Effect of Intensive Salt-Restriction Education on Clinic, Home, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Levels in Treated Hypertensive Patients During a 3-Month Education Period.
ABSTRACT: The authors tested the hypothesis that low-salt diet education by nutritionists would lower blood pressure (BP) levels in treated hypertensive patients. The amount of urinary salt excretion and clinic, home, and ambulatory BP values at baseline and at 3 months were measured in 95 patients with hypertension. After randomization to a nutritional education group (E group, n=51) or a control group (C group, n=44), the C group received conventional salt-restriction education and the E group received intensive nutritional education aimed at salt restriction to 6 g/d by nutritionists. From baseline to the end of the study, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lowered in the E group compared with the C group (6.8±2.9 g/24 h vs 8.6±3.4 g/24 h, P<.01). Morning home systolic BP tended to be lowered in the E group (P=.051), and ambulatory 24-hour systolic BP was significantly lowered in the E group (-4.5±1.3 mm Hg) compared with the C group (2.8±1.3 mm Hg, P<.001). Intensive nutritional education by nutritionists was shown to be effective in lowering BP in treated hypertensive patients.
Project description:The antiproteinuric effect of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade can be magnified by dietary salt restriction. This study sought to determine the effect of intensive low-salt diet education on BP and urine albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients with hypertension and albuminuria.This study was conducted between March of 2012 and March of 2013 as an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. After a run-in period of 8 weeks, all patients received the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan (40 mg daily). Patients were then divided into two groups. One group was treated for another 8 weeks with angiotensin II receptor blocker plus conventional low-salt diet education, and the other group was treated for 8 weeks with angiotensin II receptor blocker plus intensive low-salt diet education. The final analyses was performed with 245 completed patients.The amount of daily albuminuria was significantly decreased from 0 (566.0 [25.0-5398.6] mg/d) to 8 weeks (282.5 [16.1-4898.5] mg/d; P<0.001). From 8 to 16 weeks, the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was decreased by 36.0±5.9 mmol/d in the intensive education group and 8.8±4.9 mmol/d in the conventional education group (interaction P<0.001). Patients who completed intensive low-salt diet education exhibited greater decreases in urinary albumin excretion than the control group (change in albuminuria from 8 to 16 weeks, -154.0 versus 0.4 mg/d; P=0.01). Urinary albumin excretion tended to decrease as the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion amount decreased (R=0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.43; P<0.001).The 24-hour urinary albumin excretion was decreased more in patients in the intensive low-salt diet education group than patients in the conventional education group. Weekly intensive education on a low-salt diet would be a suitable method for clinical practice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early lifestyle intervention, including antenatal nutrition education, is required to reduce the triple burden of malnutrition. Understanding healthcare professionals' views and experiences is essential for improving future nutrition education programmes for Indonesian pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the views of Indonesian antenatal healthcare professionals regarding nutrition education for pregnant women and the improvements required to provide more effective antenatal nutrition education.<h4>Methods</h4>A descriptive qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews was conducted with 24 healthcare professionals, including nutritionists (<i>n</i> = 10), midwives (<i>n</i> = 9) and obstetricians (<i>n</i> = 5) in Malang, Indonesia, between December 2018 and January 2019. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The study identified four main themes. First, healthcare professionals were aware of the importance of providing antenatal nutrition education, which included supporting its targeted delivery. Second, there were differing views on who should provide nutrition education. Most midwives and obstetricians viewed nutritionists as the prime nutrition education provider. Nutritionists were confident in their capability to provide nutrition education. However, some nutritionists reported that only a few women visited primary health centres and received nutrition counselling via this pathway. Third, healthcare professionals revealed some barriers in providing education for women. These barriers included a limited number of nutritionists, lack of consistent guidelines, lack of healthcare professionals' nutrition knowledge and lack of time during antenatal care services. Fourth, participants expressed the need to strengthen some system elements, including reinforcing collaboration, developing guidelines, and enhancing capacity building to improve future antenatal nutrition education.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Healthcare professionals play a central role in the provision of antenatal nutrition education. This study highlighted the importance of educational models that incorporate various antenatal nutrition education delivery strategies. These methods include maximizing referral systems and optimizing education through multiple delivery methods, from digital modes to traditional face-to-face nutrition education in pregnancy classes and community-based health services.
Project description:The aim of the study was to assess the impact of education on improving the assortment of beverages served in nurseries in Poland. This analysis focused on beverages served to children with meals and between meals. We examined: water, tea, juices, soft/fruit drinks, compote, milk, cocoa, and coffee substitute. The study involved 93 nurseries enrolled in the Eating Healthy, Growing Healthy project and was conducted from 2015 to 2017. Nutritional education was carried out by dieticians or nutritionists and included 24 h of lectures given to the staff of nurseries. Training was conducted in a form of workshops that were divided into 12 topics. Additionally, consultations regarding infants and young children nutrition were available to the staff. Typically, education training was completed within 1-2 months in each nursery. The effectiveness of education was verified based on data on beverage supply in 186 ten-day menus, 1860 daily inventory reports before (at baseline), and 3-6 months after staff training (post baseline). Data were analyzed in a total group, and separately for public and non-public nurseries. Statistical analyses for categorical variables were done with Chi<sup>2</sup> Pearson test. The differences were considered significant at <i>p</i> < 0.05. After education, a significant increase in the supply of water as a beverage served with meals was observed in all nurseries (68% vs. 87%; <i>p</i> = 0.002), both in public (72% vs. 90%, <i>p</i> = 0.036) and non-public (62% vs. 84%, <i>p</i> = 0.017) ones. Moreover, a decrease in served tea was noted: in all nurseries (71% vs. 44%, <i>p</i> < 0.001) and in public nurseries (77% vs. 42%, <i>p</i> < 0.001). Water was available between meals in almost all nurseries. Nutritional education for staff is an important tool for improving adherence to the nutritional recommendation in the case of core beverage supply in Polish nurseries.
Project description:Salt intake over reference level would result in elevated blood pressure (BP) and long-term morbidity. Salt meter is a device used to detect sodium content in daily food. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of salt-meter addition to dietary education. The authors conducted a randomized-controlled trial in hypertensive patients with uncontrolled BP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg). Patients were randomized to receive salt meter plus dietary education (group A) or education only (group B), and followed up for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Changes in BP, salt taste sensitivity, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were also analyzed. There were total number of 90 patients who had complete follow-up, 45 in each group. Mean age was 62.9 years and 53% were females. Mean baseline 24-h urine sodium was 151.6 mmol/24 h and mean SBP and DBP were 152.8 and 83.4 mmHg, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar between two groups. At 8 weeks, mean change in urine sodium were -31.83 mmol/24 h and 0.36 mmol/24 h in group A and group B, respectively (p = .006). Mean decrease in BP were SBP, 14.44 versus 8.22 mmHg (p = .030), and DBP 5.53 versus 1.93 mmHg (p = .032). The salt sensitivity was improved more in group A. There was no different between change in CAVI. From this study, salt meter in conjunction with dietary education, for self-monitoring of salt intake is superior to education alone in hypertensive patients, and provided better blood pressure control. Salt meter should be considered in uncontrolled hypertensive patients.
Project description:The authors aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP)-lowering ability of eplerenone in drug-resistant hypertensive patients. A total of 57 drug-resistant hypertensive patients whose home BP was ≥135/85 mm Hg were investigated. The patients were randomized to either an eplerenone group or a control group and followed for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated by clinic, home, and ambulatory BP monitoring. Urinary albumin, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) were also evaluated. Home morning systolic BP (148±15 vs 140±15 mm Hg) and evening systolic BP (137±16 vs 130±16 mm Hg) were significantly lowered in the eplerenone group (n=35) compared with baseline (both P<.05), while unchanged in the control group (n=22). BP reductions in the eplerenone group were most pronounced for ambulatory awake systolic BP (P=.04), awake diastolic BP (P=.004), and 24-hour diastolic BP (P=.02). FMD was significantly improved in the eplerenone group. In patients with drug-resistant hypertension, add-on use of eplerenone was effective in lowering BP, especially home and ambulatory awake BP.
Project description:The effect of lowering sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. With the exception of office systolic blood pressure (BP), predictors of the BP-lowering effect have not been identified. Because dietary sodium intake influences sympathetic drive, and, conversely, sympathetic activity influences salt sensitivity in hypertension, we investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in participants of the SYMPATHY trial. SYMPATHY investigated RDN in patients with resistant hypertension. Both 24-hour ambulatory and office BP measurements were end points. No relationship was found for baseline sodium excretion and change in BP 6 months after RDN in multivariable-adjusted regression analysis. Change in the salt intake-measured BP relationships at 6 months vs baseline was used as a measure for salt sensitivity. BP was 8 mm Hg lower with similar salt intake after RDN, suggesting a decrease in salt sensitivity. However, the change was similar in the control group, and thus not attributable to RDN.
Project description:The effectiveness of salt restriction to lower blood pressure (BP) in Bangladeshi patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain.To test the hypothesis that a tailored intervention intended to reduce salt intake in addition to standard care will achieve a greater reduction in BP in UK Bangladeshi patients with CKD than standard care alone.A randomised parallel-group controlled trial conducted over a 6 month period.A tertiary renal unit based in acute care hospital in East London.56 adult participants of Bangladeshi origin with CKD and BP >130/80 mm Hg or on antihypertensive medication.Participants were randomly allocated to receive a tailored low-salt diet or the standard low-salt advice. BP medication, physical activity and weight were monitored.The primary outcome was change in ambulatory BP. Adherence to dietary advice was assessed by measurement of 24 h urinary salt excretion.Of 56 participants randomised, six withdrew at the start of the study. During the study, one intervention group participant died, one control group participant moved to Bangladesh. Data were available for the primary endpoint on 48 participants. Compared with control group the intervention urinary sodium excretion fell from 260 mmol/d to 103 mmol/d (-131 to -76, p<0.001) at 6 months and resulted in mean (95% CI) falls in 24 h systolic/diastolic BP of -8 mm Hg (-11 to -5)/2 (-4 to -2) both p<0.001.A tailored intervention can achieve moderate salt restriction in patients with CKD, resulting in clinically meaningful falls in BP independent of hypertensive medication.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00702312.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>High sodium (Na+) intake augments blood pressure variability (BPV) in normotensive rodents, without changes in resting blood pressure (BP). Augmented BPV is associated with end-organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity. It is unknown if changes in dietary Na+ influence BPV in humans. We tested the hypothesis that high Na+ feeding would augment BPV in healthy adults.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-one participants (10 F/11 M; 26 ± 5 years; BP: 113 ± 11/62 ± 7 mm Hg) underwent a randomized, controlled feeding study that consisted of 10 days of low (2.6 g/day), medium (6.0 g/day), and high (18.0 g/day) salt diets. On the ninth day of each diet, 24-h urine samples were collected and BPV was calculated from 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. On the tenth day, in-laboratory beat-to-beat BPV was calculated during 10 min of rest. Serum electrolytes were assessed. We calculated average real variability (ARV) and standard deviation (SD) as metrics of BPV. As a secondary analysis, we calculated central BPV from the 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.<h4>Results</h4>24-h urinary Na+ excretion (low = 41 ± 24, medium = 97 ± 43, high = 265 ± 92 mmol/24 h, P < 0.01) and serum Na+ (low = 140.0 ± 2.1, medium = 140.7 ± 2.7, high = 141.7 ± 2.5 mmol/l, P = 0.009) increased with greater salt intake. 24-h ambulatory ARV (systolic BP ARV: low = 9.5 ± 1.7, medium = 9.5 ± 1.2, high = 10.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg, P = 0.37) and beat-to-beat ARV (systolic BP ARV: low = 2.1 ± 0.6, medium = 2.0 ± 0.4, high = 2.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg, P = 0.46) were not different. 24-h ambulatory SD (systolic BP: P = 0.29) and beat-to-beat SD (systolic BP: P = 0.47) were not different. There was a trend for a main effect of the diet (P = 0.08) for 24-h ambulatory central systolic BPV.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ten days of high sodium feeding does not augment peripheral BPV in healthy, adults.<h4>Clinical trials registration</h4>NCT02881515.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>High salt intake is a widespread cardiovascular risk factor with systemic effects. These effects include an expansion of plasma volume, which may interfere with postexercise hypotension (PEH). However, the effects of high salt intake on central and peripheral indices of PEH remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high salt intake would attenuate central and peripheral PEH.<h4>Methods</h4>Nineteen healthy adults (7 female/12 male; age, 25 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 23.3 ± 2.2 kg·m; V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 41.6 ± 8.7 mL·min·kg; systolic blood pressure (BP), 112 ± 9 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 65 ± 9 mm Hg) participated in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Participants were asked to maintain a 2300 mg·d sodium diet for 10 d on two occasions separated by ≥2 wk. Total salt intake was manipulated via ingestion of capsules containing either table salt (3900 mg·d) or placebo (dextrose) during each diet. On the 10th day, participants completed 50 min of cycling at 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak. A subset of participants (n = 8) completed 60 min of seated rest (sham trial). Beat-to-beat BP was measured in-laboratory for 60 min after exercise via finger photoplethysmography. Brachial and central BPs were measured for 24 h after exercise via ambulatory BP monitor.<h4>Results</h4>Ten days of high salt intake increased urinary sodium excretion (134 ± 70 (dextrose) vs 284 ± 74 mmol per 24 h (salt), P < 0.001), expanded plasma volume (7.2% ± 10.8%), and abolished PEH during in-laboratory BP monitoring (main effect of diet, P < 0.001). Ambulatory systolic BPs were higher for 12 h after exercise during the salt and sham trials compared with the dextrose trial (average change, 3.6 ± 2.1 mm Hg (dextrose), 9.9 ± 1.4 mm Hg (salt), 9.8 ± 2.5 mm Hg (sham); P = 0.01). Ambulatory central systolic BP was also higher during the salt trial compared with dextrose trial.<h4>Conclusion</h4>High salt intake attenuates peripheral and central PEH, potentially reducing the beneficial cardiovascular effects of acute aerobic exercise.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of elastic band exercises and nutritional education, as well as to identify the factors influencing frailty, strength, and nutritional intake of elderly women. METHODS:The subjects in this study were 30 elderly women who were divided into four groups. All groups agreed to participate in four programs: health education only (HE), elastic band exercises only (EX), nutritional education only (NU), and elastic band exercises plus nutritional education (EX+NU). Frailty was evaluated by measuring the frailty factors according to Fried et al. Leg strength was measured using a leg-extension machine. Nutritional intake was assessed by the 24-hour recall method and food records. Nutritional intake was analyzed by CAN Pro 5.0 program. RESULTS:After three months, the prevalence of frailty significantly decreased in the EX+NU group (P=0.013) compared with that of the HE group (P=0.088). There was significant improvement in leg strength in both the EX (P=0.012) and EX+NU groups (P=0.003) compared with that of the HE group (EX, P=0.005; EX+NU, P=0.002). The nutritional intake significantly decreased in the EX group compared with that of the HE group (P<0.05, P<0.05). CONCLUSION:The combination of elastic exercises and nutrition education had positive effects on frailty and leg strength, while having negative effects on total calories, carbohydrate, sodium, and iron intake in elderly women. Elastic exercises only had positive effects on leg strength while having negative effects on nutritional intake in elderly women.