Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins involved in ethylene-induced adventitious root development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation reflect the adaptability of plants to the environment. Moreover, the rooting process is regulated by endogenous hormone signals. Ethylene, a signaling hormone molecule, has been shown to play an essential role in the process of root development. In the present study, in order to explore the relationship between the ethylene-induced adventitious rooting process and photosynthesis and energy metabolism, the iTRAQ technique and proteomic analysis were employed to ascertain the expression of different proteins that occur during adventitious rooting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Out of the 5,014 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), there were 115 identified DEPs, among which 24 were considered related to adventitious root development. Most of the identified proteins were related to carbon and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, transcription, translation and amino acid metabolism. Subsequently, we focused on S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAMS) and ATP synthase subunit a (AtpA). Our findings suggest that the key enzyme, SAMS, upstream of ethylene synthesis, is directly involved in adventitious root development in cucumber. Meanwhile, AtpA may be positively correlated with photosynthetic capacity during adventitious root development. Moreover, endogenous ethylene synthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation capacity, and energy material metabolism were enhanced by exogenous ethylene application during adventitious rooting. In conclusion, endogenous ethylene synthesis can be improved by exogenous ethylene additions to stimulate the induction and formation of adventitious roots. Moreover, photosynthesis and starch degradation were enhanced by ethylene treatment to provide more energy and carbon sources for the rooting process.
Project description:The occurrence of adventitious roots is necessary for the survival of cuttings. In this study, comparative transcriptome analysis between two ramie (<i>Boehmeria nivea</i> L.) varieties with different adventitious root (AR) patterns was performed by mRNA-Seq before rooting (control, CK) and 10 days water-induced adventitious rooting (treatment, T) to reveal the regulatory mechanism of rooting. Characterization of the two ramie cultivars, Zhongzhu No 2 (Z2) and Huazhu No 4 (H4), indicated that Z2 had a high adventitious rooting rate but H4 had a low rooting rate. Twelve cDNA libraries of the two varieties were constructed, and a total of 26,723 genes were expressed. In the non-water culture condition, the number of the distinctive genes in H4 was 2.7 times of that in Z2, while in the water culture condition, the number of the distinctive genes in Z2 was nearly 2 times of that in H4. A total of 4411 and 5195 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison of H4CK vs. H4T and Z2CK vs. Z2T, respectively. After the water culture, more DEGs were upregulated in Z2, but more DEGs were downregulated in H4. Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis of the DEGs indicated that the polysaccharide metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, cellular carbohydrate metabolic process, cell wall macromolecule metabolic process, and photosystem GO terms were distinctively significantly enriched in H4. Simultaneously, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that photosynthesis, photosynthesis antenna proteins, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways were distinctively significantly enriched in H4. Moreover, KEGG analysis showed that jasmonic acid (JA) could interact with ethylene to regulate the occurrence and number of AR in Z2. This study reveals the transcriptomic divergence of two ramie varieties with high and low adventitious rooting rates, and provides insights into the molecular regulatory mechanism of AR formation in ramie.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar 'Jinba' during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting.<h4>Results</h4>The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or negatively correlated to ARF, respectively. Several other proteins related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein degradation, photosynthetic and cell structure were also correlated to ARF. The induction of protein CmACO provide a strong case for ethylene as the immediate signal for ARF. This strongly suggests that the proteins we have identified will be valuable for further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling ARF.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that both hydrogen gas (H2) and ethylene (ETH) play positive roles in plant adventitious rooting. However, the relationship between H2and ETH during this process has not been explored and remains insufficiently understood. In this study, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was used to explore the proteomic changes in ETH-H2-induced rooting. Our results show that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon) at proper concentrations promote adventitious rooting, with maximal biological responses occurring at 50% HRW or 0.5 µM ethephon. ETH inhibitors aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and AgNO3 cause partial inhibition of adventitious rooting induced by H2, suggesting that ETH might be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting. According to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometric analyses, compared with the control, 9 proteins were up-regulated while 15 proteins were down-regulated in HRW treatment; four proteins were up-regulated while 10 proteins were down-regulated in ethephon treatment; and one protein was up-regulated while nine proteins were down-regulated in HRW+AVG treatment. Six of these differentially accumulated proteins were further analyzed, including photosynthesis -related proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carall boxylase smsubunit (Rubisco), sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase), oxygen-evolving enhancer protein (OEE1)), amino and metabolism-related protein (threonine dehydratase (TDH)), stress response-related protein (cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (CAPX)), and folding, modification and degradation-related protein (protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI)). Moreover, the results of real-time PCR about the mRNA levels of these genes in various treatments were consistent with the 2-DE results. Therefore, ETH may be the downstream signaling molecule during H2- induced adventitious rooting and proteins Rubisco, SBPase, OEE1, TDH, CAPX and PDI may play important roles during the process.
Project description:Ethylene, as a signaling hormone molecule, is proved to have essential role in the process of root development. In the present study, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were employed to estimate differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during the adventitious rooting using iTRAQ technique and proteomics analysis. Out of the 5014 DEPs, 115 DEPs were considered as identified proteins, and among them, 24 DEPs are interesting proteins abundance.
Project description:Our previous studies have shown that exogenous ethylene (ETH) may induce plant adventitious root development in cucumber. In this study, transcriptome technique was used to explore the key genes in ETH-induced rooting. The results revealed that ETH regulated 1415 diferentially expressed genes (DEGs) during rooting, among which 687 DEGs were up-regulated and 728 DEGs were down-regulated. According to Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the critical pathways involved in ETH-induced adventitious root development were selected for further study, including carbon metabolism [starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation], secondary metabolite biosynthesis (phenylalanine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis) and plant hormone signal transduction. In carbon metabolism, ETH reduced t the expression of CsHK2, CsPK2 and CsCYP86A1, whereas enhanced the expression of CsBAM1 and CsBAM3. Moreover, ETH negatively regulated the transcript level of CsPAL and CsF3’M and positively mediated that of CsPAO in secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, ETH could induce adventitious rooting by negatively regulating auxin and ETH signal transduction-related genes (CsLAX5, CsGH3.17, CsSUAR50 and CsERS) and positively regulating ABA and BR signaling transduction-related genes (CsPYL1, CsPYL5, CsPYL8, CsBAK1 and CsXTH3) . Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR about the mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with transcriptome results. Therefore, ETH may induce adventitious root development by regulating carbon metabolism-related genes, secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related genes and plant hormone signal transduction-related genes. Overall design: Cucumber explants at 48 h after the control (distilled water) and ethylene donor (0.5 μM ethrel) tratments were collected and stored at −80 °C until being used, in triplicate, and RNA was extracted and sequenced by paired-end sequencing, using Illumina.
Project description:S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.
Project description:Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings. To explore the underlying molecular mechanism, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the expression profiles of proteins at a key period of adventitious root induction (three days after IBA treatment). In total, 3355 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Many DEPs were closely related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein homeostasis, reactive oxygen and nitric oxide signaling, and cell wall remodeling biological processes; as well as the phytohormone signaling, which was the most critical process in response to IBA treatment. Further, RT-qPCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression level of nine genes that are involved in phytohormone signaling and their transcriptional levels were mostly in accordance with the protein patterns. Finally, a putative work model was proposed. Our study establishes a foundation for further research and sheds light on IBA-mediated AR formation in apple as well as other fruit rootstock cuttings.
Project description:Detached Arabidopsis thaliana leaves can regenerate adventitious roots, providing a platform for studying de novo root regeneration (DNRR). However, the comprehensive transcriptional framework of DNRR remains elusive. Here, we provide a high-resolution landscape of transcriptome reprogramming from wound response to root organogenesis in DNRR and show key factors involved in DNRR. Time-lapse RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of the entire leaf within 12 h of leaf detachment revealed rapid activation of jasmonate, ethylene, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathways in response to wounding. Genetic analyses confirmed that ethylene and ROS may serve as wound signals to promote DNRR. Next, time-lapse RNA-seq within 5 d of leaf detachment revealed the activation of genes involved in organogenesis, wound-induced regeneration, and resource allocation in the wounded region of detached leaves during adventitious rooting. Genetic studies showed that BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2, which control aboveground organs, PLETHORA3/5/7, which control root organogenesis, and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR115, which controls wound-induced regeneration, are involved in DNRR. Furthermore, single-cell RNA-seq data revealed gene expression patterns in the wounded region of detached leaves during adventitious rooting. Overall, our study not only provides transcriptome tools but also reveals key factors involved in DNRR from detached Arabidopsis leaves.
Project description:Calcium and ethylene are essential in plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium and ethylene on adventitious root formation in cucumber explants under salt stress. The results revealed that 10 ?M calcium chloride (CaCl?) or 0.1 ?M ethrel (ethylene donor) treatment have a maximum biological effect on promoting the adventitious rooting in cucumber under salt stress. Meanwhile, we investigated that removal of ethylene suppressed calcium ion (Ca2+)-induced the formation of adventitious root under salt stress indicated that ethylene participates in this process. Moreover, the application of Ca2+ promoted the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO), as well as the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ethylene under salt stress. Furthermore, we discovered that Ca2+ greatly up-regulated the expression level of CsACS3, CsACO1 and CsACO2 under salt stress. Meanwhile, Ca2+ significantly down-regulated CsETR1, CsETR2, CsERS, and CsCTR1, but positively up-regulated the expression of CsEIN2 and CsEIN3 under salt stress; however, the application of Ca2+ chelators or channel inhibitors could obviously reverse the effects of Ca2+ on the expression of the above genes. These results indicated that Ca2+ played a vital role in promoting the adventitious root development in cucumber under salt stress through regulating endogenous ethylene synthesis and activating the ethylene signal transduction pathway.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process.