Evolutionary histories and antimicrobial resistance in Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei in Southeast Asia.
ABSTRACT: Conventional disease surveillance for shigellosis in developing country settings relies on serotyping and low-resolution molecular typing, which fails to contextualise the evolutionary history of the genus. Here, we interrogated a collection of 1,804 Shigella whole genome sequences from organisms isolated in four continental Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) over three decades to characterise the evolution of both S. flexneri and S. sonnei. We show that S. sonnei and each major S. flexneri serotype are comprised of genetically diverse populations, the majority of which were likely introduced into Southeast Asia in the 1970s-1990s. Intranational and regional dissemination allowed widespread propagation of both species across the region. Our data indicate that the epidemiology of S. sonnei and the major S. flexneri serotypes were characterised by frequent clonal replacement events, coinciding with changing susceptibility patterns against contemporaneous antimicrobials. We conclude that adaptation to antimicrobial pressure was pivotal to the recent evolutionary trajectory of Shigella in Southeast Asia.
Project description:Shigella flexneri is historically regarded as the primary agent of bacillary dysentery, yet the closely-related Shigella sonnei is replacing S. flexneri, especially in developing countries. The underlying reasons for this dramatic shift are mostly unknown. Using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of Shigella infection, we discover that S. sonnei is more virulent than S. flexneri in vivo. Whole animal dual-RNAseq and testing of bacterial mutants suggest that S. sonnei virulence depends on its O-antigen oligosaccharide (which is unique among Shigella species). We show in vivo using zebrafish and ex vivo using human neutrophils that S. sonnei O-antigen can mediate neutrophil tolerance. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that O-antigen enables S. sonnei to resist phagolysosome acidification and promotes neutrophil cell death. Chemical inhibition or promotion of phagolysosome maturation respectively decreases and increases neutrophil control of S. sonnei and zebrafish survival. Strikingly, larvae primed with a sublethal dose of S. sonnei are protected against a secondary lethal dose of S. sonnei in an O-antigen-dependent manner, indicating that exposure to O-antigen can train the innate immune system against S. sonnei. Collectively, these findings reveal O-antigen as an important therapeutic target against bacillary dysentery, and may explain the rapidly increasing S. sonnei burden in developing countries. Overall design: Profiling of host and pathogen transcriptome for zebrafish larvae infected with Shigella sonnei at 24 hours post infection and comparison to transcriptome of control injected larvae and control bacteria grown in liquid culture
Project description:Two Shigella species, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, cause approximately 90% of bacterial dysentery worldwide. While S. flexneri is the dominant species in low-income countries, S. sonnei causes the majority of infections in middle- and high-income countries. S. flexneri is a prototypic cytosolic bacterium; once intracellular, it rapidly escapes the phagocytic vacuole and causes pyroptosis of macrophages, which is important for pathogenesis and bacterial spread. In contrast, little is known about the invasion, vacuole escape, and induction of pyroptosis during S. sonnei infection of macrophages. We demonstrate here that S. sonnei causes substantially less pyroptosis in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and THP1 cells. This is due to reduced bacterial uptake and lower relative vacuole escape, which results in fewer cytosolic S. sonnei and hence reduced activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes. Mechanistically, the O-antigen (O-Ag), which in S. sonnei is contained in both the lipopolysaccharide and the capsule, was responsible for reduced uptake and the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) was required for vacuole escape. Our findings suggest that S. sonnei has adapted to an extracellular lifestyle by incorporating multiple layers of O-Ag onto its surface compared to other Shigella species.IMPORTANCE Diarrheal disease remains the second leading cause of death in children under five. Shigella remains a significant cause of diarrheal disease with two species, S. flexneri and S. sonnei, causing the majority of infections. S. flexneri are well known to cause cell death in macrophages, which contributes to the inflammatory nature of Shigella diarrhea. Here, we demonstrate that S. sonnei causes less cell death than S. flexneri due to a reduced number of bacteria present in the cell cytosol. We identify the O-Ag polysaccharide which, uniquely among Shigella spp., is present in two forms on the bacterial cell surface as the bacterial factor responsible. Our data indicate that S. sonnei differs from S. flexneri in key aspects of infection and that more attention should be given to characterization of S. sonnei infection.
Project description:Shigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Recently, Shigella sonnei seems to be replacing Shigella flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Despite this, studies focusing on these species at the genomic level remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India with the publicly available genomes of global strains. Our analysis provides evidence for the long-term persistence of all phylogenetic groups (PGs) of S. flexneri and the recent dominance of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei lineage in India. Within S. flexneri PGs, the majority of the study isolates belonged to PG3 within the predominance of serotype 2. For S. sonnei, the current pandemic involves globally distributed multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones that belong to Central Asia lineage III. The presence of such epidemiologically dominant lineages in association with stable antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants results in successful survival in the community.IMPORTANCE Shigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. This has been categorized as a priority pathogen among enteric bacteria by the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Recently, S. sonnei seems to be replacing S. flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Antimicrobial resistance in S. flexneri and S. sonnei is a growing international concern, specifically with the international dominance of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) lineage. Genomic studies focusing on S. flexneri and S. sonnei in India remain largely unexplored. This study provides information on the introduction and expansion of drug-resistant Shigella strains in India for the first time by comparing the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India with the publicly available genomes of global strains. The study discusses the key differences between the two dominant species of Shigella at the genomic level to understand the evolutionary trends and genome dynamics of emerging and existing resistance clones. The present work demonstrates evidence for the long-term persistence of all PGs of S. flexneri and the recent dominance of a ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei lineage in India.
Project description:Shigella sonnei is the emerging pathogen globally, as it is the second common infectious species of shigellosis (bloody diarrhoea) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the leading one in developed world. The multifactorial processes and novel mechanisms have been identified in S. sonnei, that are collectively playing apart a substantial role in increasing its prevalence, while replacing the S. flexneri and other Gram-negative gut pathogens niche occupancy. Recently, studies suggest that due to improvement in sanitation S. sonnei has reduced cross-immunization from Plesiomonas shigelliodes (having same O-antigen as S. sonnei) and also found to outcompete the two major species of Enterobacteriaceae family (Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli), due to encoding of type VI secretion system (T6SS). This review aimed to highlight S. sonnei as an emerging pathogen in the light of recent research with pondering aspects on its epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenic mechanisms. Additionally, this paper aimed to review S. sonnei disease pattern and related complications, symptoms, and laboratory diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, the available treatment reigns and antibiotic-resistance patterns of S. sonnei are also discussed, as the ciprofloxacin and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei has already intensified the global spread and burden of antimicrobial resistance. In last, prevention and controlling strategies are briefed to limit and tackle S. sonnei and possible future areas are also explored that needed more research to unravel the hidden mysteries surrounding S. sonnei.
Project description:Shigella sonnei increasingly dominates the international epidemiological landscape of shigellosis. Treatment options for S. sonnei are dwindling due to resistance to several key antimicrobials, including the fluoroquinolones. Here we analyse nearly 400?S. sonnei whole genome sequences from both endemic and non-endemic regions to delineate the evolutionary history of the recently emergent fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei. We reaffirm that extant resistant organisms belong to a single clonal expansion event. Our results indicate that sequential accumulation of defining mutations (gyrA-S83L, parC-S80I, and gyrA-D87G) led to the emergence of the fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei population around 2007 in South Asia. This clone was then transmitted globally, resulting in establishments in Southeast Asia and Europe. Mutation analysis suggests that the clone became dominant through enhanced adaptation to oxidative stress. Experimental evolution reveals that under fluoroquinolone exposure in vitro, resistant S. sonnei develops further intolerance to the antimicrobial while the susceptible counterpart fails to attain complete resistance.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of the transmission of Shigella species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 and 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and the transmission dynamics of Shigella species. Of the 4,950 confirmed cases of shigellosis identified during this period, the highest proportion of isolates was Shigella sonnei (54.4%), followed by S. flexneri (39.2%), S. boydii (4.1%), and S. dysenteriae (2.2%). Most cases were adults (82.9%) and male (59.5%), and 34.9% cases reported recent travel outside the United Kingdom. Throughout the study period, diagnoses of S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections were most common in men with no history of recent travel abroad. The species prevalence was not static, with cases of S. flexneri infection in men decreasing between 2015 and 2016 and the number of cases of S. sonnei infection increasing from 2017. Phylogenetic analysis showed this recent increase in S. sonnei infections was attributed to a novel clade that emerged from a Central Asia sublineage exhibiting resistance to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. Despite changes in species prevalence, diagnoses of Shigella infections in England are persistently most common in adult males without a reported travel history, consistent with sexual transmission among men who have sex with men. The trend toward increasing rates of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. sonnei, in addition to plasmid-mediated azithromycin resistance, is of significant public health concern with respect to the transmission of multidrug-resistant gastrointestinal pathogens and the risk of treatment failures.
Project description:Infection by Shigella spp. is a common cause of dysentery in Southeast Asia. Antimicrobials are thought to be beneficial for treatment; however, antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. is becoming widespread. We aimed to assess the frequency and mechanisms associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in Southeast Asian Shigella isolates and use these data to assess appropriate susceptibility breakpoints. Shigella isolates recovered in Vietnam and Laos were screened for susceptibility to azithromycin (15 ?g) by disc diffusion and MIC. Phenotypic resistance was confirmed by PCR amplification of macrolide resistance loci. We compared the genetic relationships and plasmid contents of azithromycin-resistant Shigella sonnei isolates using whole-genome sequences. From 475 available Shigella spp. isolated in Vietnam and Laos between 1994 and 2012, 6/181 S. flexneri isolates (3.3%, MIC ? 16 g/liter) and 16/294 S. sonnei isolates (5.4%, MIC ? 32 g/liter) were phenotypically resistant to azithromycin. PCR amplification confirmed a resistance mechanism in 22/475 (4.6%) isolates (mphA in 19 isolates and ermB in 3 isolates). The susceptibility data demonstrated the acceptability of the S. flexneri (MIC ? 16 g/liter, zone diameter ? 15 mm) and S. sonnei (MIC ? 32 g/liter, zone diameter ? 11 mm) breakpoints with a <3% discrepancy. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that decreased susceptibility has arisen sporadically in Vietnamese S. sonnei isolates on at least seven occasions between 2000 and 2009 but failed to become established. While the proposed susceptibility breakpoints may allow better recognition of resistant isolates, additional studies are required to assess the impact on the clinical outcome. The potential emergence of azithromycin resistance highlights the need for alternative options for management of Shigella infections in countries where Shigella is endemic.
Project description:Shigella flexneri is historically regarded as the primary agent of bacillary dysentery, yet the closely-related Shigella sonnei is replacing S. flexneri, especially in developing countries. The underlying reasons for this dramatic shift are mostly unknown. Using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of Shigella infection, we discover that S. sonnei is more virulent than S. flexneri in vivo. Whole animal dual-RNAseq and testing of bacterial mutants suggest that S. sonnei virulence depends on its O-antigen oligosaccharide (which is unique among Shigella species). We show in vivo using zebrafish and ex vivo using human neutrophils that S. sonnei O-antigen can mediate neutrophil tolerance. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that O-antigen enables S. sonnei to resist phagolysosome acidification and promotes neutrophil cell death. Chemical inhibition or promotion of phagolysosome maturation respectively decreases and increases neutrophil control of S. sonnei and zebrafish survival. Strikingly, larvae primed with a sublethal dose of S. sonnei are protected against a secondary lethal dose of S. sonnei in an O-antigen-dependent manner, indicating that exposure to O-antigen can train the innate immune system against S. sonnei. Collectively, these findings reveal O-antigen as an important therapeutic target against bacillary dysentery, and may explain the rapidly increasing S. sonnei burden in developing countries.
Project description:Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are useful for vaccine development. To improve on existing models, we developed a CHIM using a lyophilized preparation of Shigella sonnei strain 53G produced using current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Healthy adults were enrolled in an open-label dose-ranging study. Following administration of a dose of rehydrated S. sonnei strain 53G, subjects were monitored for development of disease. The first cohort received 500 CFU of 53G, and dosing of subsequent cohorts was based on results from the previous cohort. Subjects were administered ciprofloxacin on day 5 and discharged home on day 8. Subjects returned as outpatients for clinical checks and sample collection. Attack rates increased as the dose of S. sonnei was increased. Among those receiving the highest dose (1,760 CFU), 70% developed moderate to severe diarrhea, 50% had dysentery, and 40% had fever. Antilipopolysaccharide responses were observed across all cohorts. An S. sonnei CHIM using a lyophilized lot of strain 53G was established. A dose in the range of 1,500 to 2,000 CFU of 53G was selected as the dose for future challenge studies using this product. This model will enable direct comparison of study results between institutions and ensure better consistency over time in the challenge inoculum.IMPORTANCE Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are invaluable tools utilized to understand the human response to infection, potentially leading to protective immune mechanisms and allowing efficacy testing of enteric countermeasures, including vaccines, antibiotics, and other products. The development of an improved Shigella CHIM for both Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri is consistent with international efforts, supported by international donors and the World Health Organization, focused on standardizing Shigella CHIMs and using them to accelerate Shigella vaccine development. The use of lyophilized Shigella challenge strains rather than plate-grown inoculum preparations is considered an important step forward in the standardization process. Furthermore, the results of studies such as this justify the development of lyophilized preparations for additional epidemiologically important S. flexneri serotypes, including S. flexneri 3a and S. flexneri 6.
Project description:Outer membrane blebs are naturally shed by Gram-negative bacteria and are candidates of interest for vaccines development. Genetic modification of bacteria to induce hyperblebbing greatly increases the yield of blebs, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA). The composition of the GMMA from hyperblebbing mutants of Shigella flexneri 2a and Shigella sonnei were quantitatively analyzed using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry with the label-free iBAQ procedure and compared to the composition of the solubilized cells of the GMMA-producing strains. There were 2306 proteins identified, 659 in GMMA and 2239 in bacteria, of which 290 (GMMA) and 1696 (bacteria) were common to both S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei. Predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins constituted 95.7% and 98.7% of the protein mass of S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei GMMA, respectively. Among the remaining proteins, small quantities of ribosomal proteins collectively accounted for more than half of the predicted cytoplasmic protein impurities in the GMMA. In GMMA, the outer membrane and periplasmic proteins were enriched 13.3-fold (S. flexneri 2a) and 8.3-fold (S. sonnei) compared to their abundance in the parent bacteria. Both periplasmic and outer membrane proteins were enriched similarly, suggesting that GMMA have a similar surface to volume ratio as the surface to periplasmic volume ratio in these mutant bacteria. Results in S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei showed high reproducibility indicating a robust GMMA-producing process and the low contamination by cytoplasmic proteins support the use of GMMA for vaccines. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002517.