Lipid Rafts Interaction of the ARID3A Transcription Factor with EZRIN and G-Actin Regulates B-Cell Receptor Signaling.
ABSTRACT: Several diseases originate via dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The ARID3A/Bright transcription factor has also been implicated in malignancies, primarily those derived from hematopoietic lineages. Previously, we demonstrated that ARID3A shuttles between the nucleus and the plasma membrane, where it localizes within lipid rafts. There it interacts with components of the B-cell receptor (BCR) to reduce its ability to transmit downstream signaling. We demonstrate here that a direct component of ARID3A-regulated BCR signal strength is cortical actin. ARID3A interacts with actin exclusively within lipid rafts via the actin-binding protein EZRIN, which confines unstimulated BCRs within lipid rafts. BCR ligation discharges the ARID3A-EZRIN complex from lipid rafts, allowing the BCR to initiate downstream signaling events. The ARID3A-EZRIN interaction occurs almost exclusively within unpolymerized G-actin, where EZRIN interacts with the multifunctional ARID3A REKLES domain. These observations provide a mechanism by which a transcription factor directly regulates BCR signaling via linkage to the actin cytoskeleton with consequences for B-cell-related neoplasia.
Project description:Two members, Bright/ARID3A and Bdp/ARID3B, of the ARID (AT-Rich Interaction Domain) transcription family are distinguished by their ability to specifically bind to DNA and to self-associate via a second domain, REKLES. Bright and Bdp positively regulate immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) transcription by binding to AT-rich motifs within Matrix Associating Regions (MARs) residing within a subset of V(H) promoters and the E? intronic enhancer. In addition, REKLES provides Bright nuclear export function, and a small pool of Bright is directed to plasma membrane sub-domains/lipid rafts where it associates with and modulates signaling of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Here, we characterize a third, highly conserved, physically condensed ARID3 locus, Brightlike/ARID3C. Brightlike encodes two alternatively spliced, SUMO-I-modified isoforms that include or exclude (?6) the REKLES-encoding exon 6. Brightlike transcripts and proteins are expressed preferentially within B lineage lymphocytes and coordinate with highest Bright expression in activated follicular B cells. Brightlike, but not Brightlike?6, undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling with a fraction localizing within lipid rafts following BCR stimulation. Brightlike, but not Brightlike?6, associates with Bright in solution, at common DNA binding sites in vitro, and is enriched at Bright binding sites in chromatin. Although possessing little transactivation capacity of its own, Brightlike significantly co-activates Bright-dependent IgH transcription with maximal activity mediated by the unsumoylated form. In sum, this report introduces Brightlike as an additional functional member of the family of ARID proteins, which should be considered in regulatory circuits, previously ascribed to be mediated by Bright.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a critical process in tumor cell invasion and requires matrix degrading protrusions called invadopodia. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) has recently been shown to be fundamental in the regulation of invadopodia actin cytoskeleton dynamics and activity. However, the structural link between the invadopodia cytoskeleton and NHE1 is still unknown. A candidate could be ezrin, a linker between the NHE1 and the actin cytoskeleton known to play a pivotal role in invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanistic basis for its role remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ezrin phosphorylated at T567 is highly overexpressed in the membrane of human breast tumors and positively associated with invasive growth and HER2 overexpression. Further, in the metastatic cell line, MDA-MB-231, p-ezrin was almost exclusively expressed in invadopodia lipid rafts where it co-localized in a functional complex with NHE1, EGFR, ß1-integrin and phosphorylated-NHERF1. Manipulation by mutation of ezrins T567 phosphorylation state and/or PIP2 binding capacity or of NHE1s binding to ezrin or PIP2 demonstrated that p-ezrin expression and binding to PIP2 are required for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation and invasion and identified NHE1 as the membrane protein that p-ezrin regulates to induce invadopodia formation and activity.
Project description:Tumour metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 inhibits tumour cell movement. As a transmembrane protein, tetraspanin CD82 bridges the interactions between membrane microdomains of lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). In this study, we found that CD82 and other tetraspanins contain cholesterol recognition/interaction amino-acid consensus (CRAC) sequences in their transmembrane domains and revealed that cholesterol binding of CD82 determines its interaction with lipid rafts but not with TEMs. Functionally, CD82 needs cholesterol binding to inhibit solitary migration, collective migration, invasion and infiltrative outgrowth of tumour cells. Importantly, CD82-cholesterol/-lipid raft interaction not only promotes extracellular release of lipid raft components such as cholesterol and gangliosides but also facilitates extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated release of ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein Ezrin. Since ERM proteins link actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, we show for the first time that cell movement can be regulated by EV-mediated releases, which disengage the plasma membrane from cytoskeleton and then impair cell movement. Our findings also conceptualize that interactions between membrane domains, in this case converge of lipid rafts and TEMs by CD82, can change cell movement. Moreover, CD82 coalescences with both lipid rafts and TEMs are essential for its inhibition of tumour cell movement and for its enhancement of EV release. Finally, our study underpins that tetraspanins as a superfamily of functionally versatile molecules are cholesterol-binding proteins. Abbreviations: Ab: antibody; CBM: cholesterol-binding motif; CCM: cholesterol consensus motif; CRAC/CARC: cholesterol recognition or interaction amino-acid consensus; CTxB: cholera toxin B subunit; ECM: extracellular matrix; ERM: ezrin, radixin and moesin; EV: extracellular vesicles; FBS: foetal bovine serum; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MST: microscale thermophoresis; pAb: polyclonal antibody; and TEM: tetraspanin-enriched microdomain.
Project description:Localization of the death receptor Fas to specialized membrane microdomains is crucial to Fas-mediated cell death signaling. Here, we report that the post-translational modification of Fas by palmitoylation at the membrane proximal cysteine residue in the cytoplasmic region is the targeting signal for Fas localization to lipid rafts, as demonstrated in both cell-free and living cell systems. Palmitoylation is required for the redistribution of Fas to actin cytoskeleton-linked rafts upon Fas stimulation and for the raft-dependent, ezrin-mediated cytoskeleton association, which is necessary for the efficient Fas receptor internalization, death-inducing signaling complex assembly and subsequent caspase cascade leading to cell death.
Project description:The Lin28b+Let7- axis in fetal/neonatal development plays a role in promoting CD5+ B1a cell generation as a B-1 B cell developmental outcome. Here we identify the Let7 target, Arid3a, as a crucial molecular effector of the B-1 cell developmental program. Arid3a expression is increased at pro-B cell stage and markedly increased at pre-B and immature B cell stages in the fetal/neonatal liver B-1 development relative to that in the Lin28b-Let7+ adult bone marrow (BM) B-2 cell development. Analysis of B-lineage restricted Lin28b transgenic (Tg) mice, Arid3a knockout and Arid3a Tg mice, confirmed that increased Arid3a allows B cell generation without requiring surrogate light chain (SLC) associated pre-BCR stage, and prevents MHC class II cell expression at the pre-B and newly generated immature B cell stages, distinct from pre-BCR dependent B development with MHC class II in adult BM. Moreover, Arid3a plays a crucial role in supporting B1a cell generation. The increased Arid3a leads higher Myc and Bhlhe41, and lower Siglec-G and CD72 at the pre-B and immature B cell stages than normal adult BM, to allow BCR signaling induced B1a cell generation. Arid3a-deficiency selectively blocks the development of B1a cells, while having no detectable effect on CD5- B1b, MZ B, and FO B cell generation resembling B-2 development outcome. Conversely, enforced expression of Arid3a by transgene is sufficient to promote the development of B1a cells from adult BM. Under the environment change between birth to adult, altered BCR repertoire in increased B1a cells occurred generated from adult BM. However, crossed with B1a-restricted VH/D/J IgH knock-in mice allowed to confirm that SLC-unassociated B1a cell increase and CLL/lymphoma generation can occur in aged from Arid3a increased adult BM. These results confirmed that in fetal/neonatal normal mice, increased Arid3a at the pre-B cell and immature B cell stages is crucial for generating B1a cells together with the environment for self-ligand reactive BCR selection, B1a cell maintenance, and potential for development of CLL/Lymphoma in aged mice.
Project description:Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-?-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.
Project description:Previous studies in the mouse indicated that Arid3a plays a critical role in the first cell fate decision required for generation of trophectoderm (TE). Here, we demonstrate that Arid3a is widely expressed during mouse and human placentation and essential for early embryonic viability. Arid3a is located within trophoblast giant cells and other trophoblast-derived cell subtypes in the junctional and labyrinth zones of the placenta. Conventional Arid3a knockout embryos suffer restricted intrauterine growth with sever defects in placental structural organization. Arid3a null placentas show aberrant expression of subtype-specific markers as well as significant alteration in inflammatory response-related genes, cytokines and chemokines. We provide evidence that BMP4-mediated induction of trophoblast stem (TS)-like cells from human induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells results in ARID3A upregulation and cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation. Overexpression of ARID3A in human iPS and BMP4-mediated TS-like cells up-regulated TE markers, whereas pluripotent markers were down-regulated. Our results indicate that the roles of Arid3a are conserved and essential for mammalian placental development through regulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic developmental programs. Placentas of E10.5 and E11.5 wild type (WT) and Arid3a-/- mice were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina
Project description:Recent biochemical evidence indicates that an early event in signal transduction by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is its translocation to specialized membrane subdomains known as lipid rafts. We have taken a microscopic approach to image lipid rafts and early events associated with BCR signal transduction. Lipid rafts were visualized on primary splenic B lymphocytes from wild-type or anti-hen egg lysozyme BCR transgenic mice, and on a mature mouse B-cell line Bal 17 by using fluorescent conjugates of cholera toxin B subunit or a Lyn-based chimeric protein, which targets green fluorescent protein to the lipid raft compartment. Time-lapse imaging of B cells stimulated via the BCR with the antigen hen egg lysozyme, or surrogate for antigen anti-IgM, demonstrated that lipid rafts are highly dynamic entities, which move laterally on the surface of these cells and coalesce into large regions. These regions of aggregated lipid rafts colocalized with the BCR and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Microscopic imaging of live B cells also revealed an inducible colocalization of lipid rafts with the tyrosine kinase Syk and the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45. These two proteins play indispensable roles in BCR-mediated signaling but are not detectable in biochemically purified lipid raft fractions. Strikingly, BCR stimulation also induced the formation of long, thread-like filopodial projections, similar to previously described structures called cytonemes. These B-cell cytonemes are rich in lipid rafts and actin filaments, suggesting that they might play a role in long-range communication and/or transportation of signaling molecules during an immune response. These results provide a window into the morphological and molecular organization of the B-cell membrane during the early phase of BCR signaling.
Project description:Regulation of BCR signalling strength is crucial for B-cell development and function. Bright is a B-cell-restricted factor that complexes with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and its substrate, transcription initiation factor-I (TFII-I), to activate immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transcription in the nucleus. Here we show that a palmitoylated pool of Bright is diverted to lipid rafts of resting B cells where it associates with signalosome components. After BCR ligation, Bright transiently interacts with sumoylation enzymes, blocks calcium flux and phosphorylation of Btk and TFII-I and is then discharged from lipid rafts as a Sumo-I-modified form. The resulting lipid raft concentration of Bright contributes to the signalling threshold of B cells, as their sensitivity to BCR stimulation decreases as the levels of Bright increase. Bright regulates signalling independent of its role in IgH transcription, as shown by specific dominant-negative titration of rafts-specific forms. This study identifies a BCR tuning mechanism in lipid rafts that is regulated by differential post-translational modification of a transcription factor with implications for B-cell tolerance and autoimmunity.
Project description:Ezrin is a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family (ERM) of adapter proteins that are localized at the interface between the cell membrane and the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and they regulate a variety of cellular functions. The structure representing a dormant and closed conformation of an ERM protein has previously been determined by x-ray crystallography. Here, using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering, we reveal the structural changes of the full-length ezrin upon binding to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) and to F-actin. Ezrin binding to F-actin requires the simultaneous binding of ezrin to PIP(2). Once bound to F-actin, the opened ezrin forms more extensive contacts with F-actin than generally depicted, suggesting a possible role of ezrin in regulating the interfacial structure and dynamics between the cell membrane and the underlying actin cytoskeleton. In addition, using gel filtration, we find that the conformational opening of ezrin in response to PIP(2) binding is cooperative, but the cooperativity is disrupted by a phospho-mimic mutation S249D in the 4.1-ezrin/radixin/moesin (FERM) domain of ezrin. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that the S249D mutation weakens the binding affinity and changes the kinetics of 4.1-ERM to PIP(2) binding. The study provides the first structural view of the activated ezrin bound to PIP(2) and to F-actin.