The Isorhamnetin-Containing Fraction of Philippine Honey Produced by the Stingless Bee Tetragonula biroi Is an Antibiotic against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: Honey exhibits antibacterial and antioxidant activities that are ascribed to its diverse secondary metabolites. In the Philippines, the antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as the bioactive metabolite contents of the honey, have not been thoroughly described. In this report, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of honey from Apis mellifera and Tetragonula biroi, identified the compound responsible for the antibacterial activity, and compared the observed bioactivities and metabolite profiles to that of Manuka honey, which is recognized for its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The secondary metabolite contents of honey were extracted using a nonionic polymeric resin followed by antibacterial and antioxidant assays, and then spectroscopic analyses of the phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results showed that honey extracts produced by T. biroi exhibits antibiotic activity against Staphylococcal pathogens as well as high antioxidant activity, which are correlated to its high flavonoid and phenolic content as compared to honey produced by A. mellifera. The bioassay-guided fractionation paired with Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) and tandem MS analyses found the presence of the flavonoid isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) in T. biroi honey extract, which was demonstrated as one of the compounds with inhibitory activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-44. Our findings suggest that Philippine honey produced by T. biroi is a potential nutraceutical that possesses antibiotic and antioxidant activities.
Project description:Many studies have shown that honey with high phenolic contents prevents cancer formation. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that honey can be used for the treatment of cancer as well as cancer prevention. Antineoplastic effects of honey are often associated with their antioxidant phenolic contents. However, very few studies have dealt with the association of phenolic contents of honeys in terms of antiproliferative effects. The aim of this study was, therefore, to elucidate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating effects of honey samples on the basis of their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Fourteen different honey varieties were collected from various parts of Turkey, and their characteristics regarding total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant contents were determined to test their effects on gastric cancer cells (AGS). For convenience, 2 honey varieties were selected, namely, Ida Mountains <i>Quercus pyrenaica</i> honeydew honey (QPHH-IM) having the highest phenolic and antioxidant content and Canakkale multifloral honey (MFH-C) with the lowest phenolic and antioxidant content. Levels of 11 different phenolic compounds in QPHH-IM and MFH-C samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. AGS cells were incubated with different concentrations of QPHH-IM and MFH-C for 24 hours, then the cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis, and generation of ROS were determined. We found that QPHH-IM had more cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects than that of MFH-C. We think that these effects are probably related to pro-oxidant activities due to the high phenolic contents present. Therefore, further research on high-phenolic honey may contribute to the future development of cancer therapeutics.
Project description:This study was carried out with the objective of determining the antioxidant properties and quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids in relation to quercetin and rutin in some of the monofloral honeys produced in Minas Gerais (Brazil). In this study, 15 monofloral honey samples were obtained from different geographic regions of Minas Gerias, Brazil. The honeys were obtained from Cooperative of Beekeepers and Family Farmers of Northern Minas. To determine the antioxidant properties of honey samples, the test methods of total phenolic content, flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) and DPPH were used. As a result of the analysis of phenolic and flavonoid contents, the samples with the best results were A1-Aroeira and A4-Assa peixe. In antioxidant activity, the honey with the best EC50 results was A6-Aroeira. Differences between the antioxidant activities of the honey samples were found significantly (p< 0.01).
Project description:Background: Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. and Schltdl (Apiaceae) is widely used traditionally for the treatment of a wide range of diseases in Southern and Eastern Africa. Although previous studies have reported the biological activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of H. arborescens leaves, there is no scientific information on the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts. This study is therefore aimed to investigate and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts of H. arborescens leaves. Methods: Phytochemical analysis for the total phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, alkaloid and saponin contents of all the fractions were determined by spectroscopic methods, while the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts were evaluated using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity assays. Micro dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of H. arborescens leaf extracts against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results: Total phenol content of the extracts ranged between 15.10 mg GAE/g- 42.50 mg GAE/g, proanthocyanidin was 459-8402.1 mg QE/g, and flavonoid content of 109.24-235.79 mg QE/g. In addition, alkaloids (5.59%) and saponins (23.33%) were present in significant amounts. Based on the IC 50 values, the ethanol extract exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (0.013 mg/mL) with highest inhibition against DPPH and ABTS radicals (0.06 and 0.049 mg/mL respectively). Considerable antibacterial activities were observed in the acetone, ethanol and blanched extracts with MIC values ranging from 1.563-12.5 mg/mL; however, the aqueous extract was inactive against all the bacteria strains. Conclusion: The study suggests that H. arborescens leaves could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Although the blanching process significantly decreased polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts, it increased the antibacterial compounds.
Project description:High content of citric acid in lemon juice leads to poor sensory experience. The study aimed to investigate the dynamics changes in organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of lemon juice fermented with Issatchenkia terricola WJL-G4. The sensory evaluation of fermented lemon juice was conducted as well. Issatchenkia terricola WJL-G4 exhibited a potent capability of reducing the contents of citric acid (from 51.46 ± 0.11 g/L to 8.09 ± 0.05 g/L within 60 h fermentation) and increasing total phenolic level, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities compared to those of unfermented lemon juice. A total of 20 bioactive substances, including 10 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoid compounds, were detected both in fermented and unfermented lemon juice. The lemon juice fermented for 48 h had better sensory characteristics. Our findings demonstrated that lemon juice fermented with Issatchenkia terricola exhibited reduced citric acid contents, increased levels of health-promoting phenolic compounds, and enhanced antioxidant activities.
Project description:Traditionally, <i>Agastache rugosa</i> (Korean mint) has been widely used to treat various infectious diseases. The aims of this study were to: (i) determine the phenylpropanoid content of the plant using high-performance liquid chromatography; (ii) undertake total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and phenolic assays; (iii) and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts from the stem, leaves, and flowers of Korean mint. The total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and phenolic content assays showed that the flowers had higher phenolic levels than the stem and leaves. The reducing power, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl superoxide radical scavenging abilities, and the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities were also evaluated so that the antioxidant activities of the extracts from the different plant parts could be evaluated. The flower extracts revealed higher antioxidant properties than the other parts. The antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts from <i>A</i>. <i>rugosa</i> were analyzed by the disc diffusion method, and the flower extracts had higher antibacterial activities against the six bacterial strains used in the study than the other parts. This study provides information on the synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenolics derived from the different parts of Korean mint.
Project description:The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza are known to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activities. To improve the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of S. miltiorrhiza roots, the roots were fermented with Aspergillus oryzae at 25 °C for 3 weeks. The non-fermented (SME) and fermented (SMBE) roots of S. miltiorrhiza were extracted with 70% ethanol, respectively, and then fractionated with organic solvents. By fermentation, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity of SMBE, were increased by about 1.2 to 1.3 times compared with those of SME. The antibacterial activity of SMBE was also twice as high as that of SME. The antibacterial activity of SMBE against Bacillus cereus was lower in the n-hexane and chloroform fractions, but higher in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, compared with those of SME. These results indicate that the bioactive components of S. miltiorrhiza roots exhibiting antibacterial activity were converted to more polar compounds by fermentation of A. oryzae. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and LC-MS analyses of SME and SMBE demonstrate that these changes are due to the acylation of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, dealkylation of 4-methylbenzene-1,2-diol and 4-ethylbenzene-1,2-diol, and esterification of hexadecanoic acid and (9Z, 12Z)-octadec-9,12-dienoic acid during fermentation.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone which is involved in the regulation of tomato ripening. In this research, the effects of exogenous ABA on the bioactive components and antioxidant capacity of the tomato during postharvest ripening were evaluated. Mature green cherry tomatoes were infiltrated with either ABA (1.0 mM) or deionized water (control) and stored in the dark for 15 days at 20 °C with 90% relative humidity. Fruit colour, firmness, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, phenolic compounds, lycopene, ascorbic acid, enzymatic activities, and antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of major genes related to phenolic compounds, were periodically monitored. The results revealed that exogenous ABA accelerated the accumulations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents; mostly increased the contents of detected phenolic compounds; enhanced FRAP and DPPH activity; and promoted the activities of PAL, POD, PPO, CAT, and APX during tomato ripening. Meanwhile, the expressions of the major genes (PAL1, C4H, 4CL2, CHS2, F3H, and FLS) involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated (1.13- to 26.95-fold) in the tomato during the first seven days after treatment. These findings indicated that ABA promoted the accumulation of bioactive components and the antioxidant capacity via the regulation of gene expression during tomato ripening.
Project description:Identification of medicinal plants and naturally derived compounds as new natural antioxidant and antibacterial sources for topical acne treatment has long been important. To determine anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity and in vitro antioxidant activities, Sanguisorba officinalis L. root (SOR) was extracted with cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE), and methanol (ME), and each extract was fractionated successively with hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol to determine whether the activities could be attributed to the total phenolic, flavonoid, terpenoid, and condensed tannin contents. Pearson's correlation coefficients were analyzed between the respective variables. The SOR CWE, HWE, ME, and their respective EA fractions showed anti-P. acnes activity based on the paper disc diffusion method on agar plates, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The MIC against P. acnes had a moderate (+) correlation with the total phenolic content, but not with the other measures. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity (SC) had a strong (?) correlation with the total phenolic content and a moderate (?) correlation with the total flavonoid content. The total antioxidant capacity had a strong (+) correlation with the condensed tannin content. Linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition had a strong (?) correlation with the total phenolic content. To elucidate the major active phytochemicals in the CWE-EA, HWE-EA, and ME-EA fractions, high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) were performed. The HPLC-UV analysis showed the presence of nine compounds in common (arjunic acid and/or euscaphic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, and coumarin, quercetin). The UHPLC-QTOF-MS analysis showed the presence of nine compounds in common (gallic acid; caffeic acid; umbelliferone; arjunic acid, euscaphic acid, and/or tormentic acid; pomolic acid; rosamultic acid; and benzoic acid). When standards of the identified phytochemicals were tested against the same bacterium, quercetin, coumarin, and euscaphic acid showed antibacterial activity against P. acnes.
Project description:The antioxidant and antidiabetic properties and metabolite profiling of ethanol extracts of red cabbage (RC) and broccoli (BR) seeds and sprouts were investigated in this study. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and saponin contents were in the ranges of 385.4-480.4 mg FAE/100 g, 206.9-215.6 mg CE/100 g, and 17.8-27.0 mg soysaponin BE/100 g, respectively. BR seed had the highest total phenolic (480.4 mg FAE/100 g) and flavonoid (216.9 mg CE/100 g) contents, whereas BR sprout had the highest saponin content (27.0 soysaponin BE/100g). RC sprout demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity, with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity levels of 71.5% and 88.5%, respectively. Furthermore, BR and RC sprouts showed the most potent inhibition against α-glucosidase (91.32% and 93.11%, respectively) and pancreatic lipase (60.19% and 61.66%, respectively). BR seed (60.37%) demonstrated the lowest AGE inhibition. A total of 24 metabolites, predominantly amino acids and phenolic compounds, were characterized using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Germination not only improved the levels of metabolites but also resulted in the synthesis of new compounds. Therefore, these findings show that germination effectively enhanced the functional properties and metabolite profiles of broccoli and red cabbage seeds, making their sprouts more applicable as functional ingredients.
Project description:Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution produced from plant nectar, with its composition influenced by geographic and floral origins, and with several properties contributing to its health-related abilities. This study aimed to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant characteristics, antibacterial activity, and physicochemical properties of commercial Australian honeys. In total, 42 commercial Australian honeys were selected, and categorised according to front-label descriptions. Honeys were analysed: quality (Hydroxymethylfurfural); colour (colour intensity, <i>L*,a*,b*</i>); bioactive composition (phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid content); antioxidant characteristics (DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP); antibacterial activity (MIC<sub>50</sub>); physicochemical properties (pH, TSS, viscosity, <i>a</i> <sub>w</sub>). Colour intensity correlated with each assessed bioactive compound and antioxidant characteristic (<i>p</i> ≤ 0.001). MIC<sub>50</sub> (<i>S. aureus</i>) was associated with FRAP and <i>a</i> <sub>w</sub>, suggesting mechanisms of action for honey's antibacterial activity. Manuka-type honeys had higher colour intensity (1440 (98.5) mAU) than other categories (<i>p</i> ≤ 0.05), and consistently higher bioactive and antioxidant properties. This provides the potential to inform antioxidant-related health outcomes.