The MIR-Domain of PbbHLH2 Is Involved in Regulation of the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in ”Red Zaosu” (PyrusBretschneideri Rehd.) Pear Fruit
ABSTRACT: The N-terminal of Myc-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH TFs) contains an interaction domain, namely the MYB-interacting region (MIR), which interacts with the R2R3-MYB proteins to regulate genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. However, the functions of MIR-domain bHLHs in this pathway are not fully understood. In this study, PbbHLH2 containing the MIR-domain was identified and its function investigated. The overexpression of PbbHLH2 in ”Zaosu” pear peel increased the anthocyanin content and the expression levels of late biosynthetic genes. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that PbbHLH2 interacted with R2R3-MYB TFs PbMYB9, 10, and 10b in onion epidermal cells and confirmed that MIR-domain plays important roles in the interaction between the MIR-domain bHLH and R2R3-MYB TFs. Moreover, PbbHLH2 bound and activated the dihydroflavonol reductase promoter in yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and dual-luciferase assays. Taken together these results suggested that the MIR domain of PbbHLH2 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in pear fruit peel.
Project description:Epimedium species have been widely used both as traditional Chinese medicinal plants and ornamental perennials. Both flavonols, acting as the major bioactive components (BCs) and anthocyanins, predominantly contributing to the color diversity of Epimedium flowers belong to different classes of flavonoids. It is well-acknowledged that flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is predominantly regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) as well as bHLH TF and WD40 protein at the transcriptional level. MYB TFs specifically regulating anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthetic pathway have been already isolated and functionally characterized from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB TF involved in regulating both these two pathways has not been functionally characterized to date in Epimedium plants. In this study, we report the functional characterization of EsMYB9, a R2R3-MYB TF previously isolated from E. sagittatum. The previous study indicated that EsMYB9 belongs to a small subfamily of R2R3-MYB TFs containing grape VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b TFs, which regulate flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The present studies show that overexpression of EsMYB9 in tobacco leads to increased transcript levels of flavonoid pathway genes and increased contents of anthocyanins and flavonols. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicates that the C-terminal region of EsMYB9 contributes to the autoactivation activity, and EsMYB9 interacts with EsTT8 or AtTT8 bHLH regulator. Transient reporter assay shows that EsMYB9 slightly activates the expression of EsCHS (chalcone synthase) promoter in transiently transformed leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, but the addition of AtTT8 or EsTT8 bHLH regulator strongly enhances the transcriptional activation of EsMYB9 against five promoters of the flavonoid pathway genes except EsFLS (flavonol synthase). In addition, co-transformation of EsMYB9 and EsTT8 in transiently transfected tobacco leaves strongly induces the expressions of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. The potential role of EsMYB9 in modulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of sucrose-induced anthocyanin and flavonol-derived BCs is also discussed. These findings suggest that EsMYB9 is a novel R2R3-MYB TF, which regulates the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Epimedium, but distinctly different with the anthocyanin or flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified previously in Epimedium plants.
Project description:Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years. The bioactive components in herba epimedii are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, end-products of the flavonoid pathway. Epimedium species are also used as garden plants due to the colorful flowers and leaves. Many R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been identified to regulate the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways. However, little is known about the R2R3-MYB TFs involved in regulation of the flavonoid pathway in Epimedium. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of the first R2R3-MYB TF (EsMYBA1) from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. Conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis showed that EsMYBA1 belonged to the subgroup 6 clade (anthocyanin-related MYB clade) of R2R3-MYB family, which includes Arabidopsis AtPAP1, apple MdMYB10 and legume MtLAP1. EsMYBA1 was preferentially expressed in leaves, especially in red leaves that contain higher content of anthocyanin. Alternative splicing of EsMYBA1 resulted in three transcripts and two of them encoded a MYB-related protein. Yeast two-hybrid and transient luciferase expression assay showed that EsMYBA1 can interact with several bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway and activate the promoters of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). In both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis, overexpression of EsMYBA1 induced strong anthocyanin accumulation in reproductive and/or vegetative tissues via up-regulation of the main flavonoid-related genes. Furthermore, transient expression of EsMYBA1 in E. sagittatum leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration also induced anthocyanin accumulation in the wounded area. This first functional characterization of R2R3-MYB TFs in Epimedium species will promote further studies of the flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation in medicinal plants.
Project description:Red kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is a popular fresh fruit with a high market value due to its unique color, caused by anthocyanin accumulation. The R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have important roles in plant development and anthocyanin metabolism. In this first comprehensive study of R2R3-MYBs in kiwifruit, a total of 93 R2R3-MYB genes, including five novel previously unannotated AcMYBs, were identified. Their phylogenic relationship, exon-intron structures, and conserved motifs were analyzed. Based on transcriptome data, 60 AcMYBs were expressed (FPKM?>?1) across seven developmental stages of kiwifruit, revealing five expression patterns. One of the 5 newly identified R2R3 TFs, AcMYB75, showed an anthocyanin accumulation-linked expression pattern during fruit development. AcMYB75 localized to the nucleus and has an active transactivation domain, verifying it as a transcription factor. AcMYB75 protein specifically bound the promoter of the anthocyanin biosynthesis gene ANS in yeast one-hybrid system and in vivo. In 35?S:AcMYB75 Arabidopsis plants, anthocyanin significantly accumulated in leaves, and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was greatly up-regulated. Together, these results suggest that AcMYB75 is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in kiwifruit. These findings will increase our understanding of AcMYBs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, and also benefit further functional characterization of R2R3-MYB genes in kiwifruit.
Project description:The Vaccinium genus in the family Ericaceae comprises many species, including the fruit-bearing blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, huckleberry, and lingonberry. Commercially, the most important are the blueberries (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus), such as Vaccinium corymbosum (northern highbush blueberry), Vaccinium virgatum (rabbiteye blueberry), and Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry). The rising popularity of blueberries can partly be attributed to their "superfood" status, with an increasing body of evidence around human health benefits resulting from the fruit metabolites, particularly products of the phenylpropanoid pathway such as anthocyanins. Activation of anthocyanin production by R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) has been characterized in many species, but despite recent studies on blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry, no MYB anthocyanin regulators have been reported for Vaccinium. Indeed, there has been conjecture that at least in bilberry, MYB TFs divergent to the usual type are involved. We report identification of MYBA from blueberry, and show through sequence analysis and functional studies that it is homologous to known anthocyanin-promoting R2R3-MYBs of subgroup 6 of the MYB superfamily. In transient assays, MYBA complemented an anthocyanin MYB mutant of Antirrhinum majus and, together with a heterologous bHLH anthocyanin regulator, activated anthocyanin production in Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore anthocyanin accumulation and anthocyanin structural gene expression (assayed by qPCR and RNA-seq analyses) correlated with MYBA expression, and MYBA was able to transactivate the DFR promoter from blueberry and other species. The RNA-seq data also revealed a range of other candidate genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin production in blueberry fruit. The identification of MYBA will help to resolve the regulatory mechanism for anthocyanin pigmentation in the Vaccinium genus. The sequence information should also prove useful in developing tools for the accelerated breeding of new Vaccinium cultivars.
Project description:The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is regulated by a transcription factor complex consisting of an R2R3 MYB, a bHLH, and a WD40. Although R2R3 MYBs belonging to the anthocyanin-activating class have been identified in many plants, and their role well elucidated, the subgroups of bHLH implicated in anthocyanin regulation seem to be more complex. It is not clear whether these potential bHLH partners are biologically interchangeable with redundant functions, or even if heterodimers are involved. In this study, AcMYB110, an R2R3 MYB isolated from kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) showing a strong activation of the anthocyanin pathway in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was used to examine the function of interacting endogenous bHLH partners. Constitutive expression of AcMYB110 in tobacco leaves revealed different roles for two bHLHs, NtAN1 and NtJAF13. A hierarchical mechanism is shown to control the regulation of transcription factors and consequently of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Here, a model is proposed for the regulation of the anthocyanin pathway in Solanaceous plants in which AN1 is directly involved in the activation of the biosynthetic genes, whereas JAF13 is involved in the regulation of AN1 transcription.
Project description:Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content.
Project description:Anthocyanins spatiotemporally accumulate in certain tissues of particular species in the banana plant, and MYB transcription factors (TFs) serve as their primary regulators. However, the precise regulatory mechanism in banana remains to be determined. Here, we report the identification and characterization of <i>MaMYB4</i>, an R2R3-MYB repressor TF, characterized by the presence of EAR (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression) and TLLLFR motifs. <i>MaMYB4</i> expression was induced by the accumulation of anthocyanins. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing <i>MaMYB4</i> displayed a significant reduction in anthocyanin compared to wild type. Consistent with the above results, metabolome results showed that there was a decrease in all three identified cyanidins and one delphinidin, the main anthocyanins that determine the color of banana leaves, whereas both transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that many key anthocyanin synthesis structural genes and TF regulators were downregulated in <i>MaMYB4</i> overexpressors. Furthermore, dual-luciferase assays showed that <i>MaMYB4</i> was able to bind to the <i>CHS</i>, <i>ANS</i>, <i>DFR</i>, and <i>bHLH</i> promoters, leading to inhibition of their expression. Yeast two-hybrid analysis verified that MaMYB4 did not interact with bHLH, which ruled out the possibility that MaMYB4 could be incorporated into the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex. Our results indicated that <i>MaMYB4</i> acts as a repressor of anthocyanin biosynthesis in banana, likely due to a two-level repression mechanism that consists of reduced expression of anthocyanin synthesis structural genes and the parallel downregulation of <i>bHLH</i> to interfere with the proper assembly of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 activation complex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MYB TF that regulates anthocyanin synthesis that was identified by genetic methods in bananas, which will be helpful for manipulating anthocyanin coloration in banana programs in the future.
Project description:The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis.
Project description:Flower color is a charming phenotype with very important ornamental and commercial values. Anthocyanins play a critical role in determining flower color pattern formation, and their biosynthesis is typically regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs). Paeonia suffruticosa is a famous ornamental plant with colorful flowers. However, little is known about the R2R3-MYB TFs that regulate anthocyanin accumulation in P. suffruticosa. In the present study, two R2R3-MYB TFs, namely, PsMYB114L and PsMYB12L, were isolated from the petals of P. suffruticosa 'Shima Nishiki' and functionally characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that PsMYB114L contained a bHLH-interaction motif, whereas PsMYB12L contained two flavonol-specific motifs (SG7 and SG7-2). Subsequently, the in vivo function of PsMYB114L and PsMYB12L was investigated by their heterologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and apple calli. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants, overexpression of PsMYB114L and of PsMYB12L caused a significantly higher accumulation of anthocyanins, resulting in purple-red leaves. Transgenic apple calli overexpressing PsMYB114L and PsMYB12L also significantly enhanced the anthocyanins content and resulted in a change in the callus color to red. Meanwhile, gene expression analysis in A. thaliana and apple calli suggested that the expression levels of the flavonol synthase (MdFLS) and anthocyanidin reductase (MdANR) genes were significantly downregulated and the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (AtDFR) and anthocyanin synthase (AtANS) genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic lines of PsMYB114L. Moreover, the expression level of the FLS gene (MdFLS) was significantly downregulated and the DFR (AtDFR/MdDFR) and ANS (AtANS/MdANS) genes were all significantly upregulated in transgenic lines plants of PsMYB12L. These results indicate that PsMYB114L and PsMYB12L both enhance anthocyanin accumulation by specifically regulating the expression of some anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in different plant species. Together, these results provide a valuable resource with which to further study the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in P. suffruticosa and for the breeding of tree peony cultivars with novel and charming flower colors.
Project description:High temperatures are known to reduce anthocyanin accumulation in a number of diverse plant species. In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), high temperature significantly reduces tuber anthocyanin pigment content. However, the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato tuber under heat stress remains unknown. Here we show that high temperature causes reduction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in both potato tuber skin and flesh, with white areas forming between the vasculature and periderm. Heat stress reduced the expression of the R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) StAN1 and StbHLH1, members of the transcriptional complex responsible for coordinated regulation of the skin and flesh pigmentation, as well as anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes in white regions. However, the core phenylpropanoid pathway, lignin, and chlorogenic acid (CGA) pathway genes were up-regulated in white areas, suggesting that suppression of the anthocyanin branch may result in re-routing phenylpropanoid flux into the CGA or lignin biosynthesis branches. Two R2R3 MYB TFs, StMYB44-1 and StMYB44-2, were highly expressed in white regions under high temperature. In transient assays, StMYB44 represses anthocyanin accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana by directly suppressing the activity of the dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) promoter. StMYB44-1 showed stronger repressive capacity than StMYB44-2, with both predicted proteins containing the repression-associated EAR motif with some variation. StMYB44-1 conferred repression without a requirement for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) partner, suggesting a different repression mechanism from that of reported anthocyanin repressors. We propose that temperature-induced reduction of anthocyanin accumulation in potato flesh is caused by down-regulation of the activating anthocyanin regulatory complex, by enhancing the expression of flesh-specific StMYB44 and alteration of phenylpropanoid flux.