Hyperbaric Oxygen Improves Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats Probably via Inhibition of Autophagy Triggered by the Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducing Factor-1 Alpha.
ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke, accompanied with high mortality and morbidity, may produce heavy economic burden to societies and families. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore effective therapies. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is a noninvasive, nondrug treatment method that has been proved able to save ischemic penumbra by improving hypoxia, microcirculation, and metabolism and applied in various ischemic diseases. Herewith, we fully evaluated the effect of HBO on ischemic stroke and investigated its potential mechanism in the rat ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) model. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups-sham group, MCAO group, and MCAO+HBO group. In the latter two groups, the middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed (MCAO) for 2 hours, and then the occlusion was removed in order to establish the ischemic/reperfusion model. Subsequently, HBO was performed immediately after I/R (2 hours per day for 3 days). 72 hours after MCAO, the brain was dissected for our experiment. Finally, the data from three groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by a Bonferroni test. In this article, we reported that HBO effectively reduced the infarction and edema and improved neurological functions to a certain extent. As shown by western blot analysis, HBO significantly reduced autophagy by regulating autophagy-related proteins (mTOR, p-mTOR, Atg13, LC3B II and LC3B II) in the hippocampus 72 hours after I/R, which was accompanied by inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in hippocampus. The results suggest that HBO may improve cerebral I/R injury, possibly via inhibiting HIF-1α, the upstream molecule of autophagy, and therefore, subsequently inhibiting autophagy in the rat model of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Stroke remains one of the leading causes of permanent disability and death worldwide. Apoptosis and autophagy are two key elements involved in ischemic brain damage. Ethanol is a commonly used and abused chemical substance that affects the prognosis of ischemic stroke. We determined the influence of chronic ethanol consumption on apoptosis and autophagy following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Male C57BL/6?J mice were randomly divided into three groups and gavage fed with 0.7 and 2.8?g/kg/day ethanol or volume-matched water daily for 8 weeks. DNA fragmentation, TUNEL-positive neurons, cleaved caspase-3-positive neurons, translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome C and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), LC3B-positive neurons, and expression of LC3B, Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 in peri-infarct cortex were evaluated at 24?hours of reperfusion after a 90-minute unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was significantly improved in the 0.7?g/kg/d ethanol group but worsened in the 2.8?g/kg/d ethanol group. DNA fragmentation was significantly increased at 24?hours of reperfusion in all groups. However, the magnitude of the increase was significantly less in the 0.7?g/kg/d ethanol group. In addition, both cleaved caspase-3-positive neurons and TUNEL-positive neurons were significantly less in 0.7?g/kg/d ethanol group. Furthermore, translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome C and AIF was significantly alleviated in the 0.7?g/kg/d ethanol group. On the other hand, baseline expression of LC3B was significantly reduced in the 2.8?g/kg/d ethanol group. Post-ischemic expression of LC3B and LC3B-positive neurons were significantly attenuated in both 0.7 and 2.8?g/kg/d ethanol groups. Moreover, although post-ischemic expression of Beclin-1 was not altered in the ethanol groups, post-ischemic expression of Bcl-2 was significantly greater in both 0.7 and 2.8?g/kg/d ethanol groups. Our findings suggest that light ethanol consumption may protect against cerebral I/R injury by suppressing post-ischemic apoptosis, whereas heavy ethanol consumption may exacerbate cerebral I/R injury by suppressing autophagy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inconsistent results have been reported for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefit of HBO in animal studies of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic search of the literature published prior to September 2015 was performed using Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science and PubMed. Keywords included "hyperoxia" OR "hyperbaric oxygen" OR "HBO" AND "isch(a)emia" OR "focal cerebral ischemia" OR "stroke" OR "infarct" OR "middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)." The primary endpoints were the infarct size and/or neurological outcome score evaluated after HBO treatment in MCAO. Heterogeneity was analyzed using Cochrane Library's RevMan 5.3.5.<h4>Results</h4>Fifty-one studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified among the 1198 studies examined. When compared with control group data, HBO therapy resulted in infarct size reduction or improved neurological function (32% decrease in infarct size; 95% confidence interval (CI), range 28%-37%; p < 0.00001). Mortality was 18.4% in the HBO group and 26.7% in the control group (RR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54-0.98; p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis showed that a maximal neuro-protective effect was reached when HBO was administered immediately after MCAO with an absolute atmospheric pressure (ATA) of 2.0 (50% decrease; 95% CI, 43% -57% decrease; p < 0.0001) and more than 6 hours HBO treatment (53% decrease; 95% CI, 41% -64% decrease; p = 0.0005).<h4>Conclusions</h4>HBO had a neuro-protective effect and improved survival in animal models of MCAO, especially in animals given more than 6 hours of HBO and when given immediately after MCAO with 2.0 ATA.
Project description:Necroptosis, a novel type of programmed cell death, is involved in stroke-induced ischemic brain injury. Although studies have sought to explore the mechanisms of necroptosis, its signaling pathway has not yet to be completely elucidated. Thus, we used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models mimicking ischemic stroke (IS) conditions to investigate mechanisms of necroptosis. We found that OGD and MCAO induced cell death, local brain ischemia and neurological deficit, while zVAD-fmk (zVAD, an apoptotic inhibitor), GSK'872 (a receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3) inhibitor), and combined treatment alleviated cell death and ischemic brain injury. Moreover, OGD and MCAO upregulated protein expression of the triggers of necroptosis: receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (RIP1), RIP3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). The upregulation of these proteins was inhibited by GSK'872, combination treatments and RIP3 siRNA but not zVAD treatment. Intriguingly, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), an important transcriptional factor under hypoxic conditions, was upregulated by OGD and MCAO. Similar to their inhibitory effects on aforementioned proteins upregulation, GSK'872, combination treatments and RIP3 siRNA decreased HIF-1? protein level. These findings indicate that necroptosis contributes to ischemic brain injury induced by OGD and MCAO and implicate HIF-1?, RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL in necroptosis.
Project description:Adiponectin (ADPN) plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although previous studies have confirmed that ADPN pretreatment has a protective effect on ischemic stroke, the therapeutic effect of ADPN on ischemic stroke and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In order to clarify these questions, focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and ADPN was administered for three times at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, a virus-delivered HIF-1<i>α</i> siRNA was used before ADPN administration. The infarct volume, neurological score, cellular apoptosis, and oxidative stress were assessed at 72 h after reperfusion. The long-term outcome of mice after stroke was recorded as well. The results indicated that ADPN treatment reduced the infarct volume (<i>P</i> = 0.032), neurological deficits (<i>P</i> = 0.047), cellular apoptosis (<i>P</i> = 0.041), and oxidative responses (<i>P</i> = 0.031) at 72 h after MCAO. Moreover, ADPN increased both the protein level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1<i>α</i> as evidenced by the transcription levels of VEGF (<i>P</i> = 0.046) and EPO (<i>P</i> = 0.043) at 72 h after MCAO. However, knockdown of HIF-1<i>α</i> partially reversed the antioxidant and treatment effect of ADPN after cerebral ischemia. In the observation of long-term outcome after ADPN treatment, it demonstrated that ADPN not only prevented the cerebral atrophy (<i>P</i> = 0.031) and the neurological function decline (<i>P</i> = 0.048), but also promoted angiogenesis (<i>P</i> = 0.028) after stroke. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ADPN is effective in treatment of ischemic stroke which could be attributed to the increased antioxidant capacity regulated by HIF-1<i>α</i>.
Project description:Elderly patients suffer more brain damage in comparison with young patients from the same ischemic stroke. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that suppressed hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription activity is responsible for defective recovery after ischemic stroke in the elders. Aged and young rats underwent 1-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to produce cerebral ischemic injury. The initial cerebral infarct volume in the young gradually declined as time elapsed, but in the aged rats remained the same. The defective recovery in the aged was associated with depressed angiogenesis and retarded neurorestoration. There was no difference in HIF-1? accumulation in the brain between the two age groups, but the expression of HIF-1 regulated genes involved in cerebral recovery was suppressed in the aged. In confirmation, inhibition of HIF-1 transactivation of gene expression in the young suppressed cerebral recovery from MCAO as the same as that observed in the aged rats. Furthermore, a copper metabolism MURR domain 1 (COMMD1) was significantly elevated after MCAO only in the brain of aged rats, and suppression of COMMD1 by siRNA targeting COMMD1 restored HIF-1 transactivation and improved recovery from MCAO-induced damage in the aged brain. These results demonstrate that impaired HIF-1 transcription activity, due at least partially to overexpression of COMMD1, is associated with the defective cerebral recovery from ischemic stroke in the aged rats.
Project description:Ganglioside GM1, which is particularly abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), is closely associated with the protection against several CNS disorders. However, controversial findings have been reported on the role of GM1 following ischemic stroke. In the present study, using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we investigated whether GM1 can protect against ischemic brain injury and whether it targets the autophagy pathway. GM1 was delivered to Sprague-Dawley male rats at 3 doses (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection soon after reperfusion and then once daily for 2 days. The same volume of saline was given as a control. Tat-Beclin-1, a specific autophagy inducer, was administered by intraperitoneal injection at 24 and 48 hours post-MCAO. Infarction volume, mortality and neurological function were assessed at 72 hours after ischemic insult. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of autophagy-related proteins P62, LC3 and Beclin-1 in the penumbra area. No significant changes in mortality and physiological variables (heart rate, blood glucose levels and arterial blood gases) were observed between the different groups. However, MCAO resulted in enhanced conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II, P62 degradation, high levels of Beclin-1, a large area infarction (26.3±3.6%) and serious neurobehavioral deficits. GM1 (50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the autophagy activation, neurobehavioral dysfunctions, and infarction volume (from 26.3% to 19.5%) without causing significant adverse side effects. However, this biological function could be abolished by Tat-Beclin-1.GM1 demonstrated safe and robust neuroprotective effects that are associated with the inhibition of autophagy following experimental stroke.
Project description:Ischemic stroke triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes including autophagy. Differential activation of autophagy occurs in neurons derived from males versus females after stressors such as nutrient deprivation. Whether autophagy displays sexual dimorphism after ischemic stroke is unknown. We used a cerebral ischemia mouse model (middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) to evaluate the effects of inhibiting autophagy in ischemic brain pathology. We observed that inhibiting autophagy reduced infarct volume in males and ovariectomized females. However, autophagy inhibition enhanced infarct size in females and in ovariectomized females supplemented with estrogen compared to control mice. We also observed that males had increased levels of Beclin1 and LC3 and decreased levels of pULK1 and p62 at 24 h, while females had decreased levels of Beclin1 and increased levels of ATG7. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy markers were increased under basal conditions and after oxygen and glucose deprivation in male neurons compared with female neurons in vitro. E2 supplementation significantly inhibited autophagy only in male neurons, and was beneficial for cell survival only in female neurons. This study shows that autophagy in the ischemic brain differs between the sexes, and that autophagy regulators have different effects in a sex-dependent manner in neurons.
Project description:Ischemia/hypoxia induces de novo expression of the sulfonylurea receptor 1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channel. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, early postevent administration of the sulfonylurea, glibenclamide, is highly effective in reducing edema, mortality, and lesion volume, and in patients with diabetes presenting with ischemic stroke, pre-event plus postevent use of sulfonylureas is associated with better neurological outcome. However, the therapeutic window for treatment with glibenclamide has not been studied.We examined the effect of low-dose (nonhypoglycemogenic) glibenclamide in 3 rat models of ischemic stroke, all involving proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo): a thromboembolic model, a permanent suture occlusion model, and a temporary suture occlusion model with reperfusion (105 minutes occlusion, 2-day reperfusion). Treatment was started at various times up to 6 hours post-MCAo. Lesion volumes were measured 48 hours post-MCAo using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.Glibenclamide reduced total lesion volume by 53% in the thromboembolic MCAo model at 6 hours, reduced corrected cortical lesion volume by 51% in the permanent MCAo model at 4 hours, and reduced corrected cortical lesion volume by 41% in the temporary MCAo model at 5.75 hours (P<0.05 for all 3). Analysis of pooled data from the permanent MCAo and temporary MCAo series indicated a sigmoidal relationship between hemispheric swelling and corrected cortical lesion volume with the half-maximum cortical lesion volume being observed with 10% hemispheric swelling.Low-dose glibenclamide has a strong beneficial effect on lesion volume and has a highly favorable therapeutic window in several models of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Diabetes is a major stroke risk factor and is associated with poor functional recovery after stroke. Accumulating evidence indicates that the worsened outcomes may be due to hyperglycemia-induced cerebral vascular complications, especially disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study tested a hypothesis that the activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was involved in hyperglycemia-aggravated BBB disruption in an ischemic stroke model. Non-diabetic control and Streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic mice were subjected to 90min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Our results demonstrated that hyperglycemia induced higher expression of HIF-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain microvessels after MCAO/reperfusion. Diabetic mice showed exacerbated BBB damage and tight junction disruption, increased infarct volume as well as worsened neurological deficits. Furthermore, suppressing HIF-1 activity by specific knock-out endothelial HIF-1? ameliorated BBB leakage and brain infarction in diabetic animals. Moreover, glycemic control by insulin abolished HIF-1? up-regulation in diabetic animals and reduced BBB permeability and brain infarction. These findings strongly indicate that HIF-1 plays an important role in hyperglycemia-induced exacerbation of BBB disruption in ischemic stroke. Endothelial HIF-1 inhibition warrants further investigation as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke patients with diabetes.
Project description:Stroke is a leading cause of adult morbidity and mortality with very limited treatment options. Evidence from preclinical models of ischemic stroke has demonstrated that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively protects the brain from ischemic injury. Here, we evaluated a new pathway through which NAC exerted its neuroprotection in a transient cerebral ischemia animal model. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with NAC increased protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), the regulatable subunit of HIF-1, and its target proteins erythropoietin (EPO) and glucose transporter (GLUT)-3, in the ipsilateral hemispheres of rodents subjected to 90min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24h reperfusion. Interestingly, after NAC pretreatment and stroke, the contralateral hemisphere also demonstrated increased levels of HIF-1?, EPO, and GLUT-3, but to a lesser extent. Suppressing HIF-1 activity with two widely used pharmacological inhibitors, YC-1 and 2ME2, and specific knockout of neuronal HIF-1? abolished NAC's neuroprotective effects. The results also showed that YC-1 and 2ME2 massively enlarged infarcts, indicating that their toxic effect was larger than just abolishing NAC's neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, we determined the mechanism of NAC-mediated HIF-1? induction. We observed that NAC pretreatment upregulated heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression and increased the interaction of Hsp90 with HIF-1? in ischemic brains. The enhanced association of Hsp90 with HIF-1? increased HIF-1? stability. Moreover, Hsp90 inhibition attenuated NAC-induced HIF-1? protein accumulation and diminished NAC-induced neuroprotection in the MCAO model. These results strongly indicate that HIF-1 plays an important role in NAC-mediated neuroprotection and provide a new molecular mechanism involved in the antioxidant's neuroprotection in ischemic stroke.