SLPI is a critical mediator that controls PTH-induced bone formation.
ABSTRACT: Osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation/replenishment are closely coupled in bone metabolism. Anabolic parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is commonly used for treating osteoporosis, shifts the balance from osteoclastic to osteoblastic, although it is unclear how these cells are coordinately regulated by PTH. Here, we identify a serine protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), as a critical mediator that is involved in the PTH-mediated shift to the osteoblastic phase. Slpi is highly upregulated in osteoblasts by PTH, while genetic ablation of Slpi severely impairs PTH-induced bone formation. Slpi induction in osteoblasts enhances its differentiation, and increases osteoblast-osteoclast contact, thereby suppressing osteoclastic function. Intravital bone imaging reveals that the PTH-mediated association between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is disrupted in the absence of SLPI. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SLPI regulates the communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts to promote PTH-induced bone anabolism.
Project description:Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) are associated with human skeletal disorders. LRP6 is required for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated signaling pathways in osteoblasts. We investigated whether LRP6 in osteoblasts directly regulates bone remodeling and mediates the bone anabolic effects of PTH by specifically deleting LRP6 in mature osteoblasts in mice (LRP6 KO). Three-month-old LRP6 KO mice had a significant reduction in bone mass in the femora secondary spongiosa relative to their wild-type littermates, whereas marginal changes were found in femoral tissue of 1-month-old LRP6 KO mice. The remodeling area of the 3-month-old LRP6 KO mice showed a decreased bone formation rate as detected by Goldner's Trichrome staining and calcein double labeling. Bone histomorphometric and immumohistochemical analysis revealed a reduction in osteoblasts but little change in the numbers of osteoclasts and osteoprogenitors/osteoblast precursors in LRP6 KO mice compared with wild-type littermates. In addition, the percentage of the apoptotic osteoblasts on the bone surface was higher in LRP6 KO mice compared with wild-type littermates. Intermittent injection of PTH had no effect on bone mass or osteoblastic bone formation in either trabecular and cortical bone in LRP6 KO mice, whereas all were enhanced in wild-type littermates. Additionally, the anti-apoptotic effect of PTH on osteoblasts in LRP6 KO mice was less significant compared with wild-type mice. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that LRP6 in osteoblasts is essential for osteoblastic differentiation during bone remodeling and the anabolic effects of PTH.
Project description:Intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) treatment stimulates T-cell production of the osteogenic Wnt ligand Wnt10b, a factor required for iPTH to activate Wnt signaling in osteoblasts and stimulate bone formation. However, it is unknown whether iPTH induces Wnt10b production and bone anabolism through direct activation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptor (PPR) in T cells. Here, we show that conditional silencing of PPR in T cells blunts the capacity of iPTH to induce T-cell production of Wnt10b; activate Wnt signaling in osteoblasts; expand the osteoblastic pool; and increase bone turnover, bone mineral density, and trabecular bone volume. These findings demonstrate that direct PPR signaling in T cells plays an important role in PTH-induced bone anabolism by promoting T-cell production of Wnt10b and suggest that T cells may provide pharmacological targets for bone anabolism.
Project description:Induction of osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma is caused by an uncoupling of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Current management of myeloma bone disease is limited to the use of antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates.We tested the effects of daily administered parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone disease and myeloma growth, and we investigated molecular mechanisms by analyzing gene expression profiles of unique myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells engrafted in SCID-rab and SCID-hu mouse models. PTH resulted in increased bone mineral density of myelomatous bones and reduced tumor burden, which reflected the dependence of primary myeloma cells on the bone marrow microenvironment. Treatment with PTH also increased bone mineral density of uninvolved murine bones in myelomatous hosts and bone mineral density of implanted human bones in nonmyelomatous hosts. In myelomatous bone, PTH markedly increased the number of osteoblasts and bone-formation parameters, and the number of osteoclasts was unaffected or moderately reduced. Pretreatment with PTH before injecting myeloma cells increased bone mineral density of the implanted bone and delayed tumor progression. Human global gene expression profiling of myelomatous bones from SCID-hu mice treated with PTH or saline revealed activation of multiple distinct pathways involved in bone formation and coupling; involvement of Wnt signaling was prominent. Treatment with PTH also downregulated markers typically expressed by osteoclasts and myeloma cells, and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress and inflammation. PTH receptors were not expressed by myeloma cells, and PTH had no effect on myeloma cell growth in vitro.We conclude that PTH-induced bone formation in myelomatous bones is mediated by activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in osteoblastogenesis and attenuated bone resorption and myeloma growth; mechanisms involve increased osteoblast production of anti-myeloma factors and minimized myeloma induction of inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) dramatically increases bone mass and currently is one of the most effective treatments for osteoporosis. However, the detailed mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that conditioned media from PTH-treated osteoblastic and osteocytic cells contain soluble chemotactic factors for bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors, which express a low amount of PTH receptor (PTH1R) and do not respond to PTH stimulation by increasing cAMP production or migrating toward PTH alone. Conditioned media from PTH-treated osteoblasts elevated phosphorylated Akt and p38MAPK amounts in mesenchymal progenitors and inhibition of these pathways blocked the migration of these progenitors toward conditioned media. Our previous and current studies revealed that PTH stimulates the expression of amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like ligand that signals through the EGF receptor (EGFR), in both osteoblasts and osteocytes. Interestingly, conditioned media from PTH-treated osteoblasts increased EGFR phosphorylation in mesenchymal progenitors. Using several different approaches, including inhibitor, neutralizing antibody, and siRNA, we demonstrate that PTH increases the release of amphiregulin from osteoblastic cells, which acts on the EGFRs expressed on mesenchymal progenitors to stimulate the Akt and p38MAPK pathways and subsequently promote their migration in vitro. Furthermore, inactivation of EGFR signaling specifically in osteoprogenitors/osteoblasts attenuated the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of PTH on osteoporosis and an important role of EGFR signaling in mediating PTH's anabolic actions on bone.
Project description:Coupling between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption maintains both mechanical integrity and mineral homeostasis. Zinc is required for the formation, mineralization, growth, and maintenance of bones. We examined the effects of zinc sulfate on osteoblastic differentiation of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) and osteoclastic differentiation of THP-1 cells. Zinc sulfate enhanced the osteoblastic differentiation of hPDCs; however, it did not affect the osteoclastic differentiation of THP-1 cells. The levels of extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK) were strongly increased during osteoblastic differentiation in zinc sulfate-treated hPDCs, compared with other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Zinc sulfate also promoted osteogenesis in hPDCs and THP-1 cells co-cultured with the ratio of one osteoclast to one osteoblast, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase levels, mineralization, and cellular calcium contents. In addition, the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio was decreased in the zinc sulfate-treated co-cultures. Our results suggest that zinc sulfate enhances osteogenesis directly by promoting osteoblastic differentiation and osteogenic activities in osteoblasts and indirectly by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption through a reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in co-cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Project description:Microenvironmental expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is induced by treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) or activation of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) in osteoblastic cells; however, the osteoblastic subset mediating this action of PTH is unknown. Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts embedded in mineralized bone matrix but are connected with the BM. Activation of PTH1R in osteocytes increases osteoblastic number and bone mass. To establish whether osteocyte-mediated PTH1R signaling expands HSCs, we studied mice expressing a constitutively active PTH1R in osteocytes (TG mice). Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and trabecular bone were increased in TG mice without changes in BM phenotypic HSCs or HSC function. TG mice had progressively increased trabecular bone but decreased HSC function. In severely affected TG mice, phenotypic HSCs were decreased in the BM but increased in the spleen. TG osteocytes had no increase in signals associated with microenvironmental HSC support, and the spindle-shaped osteoblastic cells that increased with PTH treatment were not present in TG bones. These findings demonstrate that activation of PTH1R signaling in osteocytes does not expand BM HSCs, which are instead decreased in TG mice. Therefore, osteocytes do not mediate the HSC expansion induced by PTH1R signaling. Further, osteoblastic expansion is not sufficient to increase HSCs.
Project description:Intermittent application of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has well established anabolic effects on bone mass in rodents and humans. Although transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood, it is recognized that transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) mediates PTH signaling in osteoblasts, and that there is a communication between the PTH-CREB pathway and the BMP2 signaling pathway, which is important for osteoblast differentiation and bone formations. These findings, in conjunction with putative cAMP response elements (CREs) in the BMP2 promoter, led us to hypothesize that the PTH-CREB pathway could be a positive regulator of BMP2 transcription in osteoblasts. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that PTH signaling activated CREB by phosphorylation in osteoblasts, and that both PTH and CREB were capable of promoting osteoblastic differentiation of primary mouse osteoblast cells and multiple rodent osteoblast cell lines. Importantly, we found that the PTH-CREB signaling pathway functioned as an effective activator of BMP2 expression, as pharmacologic and genetic modulation of PTH-CREB activity significantly affected BMP2 expression levels in these cells. Lastly, through multiple promoter assays, including promoter reporter deletion, mutation, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we identified a specific CRE in the BMP2 promoter which is responsible for CREB transactivation of the BMP2 gene in osteoblasts. Together, these results demonstrate that the anabolic function of PTH signaling in bone is mediated, at least in part, by CREB transactivation of BMP2 expression in osteoblasts.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppresses Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1) expression in osteoblasts. To determine whether this suppression is essential for PTH-mediated Wnt signaling and bone formation, we examined mice that overexpress Dkk1 in osteoblasts (Dkk1 mice). Dkk1 mice were osteopenic due to abnormal osteoblast and osteoclast activity. When fed a low-calcium diet, and in two other models of hyperparathyroidism, these mice failed to develop the peritrabecular stromal cell response ("osteitis fibrosis") and new bone formation seen in wild-type mice. Despite these effects of Dkk1 overexpression, PTH still activated Wnt signaling in Dkk1 mice and in osteoblastic cells cultured from these mice. In cultured MC3T3E1 preosteoblastic cells, PTH dramatically suppressed Dkk1 expression, induced PKA-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and significantly enhanced Lef1 expression. Our findings indicate that the full actions of PTH require intact Wnt signaling but that PTH can activate the Wnt pathway despite overexpression of Dkk1.