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Redundant and non-redundant cytokine-activated enhancers control Csn1s2b expression in the lactating mouse mammary gland.


ABSTRACT: Enhancers are transcription factor platforms that synergize with promoters to control gene expression. Here, we investigate enhancers that activate gene expression several hundred-fold exclusively in the lactating mouse mammary gland. Using ChIP-seq for activating histone marks and transcription factors, we identify two candidate enhancers and one super-enhancer in the Csn1s2b locus. Through experimental mouse genetics, we dissect the lactation-specific distal enhancer bound by the mammary-enriched transcription factors STAT5 and NFIB and the glucocorticoid receptor. While deletions of canonical binding motifs for NFIB and STAT5, individually or combined, have a limited biological impact, a non-canonical STAT5 site is essential for enhancer activity during lactation. In contrast, the intronic enhancer contributes to gene expression only in late pregnancy and early lactation, possibly by interacting with the distal enhancer. A downstream super-enhancer, which physically interacts with the distal enhancer, is required for the functional establishment of the Csn1s2b promoter and gene activation. Lastly, NFIB binding in the promoter region fine-tunes Csn1s2b expression. Our study provides comprehensive insight into the anatomy and biology of regulatory elements that employ the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and preferentially activate gene expression during lactation.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8047016 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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