Chemical Features Important for Activity in a Class of Inhibitors Targeting the Wip1 Flap Subdomain.
ABSTRACT: The wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1, Wip1 (PP2Cδ), is a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family serine/threonine phosphatase that negatively regulates the function of the tumor suppressor p53 and several of its positive regulators such as ATM, Chk1, Chk2, Mdm2, and p38 MAPK. Wip1 dephosphorylates and inactivates its protein targets, which are critical for cellular stress responses. Additionally, Wip1 is frequently amplified and overexpressed in several human cancer types. Because of its negative role in regulating the function of tumor suppressor proteins, Wip1 has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in various types of cancers. Based on a recently reported Wip1 inhibitor (G-1), we performed an extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. This led us to interesting findings in SAR trends and to the discovery of new chemical analogues with good specificity and bioavailability.
Project description:MdmX and Mdm2 regulate p53 tumor suppressor functions by controlling p53 transcriptional activity and/or stability in cells exposed to DNA damage. Accumulating evidence indicates that ATM-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of Mdm2 and MdmX may be the initial driving force that induces p53 activity during the early phase of the DNA damage response. We have recently determined that a novel protein phosphatase, Wip1 (or PPM1D), contributes to p53 regulation by dephosphorylating Mdm2 to close the p53 activation loop initiated by the ATM/ATR kinases. In the present study, we determine that Wip1 directly dephosphorylates MdmX at the ATM-targeted Ser403 and indirectly suppresses phosphorylation of MdmX at Ser342 and Ser367. Wip1 inhibits the DNA damage-induced ubiquitination and degradation of MdmX, leading to the stabilization of MdmX and reduction of p53 activities. Our data suggest that Wip1 is an important component in the ATM-p53-MdmX regulatory loop.
Project description:Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is a p53-inducible serine/threonine phosphatase that switches off DNA damage checkpoint responses by the dephosphorylation of certain proteins (i.e. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p53, checkpoint kinase 1, checkpoint kinase 2, and uracil DNA glycosylase) involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle checkpoint. Emerging data indicate that Wip1 is amplified or overexpressed in various human tumors, and its detection implies a poor prognosis. In this study, we show that Wip1 interacts with and dephosphorylates BAX to suppress BAX-mediated apoptosis in response to ?-irradiation in prostate cancer cells. Radiation-resistant LNCaP cells showed dramatic increases in Wip1 levels and impaired BAX movement to the mitochondria after ?-irradiation, and these effects were reverted by a Wip1 inhibitor. These results show that Wip1 directly interacts with and dephosphorylates BAX. Dephosphorylation occurs at threonines 172, 174 and 186, and BAX proteins with mutations at these sites fail to translocate efficiently to the mitochondria following cellular ?-irradiation. Overexpression of Wip1 and BAX, but not phosphatase-dead Wip1, in BAX-deficient cells strongly reduces apoptosis. Our results suggest that BAX dephosphorylation of Wip1 phosphatase is an important regulator of resistance to anticancer therapy. This study is the first to report the downregulation of BAX activity by a protein phosphatase.
Project description:The phosphatase Wip1 attenuates the DNA damage response (DDR) by removing phosphorylation marks from a number of DDR proteins (p53, MDM2, Chk1/2, p38). Wip1 also dephosphorylates and inactivates RelA. Notably, LZAP, a putative tumor suppressor, has been linked to dephosphorylation of several of these substrates, including RelA, p38, Chk1, and Chk2. LZAP has no known catalytic activity or functional motifs, suggesting that it exerts its effects through interaction with other proteins. Here we show that LZAP binds Wip1 and stimulates its phosphatase activity. LZAP had been previously shown to bind many Wip1 substrates (RelA, p38, Chk1/2), and our results show that LZAP also binds the previously identified Wip1 substrate, MDM2. This work identifies 2 novel Wip1 substrates, ERK1 and HuR, and demonstrates that HuR is a binding partner of LZAP. Pleasingly, LZAP potentiated Wip1 catalytic activity toward each substrate tested, regardless of whether full-length substrates or phosphopeptides were utilized. Since this effect was observed on ERK1, which does not bind LZAP, as well as for each of 7 peptides tested, we hypothesize that LZAP binding to the substrate is not required for this effect and that LZAP directly binds Wip1 to augment its phosphatase activity.
Project description:Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that dephosphorylates proteins in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-initiated DNA damage response pathway. WIP1 may have a homeostatic role in ATM signaling by returning the cell to a normal pre-stress state following completion of DNA repair. To better understand the effects of WIP1 on ATM signaling, we crossed Atm-deficient mice to Wip1-deficient mice and characterized phenotypes of the double knockout progeny. We hypothesized that the absence of Wip1 might rescue Atm deficiency phenotypes. Atm null mice, like ATM-deficient humans with the inherited syndrome ataxia telangiectasia, exhibit radiation sensitivity, fertility defects, and are T-cell lymphoma prone. Most double knockout mice were largely protected from lymphoma development and had a greatly extended lifespan compared with Atm null mice. Double knockout mice had increased p53 and H2AX phosphorylation and p21 expression compared with their Atm null counterparts, indicating enhanced p53 and DNA damage responses. Additionally, double knockout splenocytes displayed reduced chromosomal instability compared with Atm null mice. Finally, doubly null mice were partially rescued from gametogenesis defects observed in Atm null mice. These results indicate that inhibition of WIP1 may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment in general and A-T patients in particular.
Project description:Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) was identified as an oncogene amplified and overexpressed in several human cancers. Recent evidence suggested that Wip1 is a critical inhibitor in the ATM/ATR-p53 DNA damage signaling pathway. Wip1 dephosphorylates several key DNA damage-responsive proteins and reverses DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints. Previous reports showed that Wip1 was transcriptionally induced by p53 at the early stage of the DNA damage response. To investigate the temporal and functional regulation of Wip1, we identified a microRNA, miR-16, that specifically targets the mRNA of Wip1 and thus negatively regulates the expression level of Wip1. miR-16 itself is induced immediately after DNA damage. Therefore, the increase in Wip1 protein level is significantly postponed compared with that of its mRNA level, preventing a premature inactivation of ATM/ATR signaling and allowing a functional completion of the early DNA damage response. To better understand miR-16 biological functions in the context of cancer cells, we examined its expression in mammary tumor stem cells and found it to be markedly downregulated in mammary tumor stem cells. Overexpression of miR-16 or inhibition of Wip1 suppresses the self-renewal and growth of mouse mammary tumor stem cells and sensitizes MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Together, our results suggest an important role of miR-16 in the regulation of Wip1 phosphatase in the DNA damage response and mammary tumorigenesis.
Project description:PPM1D (PP2C? or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 ?M. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates.
Project description:The tumor suppressor Smad4, a key mediator of the TGF-?/BMP pathways, is essential for development and tissue homeostasis. Phosphorylation of Smad4 in its linker region catalyzed by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a pivotal role in regulating its transcriptional activity and stability. In contrast, roles of Smad4 dephosphorylation as a control mechanism of TGF-?/BMP signaling and the phosphatases responsible for its dephosphorylation remain so far elusive. Here, we identify Wip1 as a Smad4 phosphatase. Wip1 selectively binds and dephosphorylates Smad4 at Thr277, a key MAPK phosphorylation site, thereby regulating its nuclear accumulation and half-life. In Xenopus embryos, Wip1 limits mesoderm formation and favors neural induction by inhibiting TGF-?/BMP signals. Wip1 restrains TGF-?-induced growth arrest, migration and invasion in human cells and enhances the tumorigenicity of cancer cells by repressing the antimitogenic activity of Smad4. We propose that Wip1-dependent dephosphorylation of Smad4 is critical for the regulation of TGF-? signaling.
Project description:Genotoxic stress triggers a combined action of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. Protein phosphatase 2C delta (referred to as WIP1) is involved in timely inactivation of DNA damage response by suppressing function of p53 and other targets at chromatin. Here we show that WIP1 promotes DNA repair through homologous recombination. Loss or inhibition of WIP1 delayed disappearance of the ionizing radiation-induced 53BP1 foci in S/G2 cells and promoted cell death. We identify breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) as interactor and substrate of WIP1 and demonstrate that WIP1 activity is needed for correct dynamics of BRCA1 recruitment to chromatin flanking the DNA lesion. In addition, WIP1 dephosphorylates 53BP1 at Threonine 543 that was previously implicated in mediating interaction with RIF1. Finally, we report that inhibition of WIP1 allowed accumulation of DNA damage in S/G2 cells and increased sensitivity of cancer cells to a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib. We propose that inhibition of WIP1 may increase sensitivity of BRCA1-proficient cancer cells to olaparib.
Project description:The integrity of DNA is constantly challenged throughout the life of a cell by both endogenous and exogenous stresses. A well-organized rapid damage response and proficient DNA repair, therefore, become critically important for maintaining genomic stability and cell survival. When DNA is damaged, the DNA damage response (DDR) can be initiated by alterations in chromosomal structure and histone modifications, such as the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (the phosphorylated form is referred to as gamma-H2AX). gamma-H2AX plays a crucial role in recruiting DDR factors to damage sites for accurate DNA repair. On repair completion, gamma-H2AX must then be reverted to H2AX by dephosphorylation for attenuation of the DDR. Here, we report that the wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) phosphatase, which is often overexpressed in a variety of tumors, effectively dephosphorylates gamma-H2AX in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Wip1 significantly reduces the level of gamma-H2AX after ionizing as well as UV radiation. Forced premature dephosphorylation of gamma-H2AX by Wip1 disrupts recruitment of important DNA repair factors to damaged sites and delays DNA damage repair. Additionally, deletion of Wip1 enhances gamma-H2AX levels in cells undergoing constitutive oncogenic stress. Taken together, our studies show that Wip1 is an important mammalian phosphatase for gamma-H2AX and shows an additional mechanism for Wip1 in the tumor surveillance network.
Project description:The inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in many cancers often increases their resistance to anticancer therapy. Here we show that a previously proposed strategy directed to Wip1 inhibition could be ineffective in tumors lacking p53. On the contrary, Wip1 overexpression sensitized these tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. This effect was mediated through interaction between Wip1 and RUNX2 that resulted, in response to anticancer treatment, in RUNX2-dependent transcriptional induction of the proapoptotic Bax protein. The potentiating effects of Wip1 overexpression on chemotherapeutic agents were directed only to tumor cells lacking p53. The overexpression of Wip1 in normal tissues provided protection from cisplatin-induced apoptosis through decreased strength of upstream signaling to p53. Thus, Wip1 phosphatase promotes apoptosis in p53-negative tumors and protects normal tissues during treatment with anticancer agents.