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Enhanced Intestinal TGF-β/SMAD-Dependent Signaling in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Rhesus Macaques.


ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β signaling (TGF-β) maintains a balanced physiological function including cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation and regulation of immune system by modulating either SMAD2/3 and SMAD7 (SMAD-dependent) or SMAD-independent signaling pathways under normal conditions. Increased production of TGF-β promotes immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection. However, the cellular source and downstream events of increased TGF-β production that attributes to its pathological manifestations remain unknown. Here, we have shown increased production of TGF-β in a majority of intestinal CD3-CD20-CD68+ cells from acute and chronically SIV infected rhesus macaques, which negatively correlated with the frequency of jejunum CD4+ T cells. No significant changes in intestinal TGF-β receptor II expression were observed but increased production of the pSMAD2/3 protein and SMAD3 gene expression in jejunum tissues that were accompanied by a downregulation of SMAD7 protein and gene expression. Enhanced TGF-β production by intestinal CD3-CD20-CD68+ cells and increased TGF-β/SMAD-dependent signaling might be due to a disruption of a negative feedback loop mediated by SMAD7. This suggests that SIV infection impacts the SMAD-dependent signaling pathway of TGF-β and provides a potential framework for further study to understand the role of viral factor(s) in modulating TGF-β production and downregulating SMAD7 expression in SIV. Regulation of mucosal TGF-β expression by therapeutic TGF-β blockers may help to create effective antiviral mucosal immune responses.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8066988 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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2021-11-11 | GSE185767 | GEO