Susceptibility of Oocytes from Gilts and Sows to Beauvericin and Deoxynivalenol and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress.
ABSTRACT: Beauvericin (BEA) and deoxynivalenol are toxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate food and feed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these mycotoxins on the maturation of oocytes from gilts and sows. Furthermore, the antioxidant profiles in the oocytes' environment were assessed. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) from gilts and sows were exposed to beauvericin (BEA) or deoxynivalenol (DON) and matured in vitro. As an extra control, these COCs were also exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The maturation was mostly impaired when oocytes from gilts were exposed to 0.02 μmol/L DON. Oocytes from sows were able to mature even in the presence of 5 μmol/L BEA. However, the maturation rate of gilt oocytes was already impaired by 0.5 μmol/L BEA. It was observed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the follicular fluid (FF) of gilt oocytes was higher than that from sows. However, the expression of SOD1 and glutathione synthetase (GSS) was higher in the oocytes from sows than in those from gilts. Although DON and BEA impair cell development by diverse mechanisms, this redox imbalance may partially explain the vulnerability of gilt oocytes to these mycotoxins.
Project description:Celiac disease (CD) is a genetic-based autoimmune disorder which is characterized by inflammation in the small intestinal mucosa due to the intolerance to gluten. Celiac people should consume products without gluten, which are elaborated mainly with maize or other cereals. Contamination of cereals with mycotoxins, such as fumonisins (FBs) and aflatoxins (AFs) is frequently reported worldwide. Therefore, food ingestion is the main source of mycotoxin exposure. A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 21 mycotoxins in gluten-free pasta, commonly consumed by celiac population as an alternative to conventional pasta. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS) was used for analyte separation and detection. The mycotoxins included in this work were those widely reported to occur in cereal samples, namely, ochratoxin-A (OTA), aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON, respectively), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenone-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2, respectively), enniatins (ENN A, ENN A1, ENN B and ENN B1) and beauvericin (BEA). The validated method was successfully applied to 84 gluten-free pasta samples collected from several local markets of Campania region (Italy) during September to November 2020 to monitor the occurrence of mycotoxins and to assess the exposure to these food contaminants. A significant number of samples (95%) showed mycotoxin contamination, being <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxins (FB1, ZON and DON) the most commonly detected ones. Regarding the risk assessment, the higher exposures were obtained for NIV, DON and FB1 for children and teenagers age group which can be explained due to their lower body weight.
Project description:<i>Fusarium</i> head blight (FHB) can lead to dramatic yield losses and mycotoxin contamination in small grain cereals in Canada. To assess the extent and severity of FHB in oat, samples collected from 168 commercial oat fields in the province of Manitoba, Canada, during 2016-2018 were analyzed for the occurrence of <i>Fusarium</i> head blight and associated mycotoxins. Through morphological and molecular analysis, <i>F. poae</i> was found to be the predominant <i>Fusarium</i> species affecting oat, followed by <i>F. graminearum</i>, <i>F. sporotrichioides</i>, <i>F. avenaceum</i>, and <i>F. culmorum</i>. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), type B trichothecenes, were the two most abundant <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxins detected in oat. Beauvericin (BEA) was also frequently detected, though at lower concentrations. Close clustering of <i>F. poae</i> and NIV/BEA, <i>F. graminearum</i> and DON, and <i>F. sporotrichioides</i> and HT2/T2 (type A trichothecenes) was detected in the principal component analysis. Sampling location and crop rotation significantly impacted the concentrations of <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxins in oat. A phylogenetic analysis of 95 <i>F. poae</i> strains from Manitoba was conducted using the concatenated nucleotide sequences of <i>Tef-1α</i>, <i>Tri1</i>, and <i>Tri8</i> genes. The results indicated that all <i>F. poae</i> strains belong to a monophyletic lineage. Four subgroups of <i>F. poae</i> strains were identified; however, no correlations were observed between the grouping of <i>F. poae</i> strains and sample locations/crop rotations.
Project description:Recent surveys report the occurrence of <i>Aspergillus</i> and <i>Penicillium</i> metabolites (aflatoxins (AFLs), ochratoxin A (OTA), cyclopiazonic and mycophenolic acids (MPA), sterigmatocystin (STC), citrinin), <i>Fusarium</i> (trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), enniatins (ENNs)) and <i>Alternaria</i> (alternariol (AOH), its methyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TE), and tenuazonic acid (TNZ)) toxins in dry <i>Camellia sinensis</i> and herbal tea samples. Since tea is consumed in the form of infusion, correct risk assessment needs evaluation of mycotoxins' transfer rates. We have studied the transfer of AFLs, OTA, STC, deoxynivalenol (DON), ZEA, FBs, T-2, and HT-2 toxins, AOH, AME, TE, ENN A and B, beauvericin (BEA), and MPA from the spiked green tea matrix into an infusion under variation of preparation time and water characteristics (total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH). Analytes were detected by HPLC-MS/MS. The main factors affecting transfer rate proved to be mycotoxins' polarity, pH of the resulting infusion (for OTA, FB2, and MPA) and matrix-infusion contact period. The concentration of mycotoxins increased by 20-50% within the first ten minutes of infusing, after that kinetic curve changed slowly. The concentration of DON and FB2 increased by about 10%, for ZEA, MPA, and STC it stayed constant, while for T-2, TE, AOH, and AFLs G1 and G2 it went down. Maximum transfer correlated well with analytes polarity. Maximum transfer of ENNs, BEA, STC, ZEA, and AOH into infusion was below 25%; AFLs-25-45%; DON, TE, and T-2 toxins 60-90%, FB1-80-100%. The concentration of OTA, MPA, and FB2 in the infusion depended on its pH. At pH about four, 20%, 40%, and 60% of these toxins transferred into an infusion, at pH about seven, their concentrations doubled. Water TDS did not affect transfer significantly.
Project description:Selection for larger litter size has increased the number of low individual birth weight (BWi) pigs and produced sows with a repeatable low average litter birth weight phenotype (BWP). Using an average of 3.6 litters records per sow, BWP was established in 644 nucleus-multiplication sows producing replacement gilts in a large commercial operation and classified as low (L-BWP, <1.18 kg, n = 85), medium (M-BWP, ≥1.18 to ≤1.35 kg, n = 250), or high (H-BWP, >1.35 kg, n = 309) on the basis of a BWi of 1.18 kg below which there was a high risk of early mortality and the average BWi (1.35 kg) for the population. In subsequent litters, potential replacement gilts born to these sows (n = 7,341) received a unique identification tag that allowed the impact of BWi, BWP, and their interactions on the efficiency of replacement gilt production to be evaluated. Negative effects of BWi on mortality until day 4 after birth were confirmed (P < 0.05) and cumulative losses to weaning, to day 70 of age, and to final pre-selection at 165 d of age were affected (P ≤ 0.05) by the interaction between BWP and BWi. Among the 2,035 gilts for which records for selection efficiency and production to fourth parity were available, a lower BWi decreased the probability of gilts reaching pubertal estrus (P < 0.05) after 21 and 28 d of boar stimulation starting at 180 d of age, with no effect of BWP. Overall, neither BWi, BWP, nor their interaction affected age at puberty. After breeding, only the main effect of BWP affected productivity and retention in the sow herd. In parities 1 and 2, percent stillborn was higher in litters born to gilts from H-BWP compared with L-BWP dams (P < 0.05), and in parity 2, total born and born alive were lower in sows derived from H-BWP compared with other BWPs. There were no differences in retention based on BWP classes until parity 2, after which retention tended (P ≤ 0.09) to be lower in sows derived from H-BWP compared with L-BWP dams. These results provide evidence that sow BWP is an important factor in the overall efficiency of replacement gilt management. This study also confirms that effective gilt selection and pre-breeding management protocols support excellent sow lifetime productivity and mitigate the risk of a high BWP in the litter of origin affecting retention in the breeding herd.
Project description:Consumption of fruit juice is becoming trendy for consumers seeking freshness and high vitamin and low caloric intake. Mycotoxigenic moulds may infect fruits during crop growth, harvest, and storage leading to mycotoxin production. Many mycotoxins are resistant to food processing, which make their presence in the final juice product very likely expected. In this way, the presence of 30 mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB), enniatin B1 (ENNB1), beauvericin (BEA), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL), ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), neosolaniol (NEO), patulin (PAT), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin was evaluated in 80 juice samples collected from Valencia retail Market. An efficient Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction method (DLLME) was carried out before their trace level determination by chromatographic techniques coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results obtained revealed the presence of nine mycotoxins namely AOH, AME, PAT, OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG2, ?-ZAL, and HT2 in the analyzed samples, with incidences ranging from 3 to 29% and mean contents between 0.14 and 59.52 µg/L. Considerable percentages of TDIs were reached by children when 200 mL was considered as daily fruit juice intake.
Project description:Milk oligosaccharides (MOs) are complex carbohydrates with multifunctional health benefits for the neonate. Poor reproductive performance in primiparous gilts limits their productivity. Changes in the structure and abundance of porcine MO (PMOs) through lactation with parity remains unknown and may explain superior new-born growth in litters from multiparous sows relative to gilts. We report 55 PMOs structures, of which 25 are new (17 sialylated and 8 neutral). Their incidence in gilt and sow colostrum was almost identical (53 vs. 54), but not in transitional milk (48 vs. 53) nor mature milk (41 vs. 47). These PMOs including neutral-, sialyl- and fucosyl- MOs in colostrum were more abundant in the gilt than the sow, but always decreased during lactation. Structural diversity decreased, although fucosylated MO were conserved. In conclusion, high diversity and levels of MO in porcine milk is parity dependent. Given the similarity between porcine and human MO profiles, our findings may help define key roles for MOs as potential dietary additives to improve growth of neonates from first pregnancies in both human and sows.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen that causes severe diseases mostly in weaned piglets. Only available vaccines in the field are those composed of killed bacteria (bacterins) but data about their effectiveness are missing. We report here a field study on the immunological response induced by an autogenous vaccine applied in pre-parturient sows. Using a farm with recurrent S. suis serotype 7 problems, the study was divided in three experiments: (I) Sows received the vaccine at 7 and 3?weeks pre-farrowing. (II) Replacement gilts introduced to the herd received the vaccine at 4 and 7?weeks after their entry in quarantine and a boost 3?weeks pre-farrowing. (III) Gilts from experiment II received another boost 3?weeks pre-farrowing at their 3rd/4th parity. Levels, isotype profile and opsonophagocytosis capacity of the serum antibodies induced by vaccination were evaluated in sows and maternal immunity in piglets.<h4>Results</h4>In sows (I), the vaccine induced a slight, albeit significant, increase in anti-S. suis total antibodies after 2 doses when compare to basal levels already present in the animals. These antibodies showed a high opsonic capacity in vitro, highlighting their potential protective capacity. A gilt vaccination program of 3 doses (II) resulted in a significant increase in anti-S. suis total antibodies. Levels of maternal immunity transferred to piglets were high at 7?days of age, but rapidly decreased by 18?days of age. A gilt vaccination program ensued a higher transfer of maternal immunity in piglets compared to control animals; nevertheless duration was not improved at 18?day-old piglets. The vaccine response in both gilts and sows was mainly composed of IgG1 subclass, which was also the main Ig transferred to piglets. IgG2 subclass was also found in piglets, but its level was not increased by vaccination. Finally, a recall IgG1 response was induced by another boost vaccination at 3rd/4th parity (III), indicating that the vaccine induced the establishment of a lasting memory response in the herd.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, an optimal gilt/sow vaccination program might result in increased antibody responses; nevertheless duration of maternal immunity would not last long enough to protect post-weaned piglets.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare the meat quality attributes, color stability, and lipid oxidation of loin chops from finishing gilts and cull sows in a three-way crossbreeding system: landrace × large white × duroc finishing gilts (n = 20) and landrace × large white sows (n = 20). No significant differences in pH, proximate composition, or total collagen content were found between the two pig groups. However, sow loin chops exhibited different quality characteristics for color, cooking loss, protein solubility, and shear force, in which an increased cooking loss and shear force might be associated with a lower heat-soluble collagen content compared to the gilt loin chops (p < 0.05). Moreover, more rapid changes in redness and chroma during 7 days of aerobic display were observed in the sow loin chops (p < 0.05). Therefore, the results presented here highlight the possibility of issues regarding color and tenderness in sow meat compared to retail pork produced from finishing gilts.
Project description:The human, animal and plant pathogen <i>Fusarium</i>, which contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, produces numerous secondary metabolites. An example is the thoroughly-investigated deoxynivalenol (DON), which severely impairs gastrointestinal barrier integrity. However, to date, the toxicological profile of other <i>Fusarium</i>-derived metabolites, such as enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, apicidin, aurofusarin, rubrofusarin, equisetin and bikaverin, are poorly characterized. Thus we examined their effects-as metabolites alone and as metabolites in combination with DON-on the intestinal barrier function of differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) over 72 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured at 24-h intervals, followed by evaluation of cell viability using neutral red (NR) assay. Enniatins A, A1, B and B1, apicidin, aurofusarin and beauvericin significantly reduced TEER. Moniliformin, equisetin, bikaverin and rubrofusarin had no effect on TEER. In the case of apicidin, aurofusarin and beauvericin, TEER reductions were further substantiated by the addition of otherwise no-effect DON concentrations. In all cases, viability was unaffected, confirming that TEER reductions were not due to compromised viability. Considering the prevalence of mycotoxin contamination and the diseases associated with intestinal barrier disruption, consumption of contaminated food or feed may have substantial health implications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most prevalent <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxin in grains is deoxynivalenol (DON). Contamination of swine feed with DON can result in reduced consumption and poor growth performance. Gestating and lactating sows need sufficient feed intake for fetus development during late gestation and milk production and body maintenance during lactation. Therefore, there is considerable concern in modern piglet production about the effects of DON contamination in sow feed. Most previous studies in sows have been done under experimental conditions, with DON levels ?2.8 mg/kg feed. The aim of the current field trial was to investigate the effects of feeding grains that are naturally contaminated with more realistic levels of DON on sows during late gestation and lactation.<h4>Methods</h4>In a commercial, high-yield specific pathogen-free piglet production unit, 45 Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire sows were fed three diets from 93?±?1 days of gestation until weaning of the piglets, and average daily feed intake (ADFI), body weight (BW), production and reproduction performance, as well as sow blood parameters were recorded. Diets were made from naturally contaminated oats, with three concentration levels: 1) control (DON <?0.2 mg/kg), 2) DON level 1 (1.4 mg DON/kg), and 3) DON level 2 (1.7 mg DON/kg).<h4>Results</h4>Sows that were fed DON level 1 and 2 diets showed a 4-10% reduction in feed consumption during lactation, compared with sows in the control group. However, the DON-contaminated diets did not significantly affect sow BW or backfat thickness. Similarly, there were neither effects on production or reproduction performance, nor on blood parameters in the sows. The effects on skin temperature were variable.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Naturally contaminated diets with realistic, moderately increased DON levels, fed during late gestation and lactation in a modern high-yield piglet production farm, had limited effects on sow health and production.