A genome-scale CRISPR Cas9 dropout screen identifies synthetically lethal targets in SRC-3 inhibited cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3/NCoA3/AIB1), is a key regulator of gene transcription and it plays a central role in breast cancer (BC) tumorigenesis, making it a potential therapeutic target. Beyond its function as an important regulator of estrogen receptor transcriptional activity, SRC-3 also functions as a coactivator for a wide range of other transcription factors, suggesting SRC-3 inhibition can be beneficial in hormone-independent cancers as well. The recent discovery of a potent SRC-3 small molecule inhibitor, SI-2, enabled the further development of additional related compounds. SI-12 is an improved version of SI-2 that like SI-2 has anti-proliferative activity in various cancer types, including BC. Here, we sought to identify gene targets, that when inhibited in the presence of SI-12, would lead to enhanced BC cell cytotoxicity. We performed a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screen in MCF-7 BC cells under conditions of pharmacological pressure with SI-12. A parallel screen was performed with an ER inhibitor, fulvestrant, to shed light on both common and distinct activities between SRC-3 and ERα inhibition. Bearing in mind the key role of SRC-3 in tumorigenesis of other types of cancer, we extended our study by validating potential hits identified from the MCF-7 screen in other cancer cell lines.
Project description:Although the amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1; SRC-3, ACTR, or NCoA3) was defined as a coactivator for androgen receptor (AR) by in vitro studies, its role in AR-mediated prostate development and prostate cancer remained unexplored. We report here that AIB1 is expressed in the basal and stromal cells but not in the epithelial cells of the normal mouse prostates. AIB1 deficiency only slightly delayed prostate growth and had no effect on androgen-dependent prostate regeneration, suggesting an unessential role of AIB1 in AR function in the prostate. Surprisingly, when prostate tumorigenesis was induced by the SV40 transgene in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, AIB1 expression was observed in certain epithelial cells of the prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated carcinoma and in almost all cells of the poorly differentiated carcinoma. After AIB1 was genetically inactivated in AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice, the progression of prostate tumorigenesis in most AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice was arrested at the well-differentiated carcinoma stage. Wild-type (WT)/TRAMP mice developed progressive, multifocal, and metastatic prostate tumors and died between 25 and 34 weeks. In contrast, AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice only exhibited PIN and early-stage well-differentiated carcinoma by 39 weeks. AIB1-/-/TRAMP prostates showed much lower cell proliferation than WT/TRAMP prostates. Most AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice could survive more than 35 weeks and died with other types of tumors or unknown reasons. Our results indicate that induction of AIB1 expression in partially transformed epithelial cells is essential for progression of prostate tumorigenesis into poorly differentiated carcinoma. Inhibition of AIB1 expression or function in the prostate epithelium may be a potential strategy to suppress prostate cancer initiation and progression.
Project description:Nuclear receptor coactivator 1 [NCOA1/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1] and NCOA3 (SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR) constitute two thirds of the SRC (steroid receptor coactivator) family. Although in vitro experiments have suggested overlapping functions between NCOA1 and NCOA3, their in vivo functional relationship is poorly understood. In this study, NCOA1 and NCOA3 double knockout mice were generated to determine the compensatory roles of NCOA1 and NCOA3 in development. NCOA1(-/-) mice survived normally, whereas most NCOA3(-/-) embryos were viable at embryonic d 13.5 (E13.5). In contrast, the majority of double-knockout (DKO) embryos died by E13.5. NCOA1 and NCOA3 are expressed in the labyrinth, and labyrinths of NCOA1(+/-);NCOA3(-/-) and DKO placentas were small compared with wild-type and single-knockout labyrinths. DKO labyrinths exhibited low densities of maternal blood sinuses and fetal capillaries and displayed fetomaternal blood transfusion. At the interface between maternal and fetal circulations, layer I sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells showed a reduced density of microvilli. Layer III syncytiotrophoblasts appeared to accumulate large lipid droplets and have reduced density and deepened invaginations of the intrasyncytial bays. The endothelial layer in DKO labyrinth showed abnormal morphologies and had large lipid droplets. Furthermore, disruption of NCOA1 and NCOA3 increased labyrinth trophoblast proliferation and their progenitor gene expression but decreased their differentiation gene expression. NCOA1 and NCOA3 deficiencies also affected the expression of several genes for placental morphogenesis including TGF?-, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-regulated genes and for glucose transportation including GLUT1 and Cx26. These findings demonstrate that NCOA1 and NCOA3 cooperatively regulate placental morphogenesis and embryo survival.
Project description:Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has an essential role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), also known as steroid receptor coactivator 3 or NCOA3, is a transcriptional coactivator that promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. However, AIB1 implication in CRC progression through enhancing Notch signaling is unknown. In this study, we found that several CRC cell lines expressed high levels of AIB1, and knockdown of AIB1 decreased cell proliferation, colony formation and tumorigenesis of these CRC cells. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 inhibited cell cycle progression at G1 phase by decreasing the mRNA levels of cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cyclin E2 and hairy and enhancer of split (Hes) 1. Furthermore, AIB1 interacted with Notch intracellular domain and Mastermind-like 1 and was recruited to the Hes1 promoter to enhance Notch signaling. Downregulation of AIB1 also decreased CRC cell invasiveness in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Besides that, knockout of AIB1 in mice inhibited colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate treatment. The mRNA levels of cyclin B1 and Hes5 were downregulated, but p27, ATOH1 and MUC2 were upregulated in the colon tumors from AIB1-deficient mice compared with those from wild-type mice. Thus, our results signify the importance of AIB1 in CRC and demonstrate that AIB1 promotes CRC progression at least in part through enhancing Notch signaling, suggesting that AIB1 is a potential molecular target for CRC treatment.
Project description:Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/AIB1 is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family involved in development and cell cycle progression. We previously showed that SRC-3/AIB1 is required for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we reported that the elevated SRC-3/AIB1 expression is significantly correlated with human prostate cancer seminal vesicle invasion and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, SRC-3/AIB1 is associated with increased prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. SRC-3/AIB1 is required for focal adhesion turnover and focal adhesion kinase activation. In addition, SRC-3/AIB1 directly regulates transcription of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-13 through its coactivation of AP-1 and PEA3. Taken together, these data suggest that SRC-3/AIB1 plays an essential role in prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Overexpression of the oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) induces mammary tumorigenesis in mice. In breast cancer, high levels of AIB1/SRC-3 and the growth factor receptor HER2/neu predict resistance to endocrine therapy and poor outcome. However, a mechanistic relationship between AIB1/SRC-3 and HER2/neu in the development of breast cancer has not been shown. Here, we show that deletion of one allele of SRC-3 significantly delays Neu-induced mammary tumor development in mice. Homozygous deletion of SRC-3 in mice completely prevents Neu-induced tumor formation. By ages 3 to 4 months, Neu/SRC-3(+/-) mice exhibit a noticeable reduction in lateral side-bud formation, accompanied by reduced cellular levels of phosphorylated Neu compared with Neu/SRC-3(wt) mice. In Neu-induced tumors, high levels of SRC-3, phosphorylated Neu, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression are observed, accompanied by activation of the AKT and c-Jun NH(2) kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. In comparison, phosphorylated Neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E are significantly decreased in Neu/SRC-3(+/-) tumors, proliferation is reduced, and AKT and JNK activation is barely detectable. Our data indicate that AIB1/SRC-3 is required for HER2/neu oncogenic activity and for the phosphorylation and activation of the HER2/neu receptor. We predict that reducing AIB1/SRC-3 levels or activity in the mammary epithelium could potentiate therapies aimed at inhibiting HER2/neu signaling in breast cancer.
Project description:Overexpression and activation of the steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) have been shown to have a critical role in oncogenesis and are required for both steroid and growth factor signaling in epithelial tumors. Here, we report a new mechanism for activation of SRC coactivators. We demonstrate regulated tyrosine phosphorylation of AIB1/SRC-3 at a C-terminal tyrosine residue (Y1357) that is phosphorylated after insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, or estrogen treatment of breast cancer cells. Phosphorylated Y1357 is increased in HER2/neu (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) mammary tumor epithelia and is required to modulate AIB1/SRC-3 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor B, NF-kappaB, and AP-1-dependent promoters. c-Abl (v-Abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) tyrosine kinase directly phosphorylates AIB1/SRC-3 at Y1357 and modulates the association of AIB1 with c-Abl, ERalpha, the transcriptional cofactor p300, and the methyltransferase coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CARM1. AIB1/SRC-3-dependent transcription and phenotypic changes, such as cell growth and focus formation, can be reversed by an Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib. Thus, the phosphorylation state of Y1357 can function as a molecular on/off switch and facilitates the cross talk between hormone, growth factor, and intracellular kinase signaling pathways in cancer.
Project description:Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a member of p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family that mediates the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. It acts as a major oncogene in diverse cancers, whereas biological function of AIB1 in gastric cancer remains largely unclear. This study was designed to explore the role of AIB1 in gastric tumorigenesis and its potential as a useful prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer. Our data demonstrated that AIB1 was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with control subjects. Moreover, AIB1 amplification was found in 47 of 133 (35.3%) gastric cancer cases, but not in control subjects. AIB1 amplification was positively associated with its protein expression, and was significantly correlated with poor patient survival. AIB1 knockdown in gastric cancer cells dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, invasiveness and tumorigenic potential in nude mice, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanically, AIB1 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasiveness through modulating major signaling pathways such as ErbB and Wnt/?-catenin pathways. Collectively, these findings suggest that AIB1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.
Project description:The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator that is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling AIB1 expression in the majority of cancers remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel interacting protein of AIB1, forkhead-box protein G1 (FoxG1), which is an evolutionarily conserved forkhead-box transcriptional corepressor. We show that FoxG1 expression is low in breast cancer cell lines and that low levels of FoxG1 are correlated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer. We also demonstrate that transient overexpression of FoxG1 can suppress endogenous levels of AIB1 mRNA and protein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exogenously expressed FoxG1 in MCF-7 cells also leads to apoptosis that can be rescued in part by AIB1 overexpression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we determined that FoxG1 is recruited to a region of the AIB1 gene promoter previously characterized to be responsible for AIB1-induced, positive autoregulation of transcription through the recruitment of an activating, multiprotein complex, involving AIB1, E2F transcription factor 1, and specificity protein 1. Increased FoxG1 expression significantly reduces the recruitment of AIB1, E2F transcription factor 1 and E1A-binding protein p300 to this region of the endogenous AIB1 gene promoter. Our data imply that FoxG1 can function as a pro-apoptotic factor in part through suppression of AIB1 coactivator transcription complex formation, thereby reducing the expression of the AIB1 oncogene.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tamoxifen is an anti-estrogen drug used in treatment of Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. Effects and side effects of tamoxifen is the sum of tamoxifen and all its metabolites. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4OHtam) and 4-hydroxy-N-demethyltamoxifen (4OHNDtam, endoxifen) both have ER affinity exceeding that of the parent drug tamoxifen. 4OHNDtam is considered the main active metabolite of tamoxifen. Ndesmethyltamoxifen (NDtam) is the major tamoxifen metabolite. It has low affinity to the ER and is not believed to influence tumor growth. However, NDtam might mediate adverse effects of tamoxifen treatment. In this study we investigated the gene regulatory effects of the three metabolites of tamoxifen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Using concentrations that mimic the clinical situation we examined effects of 4OHtam, 4OHNDtam and NDtam on global gene expression in 17?-estradiol (E2) treated MCF-7 cells. Transcriptomic responses were assessed by correspondence analysis, differential expression, gene ontology analysis and quantitative real time PCR (Q-rt-PCR). E2 deprivation and knockdown of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/Amplified in Breast Cancer 1 (AIB1) mRNA in MCF-7 cells were performed to further characterize specific effects on gene expression. RESULTS:4OHNDtam and 4OHtam caused major changes in gene expression compared to treatment with E2 alone, with a stronger effect of 4OHNDtam. NDtam had nearly no effect on the global gene expression profile. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 4OHNDtam led to a strong down-regulation of the CytoKeratin 6 isoforms (KRT6A, KRT6B and KRT6C). The CytoKeratin 6 mRNAs were also down-regulated in MCF-7 cells after E2 deprivation and after SRC-3/AIB1 knockdown. CONCLUSION:Using concentrations that mimic the clinical situation we report global gene expression changes that were most pronounced with 4OHNDtam and minimal with NDtam. Genes encoding CytoKeratin 6, were highly down-regulated by 4OHNDtam, as well as after E2 deprivation and knockdown of SRC-3/AIB1, indicating an estrogen receptor-dependent regulation.