fast metabolizers by NMR having shorter time to first cigarettes compared with slow metabolizers. IMPLICATIONS:After a 90-minute period of nicotine abstinence, NMR was not significantly associated with smoking reinforcement. Slow and fast metabolizers had similar time to first cigarette, number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and tobacco consumed; however, within-race differences show that within Whites, fast metabolizers had a faster time to first cigarette than slow metabolizers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We examined the nicotine metabolite ratio's (NMR) relationship with smoking intensity, nicotine dependence, and a broad array of biomarkers of exposure and biological effect in commercial cigarette smokers. METHODS:Secondary analysis was conducted on two cross-sectional samples of adult, daily smokers from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco Use and Health (PATH) Study and baseline data from a 2014-2017 randomized clinical trial. Data were restricted to participants of non-Hispanic, white race. The lowest quartile of NMR (<0.26) in the nationally representative PATH Study was used to distinguish slow from normal/fast nicotine metabolizers. NMR was modeled continuously in secondary analysis. RESULTS:Compared with slow metabolizers, normal/fast metabolizers had greater cigarettes per day and higher levels of total nicotine equivalents, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, volatile organic componds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A novel finding was higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers among normal/fast metabolizers versus slow metabolizers. With NMR modeled as a continuous measure, the associations between NMR and biomarkers of inflammation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS:The results are suggestive that normal/fast nicotine metabolizers may be at increased risk for tobacco-related disease due to being heavier smokers, having higher exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens, and having higher levels of inflammation when compared with slow metabolizers. IMPACT:This is the first documentation that NMR is not only associated with smoking exposure but also biomarkers of biological effects that are integral in the development of tobacco-related disease. Results provide support for NMR as a biomarker for understanding a smoker's exposure and potential risk for tobacco-related disease.
Project description:We examined the extent to which orexin measured during smoking and the early phase of abstinence was related to craving, withdrawal, stress hormones, and risk for smoking relapse in men and women. Considering its role in modulating nicotine-related reward, we predicted that a reduction in circulating orexin during withdrawal would be associated with increased craving and risk for smoking relapse. Two hundred and eighty five participants provided biological samples and self-report information to identify predictors of smoking relapse. All participants attended two laboratory sessions, which were before and after a period of required abstinence from smoking. After quitting, participants also attended four weekly sessions to track smoking relapse. Only smokers who relapsed within the follow-up period exhibited reduced orexin levels during the initial withdrawal period; ACTH, but not craving nor cortisol, increased across the abstinence period for successful abstainers but not for relapsers. Sex differences in orexin and craving or withdrawal associations also emerged. Adding sex, HPA hormones, and self-reported measures of craving and withdrawal as potential mediators had minimal effects on the above abstinence and orexin effects. These results provide the first evidence that circulating orexin may be a useful marker of risk for relapse; and sex, adrenal hormones, and self-reported craving and withdrawal were not mediators of this effect. The results point to a promising pathway to investigate objective biological markers for craving and smoking relapse and highlight the complexity of the neurobiology of relapse.
Project description:AbstractIntroduction:The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) of 3?-hydroxycotinine to cotinine is a noninvasive marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. Fast metabolism (ie, a high NMR) is associated with lower cigarette smoking abstinence rates using transdermal nicotine replacement. We evaluated whether the NMR can be used to predict self-reported nicotine lozenge use and tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco users treated for tobacco dependence.Methods:This was a secondary analysis of data from one arm of a large trial. Participants received quitting support materials and 4-mg nicotine lozenges by mail plus three coaching phone calls. Saliva kits were mailed for collection of saliva samples, which were analyzed for cotinine and 3?-hydroxycotinine. Self-reported tobacco and lozenge use were assessed at 3 months. Analyses were performed using Spearman rank correlation and logistic regression.Results: Of the 160 saliva collection kits mailed, 152 were returned. The NMR was not significantly correlated with the baseline amount of smokeless tobacco used, the number of years of tobacco use, or the level of tobacco dependence as measured by the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Dependency Scale. The NMR was positively correlated with lozenge use ( r = 0.21, P = .015), but it did not predict self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Conclusions:Fast metabolizers may need to self-administer more nicotine replacement in the form of nicotine lozenges to achieve the same clinical response achieved by slower metabolizers using fewer lozenges.
Project description:Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>PLWHA who smoke have shown lower cessation rates within placebo-controlled randomized trials of varenicline. Adherence and rate of nicotine metabolism may be associated with quit rates in such clinical trials.<h4>Methods</h4>This secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of varenicline for smoking among PLWHA (N = 179) examined the relationship between varenicline adherence (pill count, ≥80% of pills), nicotine metabolism (based on the nicotine metabolite ratio; NMR) and end-of-treatment smoking cessation (self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence, confirmed with carbon monoxide of ≤ 8 ppm, at the end of treatment; EOT).<h4>Results</h4>Combining varenicline and placebo arms, greater adherence (OR = 1.011, 95% CI:1.00-1.02, p = 0.051) and faster nicotine metabolism (OR = 3.08, 95% CI:1.01-9.37, p = 0.047) were related to higher quit rates. In separate models, adherence (OR = 1.009, 95% CI:1.004-1.01, p < 0.001) and nicotine metabolism rate (OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.19-3.49, p = 0.009) interacted with treatment arm to effect quit rates. The quit rate for varenicline vs. placebo was higher for both non-adherent (19% vs. 5%; χ<sup>2</sup> = 2.80, p = 0.09) and adherent (35% vs. 15%; χ<sup>2</sup> = 6.51, p = 0.01) participants, but the difference between treatment arms was statistically significant only for adherent participants. Likewise, among slow metabolizers (NMR < 0.31), the varenicline quit rate was not significantly higher vs. placebo (14% vs. 5%; χ<sup>2</sup> = 1.17, p = 0.28) but, among fast metabolizers (NMR ≥ 0.31), the quit rate for varenicline was significantly higher vs. placebo (33% vs. 14%; χ<sup>2</sup> = 4.43, p = 0.04).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Increasing varenicline adherence and ensuring that fast nicotine metabolizers receive varenicline may increase quit rates for PLWHA.