Characterization of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 13 and 31 Reveals Expansion and Diversification of α-Amylase Genes in the Phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and Modulation of Sandfly Glycosidase Activities by Leishmania Infection.
ABSTRACT: Sugar-rich food sources are essential for sandflies to meet their energy demands, achieving more prolonged survival. The digestion of carbohydrates from food is mainly realized by glycoside hydrolases (GH). To identify genes coding for α-glycosidases and α-amylases belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 (GH13) and Glycoside Hydrolase Family 31 (GH31) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, we performed an HMMER search against its genome using known sequences from other dipteran species. The sequences retrieved were classified based on BLASTP best hit, analysis of conserved regions by alignment with sequences of proteins with known structure, and phylogenetic analysis comparing with orthologous proteins from other dipteran species. Using RT-PCR analysis, we evaluated the expression of GH13 and GH31 genes, in the gut and rest of the body of females, in four different conditions: non-fed, sugar-fed, blood-fed, and Leishmania mexicana infected females. L. longipalpis has GH13/31 genes that code for enzymes involved in various aspects of sugar metabolism, as carbohydrate digestion, storage, and mobilization of glycogen reserves, proteins involved in transport, control of N-glycosylation quality, as well as others with a putative function in the regulation of myogenesis. These proteins are representatives of GH13 and GH31 families, and their roles seem to be conserved. Most of the enzymes seem to be active with conserved consense sequences, including the expected catalytic residues. α-amylases also demonstrated the presence of calcium and chloride binding sites. L. longipalpis genome shows an expansion in the α-amylase gene family, with two clusters. In contrast, a retraction in the number of α-glucosidases occurred. The expansion of α-amylases is probably related to the specialization of these proteins for different substrates or inhibitors, which might correlate with the higher diversity of plant foods available in the natural habitat of L. longipalpis. The expression of α-glucosidase genes is higher in blood-fed females, suggesting their role in blood digestion. Besides that, in blood-fed females infected with the parasite Leishmania mexicana, these genes were also modulated. Glycoside Hydrolases from families 13 and 31 are essential for the metabolism of L. longipalpis, and GH13 enzymes seem to be involved in the interaction between sandflies and Leishmania.
Project description:Fungal amylolytic enzymes, including ?-amylase, gluocoamylase and ?-glucosidase, have been extensively exploited in diverse industrial applications such as high fructose syrup production, paper making, food processing and ethanol production. In this paper, amylolytic genes of 85 strains of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota were annotated on the genomic scale according to the classification of glycoside hydrolase (GH) from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) Database. Comparisons of gene abundance in the fungi suggested that the repertoire of amylolytic genes adapted to their respective lifestyles. Amylolytic enzymes in family GH13 were divided into four distinct clades identified as heterologous ?-amylases, eukaryotic ?-amylases, bacterial and fungal ?-amylases and GH13 ?-glucosidases. Family GH15 had two branches, one for gluocoamylases, and the other with currently unknown function. GH31 ?-glucosidases showed diverse branches consisting of neutral ?-glucosidases, lysosomal acid ?-glucosidases and a new clade phylogenetically related to the bacterial counterparts. Distribution of starch-binding domains in above fungal amylolytic enzymes was related to the enzyme source and phylogeny. Finally, likely scenarios for the evolution of amylolytic enzymes in fungi based on phylogenetic analyses were proposed. Our results provide new insights into evolutionary relationships among subgroups of fungal amylolytic enzymes and fungal evolutionary adaptation to ecological conditions.
Project description:The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens. Infection by Leishmania infantum was detected in Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. termitophila; L. infantum/L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. trinidadensis; L. shawi in Lu. longipalpis; L. mexicana in Lu. longipalpis; L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani; L. guyanensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. termitophila; L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis and L. lainsoni or L. naiffi in Lu. longipalpis, while Lu. longipalpis and Lu. trinidadensis were infected with unidentified Leishmania sp. Blood sources were identified in 573 individual phlebotomines and the preferred hosts were, in decreasing order, chicken, dog, rodent and human with lower preferences for pig, horse, opossum and cattle. Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani performed mixed feeding on man, dog and rodent, while Lu. longipalpis was the most opportunistic species, feeding on the blood of all hosts surveyed, but preferably on dog/chicken, dog/rodent and rodent/chicken. Our findings reveal the concomitant circulation of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in the study area, and explain the occurrence of autochthonous human cases of both clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Caxias, Maranhão. The results support our hypothesis that, in the municipality of Caxias, transmission of Leishmania occurs in close proximity to humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES:Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS:Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS:A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS:In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.
Project description:Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly.
Project description:The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to produce a large variety of enzymes for the degradation of plant polysaccharide material. A major carbon and energy source for this soil fungus is starch, which can be degraded by the concerted action of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes, members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13, 15 and 31, respectively. In this study we have combined analysis of the genome sequence of A. niger CBS 513.88 with microarray experiments to identify novel enzymes from these families and to predict their physiological functions. We have identified 17 previously unknown family GH13, 15 and 31 enzymes in the A. niger genome, all of which have orthologues in other aspergilli. Only two of the newly identified enzymes, a putative alpha-glucosidase (AgdB) and an alpha-amylase (AmyC), were predicted to play a role in starch degradation. The expression of the majority of the genes identified was not induced by maltose as carbon source, and not dependent on the presence of AmyR, the transcriptional regulator for starch degrading enzymes. The possible physiological functions of the other predicted family GH13, GH15 and GH31 enzymes, including intracellular enzymes and cell wall associated proteins, in alternative alpha-glucan modifying processes are discussed.
Project description:This study brings a detailed bioinformatics analysis of fungal and chloride-dependent α-amylases from the family GH13. Overall, 268 α-amylase sequences were retrieved from subfamilies GH13_1 (39 sequences), GH13_5 (35 sequences), GH13_15 (28 sequences), GH13_24 (23 sequences), GH13_32 (140 sequences) and GH13_42 (3 sequences). Eight conserved sequence regions (CSRs) characteristic for the family GH13 were identified in all sequences and respective sequence logos were analysed in an effort to identify unique sequence features of each subfamily. The main emphasis was given on the subfamily GH13_32 since it contains both fungal α-amylases and their bacterial chloride-activated counterparts. In addition to in silico analysis focused on eventual ability to bind the chloride anion, the property typical mainly for animal α-amylases from subfamilies GH13_15 and GH13_24, attention has been paid also to the potential presence of the so-called secondary surface-binding sites (SBSs) identified in complexed crystal structures of some particular α-amylases from the studied subfamilies. As template enzymes with already experimentally determined SBSs, the α-amylases from <i>Aspergillus niger</i> (GH13_1), <i>Bacillus halmapalus</i>, <i>Bacillus paralicheniformis</i> and <i>Halothermothrix orenii</i> (all from GH13_5) and <i>Homo sapiens</i> (saliva; GH13_24) were used. Evolutionary relationships between GH13 fungal and chloride-dependent α-amylases were demonstrated by two evolutionary trees-one based on the alignment of the segment of sequences spanning almost the entire catalytic TIM-barrel domain and the other one based on the alignment of eight extracted CSRs. Although both trees demonstrated similar results in terms of a closer evolutionary relatedness of subfamilies GH13_1 with GH13_42 including in a wider sense also the subfamily GH13_5 as well as for subfamilies GH13_32, GH13_15 and GH13_24, some subtle differences in clustering of particular α-amylases may nevertheless be observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: As a rule, about 1% of genes in a given genome encode glycoside hydrolases and their homologues. On the basis of sequence similarity they have been grouped into more than ninety GH families during the last 15 years. The GH97 family has been established very recently and initially included only 18 bacterial proteins. However, the evolutionary relationship of the genes encoding proteins of this family remains unclear, as well as their distribution among main groups of the living organisms. RESULTS: The extensive search of the current databases allowed us to double the number of GH97 family proteins. Five subfamilies were distinguished on the basis of pairwise sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Iterative sequence analysis revealed the relationship of the GH97 family with the GH27, GH31, and GH36 families of glycosidases, which belong to the alpha-galactosidase superfamily, as well as a more distant relationship with some other glycosidase families (GH13 and GH20). CONCLUSION: The results of this study show an unexpected sequence similarity of GH97 family proteins with glycoside hydrolases from several other families, that have (beta/alpha)8-barrel fold of the catalytic domain and a retaining mechanism of the glycoside bond hydrolysis. These data suggest a common evolutionary origin of glycosidases representing different families and clans.
Project description:The domestic silkworm <i>Bombyx mori</i> expresses two sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes, BmSUH and BmSUC1, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 17 (GH13_17) and GH32, respectively. BmSUH has little activity on maltooligosaccharides, whereas other insect GH13_17 α-glucosidases are active on sucrose and maltooligosaccharides. Little is currently known about the structural mechanisms and substrate specificity of GH13_17 enzymes. In this study, we examined the crystal structures of BmSUH without ligands; in complexes with substrates, products, and inhibitors; and complexed with its covalent intermediate at 1.60-1.85 Å resolutions. These structures revealed that the conformations of amino acid residues around subsite -1 are notably different at each step of the hydrolytic reaction. Such changes have not been previously reported among GH13 enzymes, including <i>exo</i>- and <i>endo</i>-acting hydrolases, such as α-glucosidases and α-amylases. Amino acid residues at subsite +1 are not conserved in BmSUH and other GH13_17 α-glucosidases, but subsite -1 residues are absolutely conserved. Substitutions in three subsite +1 residues, Gln<sup>191</sup>, Tyr<sup>251</sup>, and Glu<sup>440</sup>, decreased sucrose hydrolysis and increased maltase activity of BmSUH, indicating that these residues are key for determining its substrate specificity. These results provide detailed insights into structure-function relationships in GH13 enzymes and into the molecular evolution of insect GH13_17 α-glucosidases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Leishmania major complex is the main causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the Old World. Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi are recognized vectors of L. major complex in Northern and Southern Sahara, respectively. In Mali, ZCL due to L. major is an emerging public health problem, with several cases reported from different parts of the country. The main objective of the present study was to identify the vectors of Leishmania major in the Bandiagara area, in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological survey was carried out in the ZCL foci of Bandiagara area. Sandflies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and sticky papers. In the field, live female Phlebotomine sandflies were identified and examined for the presence of promastigotes. The remaining sandflies were identified morphologically and tested for Leishmania by PCR in the ITS2 gene. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using the cyt-b sequence. Out of the 3,259 collected sandflies, 1,324 were identified morphologically, and consisted of 20 species, of which four belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and 16 to the genus Sergentomyia. Leishmania major DNA was detected by PCR in 7 of the 446 females (1.6%), specifically 2 out of 115 Phlebotomus duboscqi specimens, and 5 from 198 Sergentomyia darlingi specimens. Human DNA was detected in one blood-fed female S. darlingi positive for L. major DNA. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the possible involvement of P. duboscqi and potentially S. darlingi in the transmission of ZCL in Mali.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Conservation projects in zoos may involve translocation of captive animals, which may lead to pathogen spread. Neotropical mammals are important hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. the etiological agents of Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis respectively. Studies of trypanosomatid-infected mammals and vectors (triatomines and sandflies) in zoos are important for the establishment of surveillance and control measures. OBJECTIVES:We investigated trypanosomatid infections in captive wild mammals, triatomines and sandflies at the Brasília Zoo. METHODS:We collected triatomines during active bimonthly surveys, sampled sandflies using light-traps and obtained blood samples from 74 mammals between 2016 and 2017. We used quantitative PCR to detect trypanosomatids in vectors and mammals. RESULTS:We found a colony of 19 Panstrongylus megistus in the porcupine unit and detected T. cruzi infections in five bugs. We captured 17 sandflies of four species including Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis, but no Leishmania infection was detected. qPCR detected 50 T. cruzi-infected mammals belonging to 24 species and five groups of mammals (Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Pilosa and Primates); Leishmania DNA was detected in 23 mammals from 15 species, mainly carnivores. We detected trypanosomatid infections in 11 mammals born at the Brasília Zoo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi among maned wolves; measures to reduce the risk of new infections should therefore be taken. We also report sandfly presence and Leishmania-infected mammals at the Brasília Zoo. Translocation of wild mammals in and out of the Brasília Zoo should consider the risk of T. cruzi and Leishmania spread.