Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activity of Selected Mentha Species.
ABSTRACT: Mentha species are widely used as food, medicine, spices, and flavoring agents. Thus, chemical composition is an important parameter for assessing the quality of mints. In general, the contents of menthol, menthone, eucalyptol, and limonene comprise one of the major parameters for assessing the quality of commercially important mints. Building further on the phytochemical characterization of the quality of Mentha species, this work was focused on the composition of phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts. Thirteen Mentha species were grown under the same environmental conditions, and their methanolic extracts were subjected to the LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) profiling of phenolics and the testing their biological activities, i.e., antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities, which are important features for the cosmetic industry. The total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 14.81 ± 1.09 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g for Mentha cervina to 58.93. ± 8.39 mg GAE/g for Mentha suaveolens. The antioxidant activity of examined Mentha related with the content of the phenolic compounds and ranged from 22.79 ± 1.85 to 106.04 ± 3.26 mg TE (Trolox equivalents)/g for M. cervina and Mentha x villosa, respectively. Additionally, Mentha pulegium (123.89 ± 5.64 mg KAE (kojic acid equivalents)/g) and Mentha x piperita (102.82 ± 15.16 mg KAE/g) showed a strong inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is related to skin hyperpigmentation. The most abundant compound in all samples was rosmarinic acid, ranging from 1363.38 ± 8323 to 2557.08 ± 64.21 μg/g. In general, the levels of phenolic acids in all examined mint extracts did not significantly differ. On the contrary, the levels of flavonoids varied within the species, especially in the case of hesperidin (from 0.73 ± 0.02 to 109. 39 ± 2.01 μg/g), luteolin (from 1.84 ± 0.11 to 31.03 ± 0.16 μg/g), and kaempferol (from 1.30 ± 0.17 to 33.68 ± 0.81 μg/g). Overall results indicated that all examined mints possess significant amounts of phenolic compounds that are responsible for antioxidant activity and, to some extent, for tyrosinase inhibition activity. Phenolics also proved to be adequate compounds, together with terpenoids, for the characterization of Mentha sp. Additionally, citrus-scented Mentha x villosa could be selected as a good candidate for the food and pharmaceutical industry, especially due its chemical composition and easy cultivation, even in winter continental conditions.
Project description:In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL-1 exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies.
Project description:Phenolic compounds have a number of benefits to human health and can be used as preventive compounds for the development of some chronic diseases. <i>Mentha</i> plants are not only a good source of essential oils, but also contain significant levels of wide range of phenolic compounds. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to increase phenols content in <i>Mentha</i> plants under the foliar application with L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine at two concentrations (100 mg L<sup>-1</sup> and 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) and to create preconditions for using this plant for even more diverse purposes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenols in mints were performed by HPLC method. Foliar application of amino acids increased the total phenol content from 1.22 to 3.51 times depending on the treatment and mint variety. The most pronounced foliar application to total phenols content was tryptophane especially in <i>Mentha piperita</i> "Swiss". <i>Mentha piperita</i> "Swiss" was affected most by foliar application and the amount of total phenolic acids depending on the treatment ranged from 159.25 to 664.03 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup> (DW), respectively, non-sprayed and sprayed with tryptophane 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>. Our results suggest that the biophenol content varies according to such factors as foliar application and variety, and every single mint variety has individual response to different applications of amino acids.
Project description:Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. is claimed to effectively manage a number of ailments including diabetes and associated complications. Nonetheless, no attempt has been made to delineate its pharmacological propensities and phytochemical profile. This study was designed to appraise the antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory properties relevant to the management of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and neurodegenerative and skin disorders. A combination of colorimetric assays and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) were applied for the phytochemical screening of leaf, root, twig, and fruit extracts (methanol and ethyl acetate). In vitro antioxidant evaluations were via radical scavenging abilities (DPPH, ABTS), reducing potential (FRAP, CUPRAC), chelating power, and total antioxidant capacity (phosphomolybdenum). Seven key metabolic enzymes (?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, tyrosinase, elastase, lipase, AChE, and BChE) were targeted to determine the inhibitory effects. Multivariate and in silico docking analysis were performed on collected data. Methanolic fruit extract yielded the highest total phenolic, tannin, and triterpenoid contents (174.18 ± 4.27 mg GAE/g, 176.24 ± 3.10 mg CE/g, 63.11 ± 3.27 mg OAE/g, respectively); significantly depressed tyrosinase, elastase, and ?-amylase activities (155.35 ± 0.29 mg KAE/g, 4.56 ± 0.10 mg CAE/g, 1.00 ± 0.05 mmol ACAE/g, accordingly); and harboured the most potent antioxidant capacities with DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP (492.62 ± 5.31, 961.46 ± 11.18, 552.49 ± 8.71 mg TE/g, respectively), and phosphomolybdenum (4.17 ± 0.31 mmol TE/g) assays. Multivariate analysis suggested that the type of solvents used influenced the biological activities more compared to plant parts. Docking analysis showed that azelaic acid binds with tyrosinase by Van der Waals and conventional hydrogen bonds. We anticipate that the present study may establish baseline data on this halophyte that could open new avenues for the development of biomedicine.
Project description:The present study aimed to assess the phenolic content of eight ethanolic propolis samples (P1-P8) harvested from different regions of Western Romania and their antioxidant activity. The mean value of total phenolic content was 214 ± 48 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g propolis. All extracts contained kaempferol (514.02 ± 114.80 μg/mL), quercetin (124.64 ± 95.86 μg/mL), rosmarinic acid (58.03 ± 20.08 μg/mL), and resveratrol (48.59 ± 59.52 μg/mL) assessed by LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2 methods: (i) DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant and (ii) FOX (Ferrous iron xylenol orange OXidation) assay using catalase as hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) scavenger. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined for all samples applied in 6 concentrations (10, 5, 3, 1.5, 0.5 and 0.3 mg/mL). IC<sub>50</sub> varied from 0.0700 to 0.9320 mg/mL (IC<sub>50</sub> of ascorbic acid = 0.0757 mg/mL). The % of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> inhibition in FOX assay was assessed for P1, P2, P3, P4 and P8 applied in 2 concentrations (5 and 0.5 mg/mL). A significant H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>% inhibition was obtained for these samples for the lowest concentration. We firstly report the presence of resveratrol as bioactive compound in Western Romanian propolis. The principal component analysis revealed clustering of the propolis samples according to the polyphenolic profile similarity.
Project description:Tricholosporum goniospermum (Bres.) Guzmán ex T.J. Baroni is an excellent edible mushroom whose compounds and biological properties are still unknown. In this study, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and liquid-cultured mycelia were compared for the analysis of phenolic compounds, the evaluation of scavenger (DPPH, ABTS) and reducing (CUPRAC, FRAP) activities, and the enzyme inhibition of ?-amylase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. Additionally, T. goniospermum extracts were evaluated for antibacterial and antimycotic activities against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and clinical yeast and fungal dermatophytes. Finally, based on the extract content in phenolic compounds, in silico studies, including the docking approach, were conducted to predict the putative targets (namely tyrosinase, lanosterol-14-?-demethylase, the multidrug efflux system transporters of E. coli (mdtK) and P. aeruginosa (pmpM), and S. aureus ?-lactamase (ORF259)) underlying the observed bio-pharmacological and microbiological effects. The methanolic extract from mycelia was the richest in gallic acid, whereas the ethyl acetate extract from fruiting bodies was the sole extract to show levels of catechin. Specifically, docking runs demonstrated an affinity of catechin towards all docked proteins, in the micromolar range. These in silico data are consistent, at least in part, with the highest activity of ethyl acetate extract as an antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase (554.30 mg KAE/g for fruiting bodies and 412.81 mg KAE/g for mycelia) agent. The ethyl acetate extracts were also noted as being the most active (2.97 mmol ACAE/g for fruiting bodies and 2.25 mmol ACAE/g for mycelia) on ?-amylase. BChE inhibitory activities varied from 2.61 to 26.78 mg GALAE/g, while the tested extracts were not active on AChE. In conclusion, all mushroom extracts tested in this study had potent antimicrobial activities. Particularly, among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest efficacy as both an antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase agent. This could be related, albeit partially, to its content of catechin. In this regard, the bioinformatics analyses showed interactions of catechin with tyrosinase and specific microbial proteins involved in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, thus suggesting innovative pharmacological applications of T. goniospermum extracts.
Project description:The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.
Project description:The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Project description:In this work, the phytochemical profile and the biological properties of Colchicum triphyllum (an unexplored Turkish cultivar belonging to Colchicaceae) have been comprehensively investigated for the first time. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, tuber, and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods, namely maceration (both aqueous and methanolic), infusion, and Soxhlet. Besides, the complete phenolic and alkaloid untargeted metabolomic profiling of the different extracts was investigated. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 285 compounds when considering the different matrix extracts, including mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, and tyrosol equivalents. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (119 compounds), while colchicine, demecolcine, and lumicolchicine isomers were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. In addition, our findings showed that C. triphyllum tuber extracts were a superior source of both total alkaloids and total polyphenols, being on average 2.89 and 10.41 mg/g, respectively. Multivariate statistics following metabolomics allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Overall, C. triphyllum leaf extracts showed a strong in vitro antioxidant capacity, in terms of cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC; on average 96.45 mg Trolox Equivalents (TE)/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 66.86 mg TE/g). Interestingly, each C. triphyllum methanolic extract analyzed (i.e., from tuber, leaf, and flower) was active against the tyrosinase in terms of inhibition, recording the higher values for methanolic macerated leaves (i.e., 125.78 mg kojic acid equivalent (KAE)/g). On the other hand, moderate inhibitory activities were observed against AChE and ?-amylase. Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between the phytochemical profiles and the biological activities determined. Therefore, our findings highlighted, for the first time, the potential of C. triphhyllum extracts in food and pharmaceutical applications.
Project description:<i>Jatropha</i> L. species, in particular, <i>J. curcas</i> and <i>J. gossypiifolia</i>, are well known medicinal plants used for treating various diseases. In the present study, leaf and stem bark extracts of <i>J. curcas</i> and <i>J. gossypiifolia</i> obtained by maceration or homogenizer assisted extraction, were investigated for their phytochemical contents and biological potential as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and neuromodulators. In this regard, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was carried out with the aim to unravel the putative mechanisms consistent with both metabolomic fingerprints and pharmacological effects. The leaf extracts of <i>J. curcas</i> showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) than the stem bark extracts (range: 5.79-48.95 mg GAE/g and 1.64-13.99 mg RE/g, respectively), while <i>J. gossypiifolia</i> possessed TPC and TFC in the range of 42.62-62.83 mg GAE/g and 6.97-17.63 mg RE/g, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the leaf extracts of both species obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction are richer in phytochemical compounds compared to the stem bark extracts obtained by the same extraction method. In vitro antioxidant potentials were also demonstrated in different assays (DPPH: 6.89-193.93 mg TE/g, ABTS: 20.20-255.39 mg TE/g, CUPRAC: 21.07-333.30 mg TE/g, FRAP: 14.02-168.93 mg TE/g, metal chelating activity: 3.21-17.51 mg EDTAE/g and phosphomolybdenum assay: 1.76-3.55 mmol TE/g). In particular, the leaf extract of <i>J. curcas</i> and the stem bark extract of <i>J. gossypiifolia</i>, both obtained by homogenizer assisted extraction, showed the most potent antioxidant capacity in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing activity, which could be related to their higher TPC and TFC. Furthermore, anti-neurodegenerative (acetylcholinesterase inhibition: 1.12-2.36 mg GALAE/g; butyrylcholinetserase inhibition: 0.50-3.68 mg GALAE/g), anti-hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase inhibition: 38.14-57.59 mg KAE/g) and antidiabetic (amylase inhibition: 0.28-0.62 mmol ACAE/g; glucosidase inhibition: 0.65-0.81 mmol ACAE/g) properties were displayed differentially by the different extracts. Additionally, the extracts were effective in reducing the gene expression of both TNFα and BDNF, which could be partially mediated by phenolic compounds such as naringenin, apigenin and quercetin. Indeed, the scientific data obtained from the present study complement the several other reports highlighting the pharmacological potentials of these two species, thus supporting their uses as therapeutically active plants.
Project description:The present study compares three methods viz. microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from black carrot pomace (BCP). BCP is the major by-product generated during processing and poses big disposal problem. Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology was employed to investigate and optimize the MAE of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour density from BCP. The conditions for maximum recovery of polyphenolics were: microwave power (348.07 W), extraction time (9.8 min), solvent-solid ratio (19.3 mL/g) and ethanol concentration (19.8%). Under these conditions, the extract contained total phenolic content of 264.9?±?10.02 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 mL, antioxidant capacity (AOC) of 13.14?±?1.05 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL and colour density of 68.63?±?5.40 units. The total anthocyanin content at optimized condition was 753.40?±?31.6 mg/L with low % polymeric colour of 7.40?±?0.42. At optimized conditions, MAE yielded higher colour density (68.63?±?5.40), polyphenolic content (264.9?±?10.025 mg GAE/100 mL) and AOC (13.14?±?1.05 µmol TE/mL) in a short time as compared to UAE and CSE. Overall results clearly indicate that MAE is the best suited method for extraction in comparison to UAE and CSE. The phenolic rich extract can be used as an effective functional ingredient in foods.