Four Cycles of Docetaxel-Cyclophosphamide versus Anthracycline-Taxane as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for HER2-Negative, Axillary Lymph Node Negative Breast Cancer: A Real-World Comparison of Alberta Patients Treated 2008-2012.
ABSTRACT: Uncertainty exists around the need to include an anthracycline if taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy is being used for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative and axillary lymph node negative (LNN) breast cancer. We identified all patients who were diagnosed with HER2-negative, LNN breast cancer treated with docetaxel-cyclophosphamide for four cycles (DC4) or an anthracycline-taxane (AT) regimen following surgical resection in Alberta from 2008 through 2012. We used propensity score methods to match each patient treated with AT to up to four patients treated with DC4 on potentially confounding clinicopathologic and treatment variables. We compared the 10-year invasive disease free survival (iDFS), breast cancer specific-survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) and assessed the effect of the type of adjuvant chemotherapy on these outcomes using Cox regression. Of the 726 eligible patients, 657 (90.5%) were treated with DC4 and 69 (9.5%) were treated with AT. Matching created a group of 202 women treated with DC4 and eliminated differences in clinicopathologic and treatment factors. There was no statistically significant difference for the treatment effects of matched DC4 patients compared to the AT patients on iDFS (75.7% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.75; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.8), BCSS (88.1% vs. 87%, p = 0.8; HR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.9), or OS (87.1% vs. 86.9%, p= 0.96; HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.46 to 2.1). Four cycles of DC as compared with an AT regimen yielded similar 10-year iDFS, BCSS and OS amongst patients with HER2-negative, LNN breast cancer.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Breast cancer (BC) patients with T1N0 tumors have relatively favorable clinical outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether molecular subtypes can aide in prognostic prediction for such small, nodal-negative BC cases and guide decision-making about escalating or de-escalating treatments.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>T1N0 BC patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2017 were included and classified into three subgroups according to receptor status: 1) hormonal receptor (HR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-; 2) HER2+; and 3) triple negative (TN) (HR-/HER2-). Patients' characteristics and relapse events were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to assess the iDFS and BCSS. The effects of risk factors and adjuvant treatment benefits were evaluated by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) for invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) with Cox proportional hazards models.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 2,168 patients (1,435 HR+/HER2-, 427 HER2+, 306 TN) were enrolled. The 5-year iDFS rates were 93.6, 92.7, and 90.6% for HR+/HER2-, HER2+, and TN patients, respectively (P = 0.039). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that molecular subtype (P = 0.043), but not tumor size (P = 0.805), was independently associated with iDFS in T1N0 BC. TN patients [HRs = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-2.84, P = 0.018] had a higher recurrence risk than HR+/HER2- patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy benefit was not demonstrated in all T1N0 patients but interacted with molecular subtype status. TN (adjusted HRs = 2.31, 95% CI = 0.68-7.54) and HER2+ (adjusted HRs = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.95-5.63) patients receiving chemotherapy had superior iDFS rates. Regarding BCSS, molecular subtype tended to be related to outcome (P = 0.053) and associated with chemotherapy benefit (P = 0.005).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Molecular subtype was more associated with disease outcome and chemotherapy benefit than tumor size in T1N0 BC patients, indicating that it may guide possible clinical de-escalating therapy in T1N0 BC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women with node-positive breast cancer are at high risk for recurrence. We evaluate the impact of approximated tumor subtype and response to chemotherapy on long-term outcomes in a node-positive cohort receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS:ACOSOG Z1071 enrolled cT0-4N1-2 breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2009 to 2011. Factors impacting breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS:Median follow-up of 701 eligible patients was 4.1 years (0.4-6.5). Ninety patients (12.8%) died from breast cancer. Approximated subtype and chemotherapy response were significantly associated with BCSS and OS (P < 0.0001). BCSS and OS were highest in patients who achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively).Five-year BCSS was highest in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive disease [95.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 87.7-98.6], followed by hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative (80.4%; 95% CI: 73.2-85.9) and lowest in triple-negative (TNBC) (74.8%; 95% CI: 66.6-81.2; P < 0.0001). Similar patterns were seen in OS.In TNBC (n = 174), 5-year BCSS was higher in patients with pCR versus residual disease (89.8%; 95% CI: 78.8-95.3 vs 65.8%; 95% CI: 54.5-74.9; P = 0.0013). In hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative (n = 318) disease, BCSS was 100% in patients with pCR and 78.3% (95% CI: 70.4-84.3) in those with residual disease (P = 0.018). In HER2-positive disease (n = 204) there was no difference between pCR and residual disease (96.0%; 95% CI: 83.6-99.1 vs 95.8%; 95% CI: 81.4-99.1; P = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS:In node-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, BCSS and OS were associated with approximated subtype and chemotherapy response and were lowest in TNBC patients with residual disease. Five-year BCSS was > 95% in HER2-positive disease independent of chemotherapy response.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (ChT) is a standard of care treatment option for stage II-III breast cancer (BC) patients. However, the optimal duration of neoadjuvant ChT has been poorly investigated so far.<h4>Material and methods</h4>We retrospectively retrieved clinical data of patients with stage II-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) BC who were treated between October 2007 and January 2018 with neoadjuvant AT (doxorubicin-paclitaxel) for three cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil) for three cycles (cohort A) or with four AT cycles followed by four CMF cycles (cohort B). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant ChT duration (cohort A <i>versus</i> cohort B) on pathological complete response (pCR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).<h4>Results</h4>Of 209 HER2- BC patients included, 62 had triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 147 had hormone receptor-positive (HR+) BC. Median age was 48?years (range 30-74 years). A total of 111 patients belonged to cohort A and 98 patients belonged to cohort B. pCR was detected in 29 (13.9%) patients, 25 (40.3%) of whom had TNBC and four (2.7%) had HR+ HER2- BC. Patients achieving pCR had significantly longer DFS and OS, with statistical significance reached only in patients with TNBC. We found no differences between cohort A and cohort B in terms of pCR rates (15.3% <i>versus</i> 12.2%; <i>p</i>?=?0.55), DFS (<i>p</i>?=?0.49) or OS (<i>p</i>?=?0.94). The incidence of grade 3/4 adverse events was similar in cohort A <i>versus</i> cohort B as well (22.5% <i>versus</i> 19.4%; <i>p</i>?=?0.54).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Shorter duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane ChT was not associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with stage II-III BC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether the duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based ChT can be reduced in specific patient subgroups without negatively affecting clinical outcomes.
Project description:Data from two phase 3 studies of eribulin were pooled in analyses initially requested by the European Medicines Agency to assess whether specific patient subgroups, previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane, benefited from eribulin. Study 305/EMBRACE included women after two-to-five lines of chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer who were randomized to eribulin mesylate (1.4 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days) or treatment of physician's choice. In Study 301, patients who had received up to two prior chemotherapy regimens for advanced disease were randomized to eribulin (as above) or capecitabine (1.25 g/m(2) b.i.d. on days 1-14 every 21 days). In the pooled population, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival and response rates were analysed in the intent-to-treat population and selected subgroups. Overall, 1,062 patients were randomized to eribulin and 802 patients to control. Median OS was 15.2 months with eribulin versus 12.8 months with control (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.95; P = 0.003). In all subgroups assessed, OS data favoured eribulin; significant improvements occurred in some subgroups, notably in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease (HR 0.82; P = 0.002), although the effect in those with HER2-negative but hormone-receptor-positive disease did not reach statistical significance; benefits were also seen, among others, in those with estrogen-receptor-negative and triple-negative disease. Eribulin improves OS in various patient subgroups with advanced/metastatic breast cancer who had previously received an anthracycline and a taxane. Women with HER2-negative disease are among those who may obtain benefit from eribulin.
Project description:Single estrogen receptor (ER)+ and progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors account for about10% of all breast cancers. However, the prognosis of these single hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumor remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of single HR+ breast tumors according to HER2 status in order to improve the treatment of patients with single HR+. Patients from the SEER program (2010-2016) were divided into ER+PR-, ER-PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR- molecular subtypes stratified by HER2 status. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves after propensity score matching (PSM). A total of 203,406 patients were enrolled. Single ER+ and PR+ tumors account for 11.9% of the total population. For HER2- subtype, patients with ER+PR- (<i>n</i> = 16906 pairs) and ER-PR+ (<i>n</i> = 1395 pairs) had worse prognoses than those with ER+PR+ with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.52 (1.41-1.64) and 2.25 (1.76-2.88) for OS; and 1.94 (1.76-2.14) and 2.57 (1.94-3.40) for BCSS, respectively; ER+PR- showed a better prognosis than ER-PR+ (<i>n</i> = 1394 pairs) and ER-PR- (<i>n</i> = 9626 pairs) with HR (95% CI) of 1.32 (1.06-1.65) and 1.44 (1.33-1.55) for OS, and 1.32 (1.03-1.69) and 1.46 (1.34-1.60) for BCSS, respectively; ER-PR+ had a similar prognosis relative to ER-PR- (<i>n</i> = 1395 pairs) after PSM. For HER2+ subtype, patients with ER-PR+, ER+PR-, and ER-PR- had similar OS and BCSS; ER+PR+ showed a similar prognosis compare with ER-PR+ (<i>n</i> = 535 pairs), but had better OS and BCSS than ER+PR- (<i>n</i> = 5376 pairs) and ER-PR- (<i>n</i> = 8143 pairs) after PSM. In addition, ER+PR+HER2+ showed similar OS and better BCSS compared with ER+PR+HER2- after PSM. In conclusion, single PR+ patients experienced poorer prognoses than single ER+ patients, and may be treated as ER-PR- patients in HER2- subtype. In HER2+ patients, both single ER+ and single PR+ cases showed similar prognoses compared with ER-PR- cases, and may be treated as ER-PR- patients.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>A high 21-gene recurrence score (RS) by breast cancer assay is prognostic for distant recurrence of early breast cancer after local therapy and endocrine therapy alone, and for chemotherapy benefit.<h4>Objective</h4>To describe clinical outcomes for women with a high RS who received adjuvant chemotherapy plus endocrine therapy in the TAILORx trial, a population expected to have a high distant recurrence rate with endocrine therapy alone.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In this secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized clinical trial, 1389 women with hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2-negative, axillary node-negative breast cancer, and a high RS of 26 to 100 were prospectively assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy. The analysis was conducted on May 12, 2019.<h4>Interventions</h4>The adjuvant chemotherapy regimen was selected by the treating physician.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Freedom from recurrence of breast cancer at a distant site, and freedom from recurrence, second primary cancer, and death (also known as invasive disease-free survival [IDFS]).<h4>Results</h4>Among the 9719 eligible women, with a mean age of 56 years (range 23-75 years), 1389 (14%) had a recurrence score of 26 to 100, of whom 598 (42%) had an RS of 26 to 30 and 791 (58%) had an RS of 31 to 100. The most common chemotherapy regimens included docetaxel/cyclophosphamide in 589 (42%), an anthracycline without a taxane in 334 (24%), an anthracycline and taxane in 244 (18%), cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil in 52 (4%), other regimens in 81 (6%), and no chemotherapy in 89 (6%). At 5 years, the estimated rate of freedom from recurrence of breast cancer at a distant site was 93.0% (standard error [SE], 0.8%), freedom of recurrence of breast cancer at a distant and/or local regional site 91.0% (SE, 0.8%), IDFS 87.6% (SE, 1.0%), and overall survival 95.9% (SE, 0.6%).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The estimated rate of freedom from recurrence of breast cancer at a distant site in women with an RS of 26 to 100 treated largely with taxane and/or anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimens plus endocrine therapy in the prospective TAILORx trial was 93% at 5 years, an outcome better than expected with endocrine therapy alone in this population.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00310180.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Several methods are used to assess the pathologic response of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to predict clinical outcome. However, the clinical utility of these systems for each molecular subtype of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, we applied six pathologic response assessment systems to specific subtypes of breast cancer and compared the results.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Five hundred and eighty eight breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC were retrospectively analyzed, and the ypTNM stage, residual cancer burden (RCB), residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN), tumor response ratio, Sataloff's classification, and Miller-Payne grading system were evaluated. The results obtained for each assessment system were analyzed in terms of patient survival.<h4>Results</h4>In triple-negative tumors, all systems were significantly associated with disease-free survival and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disease-free survival were clearly separated by all assessment methods. For HR+/HER2- tumors, systems assessing the residual tumor (ypTNM stage, RCB, and RDBN) had prognostic significance. However, for HER2+ tumors, the association between patient survival and the pathologic response assessment results varied according to the system used, and none resulted in distinct Kaplan-Meier curves.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Most of the currently available pathologic assessment systems used after anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC effectively classified triple-negative breast cancers into groups showing different prognoses. The pathologic assessment systems evaluating residual tumors only also had prognostic significance in HR+/HER2- tumors. However, new assessment methods are required to effectively evaluate the pathologic response of HR+/HER2+ and HR-/HER2+ tumors to anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The optimal number of cycles of adjuvant docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (DC) in patients with node negative breast cancer is not known. We aimed to analyse the survival outcomes of patients with node negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative breast cancer treated with four cycles of DC. METHODS:Patients with node negative and HER2-negative breast cancer treated with four cycles of DC after surgery in a large Canadian province from 2008 to 2012 were identified. We analysed the 4-year and 9-year invasive disease free survival (iDFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the associations of clinical characteristics with survival outcomes. RESULTS:A total of 657 patients were eligible for the current analysis. The median age was 53 years and 71.2% of patients had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Approximately three-fourths of patients had grade III tumours. At a median follow-up of nine years, the 4-year iDFS and OS were 91.0% and 95.5% and the corresponding 9-year rates were 80.5% and 88.0%, respectively. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, grade III tumour predicted worse iDFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.21; P = 0.026) and OS (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.18-8.45; P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS:Adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of DC in a select population of node negative breast cancer was associated with encouraging long-term survival. In the absence of a randomized comparison between four and six cycles of DC, this study presents real-world evidence to consider four cycles of DC as a reasonable option.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given its high recurrence risk, guidelines recommend systemic therapy for most patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). While some clinicopathologic factors and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are known to be prognostic in patients receiving chemotherapy, their prognostic implications in systemically untreated patients remain unknown. METHODS:From a cohort of 9982 women with surgically treated non-metastatic breast cancer, all patients with clinically reported ER-negative/borderline (?10%) disease were selected for central assessment of ER/PR/HER2, histopathology, Ki-67, and TILs. The impact of these parameters on invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:Six hundred five patients met the criteria for TNBC (ER/PR < 1% and HER2 negative). Most were T1-2 (95%), N0-1 (86%), grade 3 (88%), and had a Ki-67 >15% (75%). Histologically, 70% were invasive carcinoma of no special type, 16% medullary, 8% metaplastic, and 6% apocrine. The median stromal TIL content was 20%. Four hundred twenty-three (70%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median OS follow-up was 10.6 years. On multivariate analysis, only higher nodal stage, lower TILs, and the absence of adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with worse IDFS and OS. Among systemically untreated patients (n = 182), the 5-year IDFS was 69.9% (95% CI 60.7-80.5) [T1a: 82.5% (95% CI 62.8-100), T1b: 67.5% (95% CI 51.9-87.8) and T1c: 67.3% (95% CI 54.9-82.6)], compared to 77.8% (95% CI 68.3-83.6) for systemically treated T1N0. Nodal stage and TILs remained strongly associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In early-stage TNBC, nodal involvement, TILs, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy were independently associated with IDFS and OS. In systemically untreated TNBC, TILs remained prognostic and the risk of recurrence or death was substantial, even for T1N0 disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Taxanes usually follow anthracyclines in breast cancer neo/adjuvant treatment, likely because of their later introduction into clinical practice. However, there is no biological rationale that justifies this current standard of care. We compared a taxane followed by an anthracycline-based regimen with the reverse sequence in the neoadjuvant setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a randomized, open-label, single-center phase II trial, women with inoperable, locally advanced, HER2-negative breast cancer were stratified by hormone receptor status and randomized to three cycles of docetaxel (T) followed by three cycles of fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus three cycles of FAC followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Surgery, radiotherapy, and adjuvant hormonal therapy were administered as per local guidelines. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR), and secondary endpoints included toxicity, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Treatment sequence did not improve pCR, which was 7% with T-FAC and 3% with FAC-T. However, after a median follow-up of 79 months, the 5-year EFS rate was 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.4%-87.7%) with T-FAC and 48.2% (95% CI, 37.0%-62.7%) with FAC-T (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81; log-rank p = .0054), and the 5-year OS rate was 89.7% (95% CI, 82.2%-97.8%) with T-FAC and 64.7% (95% CI, 53.6%-78.1%) with FAC-T (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.78; p = .0052). There were no unexpected toxicities. CONCLUSION:We showed for the first time an improvement in EFS and OS with taxane-first compared with anthracycline-first sequencing chemotherapy in HER2-negative, locally advanced breast cancer. Confirmation of these results may have implications for clinical practice. This trial was registered with Clinicatrials.gov identifier NCT01270373. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:The NeoSAMBA trial showed a benefit for taxane-first sequencing chemotherapy consistent with the systematic review of the literature as well as the larger Neo-tAnGo study. Many recent and current ongoing clinical trials have already followed this treatment strategy. As a taxane-before-anthracycline sequence carries neither an incremental cost nor an increased toxicity, and given the available literature on this issue, reinforced that taxane-first regimen can be easily incorporated into daily clinical practice while awaiting confirmation of these findings from larger trials.