ZINC40099027 Promotes Gastric Mucosal Repair in Ongoing Aspirin-Associated Gastric Injury by Activating Focal Adhesion Kinase.
ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause gastric ulcers and gastritis. No drug that treats GI injury directly stimulates mucosal healing. ZINC40099027 (ZN27) activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and heals acute indomethacin-induced small bowel injury. We investigated the efficacy of ZN27 in rat and human gastric epithelial cells and ongoing aspirin-associated gastric injury. ZN27 (10 nM) stimulated FAK activation and wound closure in rat and human gastric cell lines. C57BL/6J mice were treated with 300 mg/kg/day aspirin for five days to induce ongoing gastric injury. One day after the initial injury, mice received 900 µg/kg/6 h ZN27, 10 mg/kg/day omeprazole, or 900 µg/kg/6 h ZN27 plus 10 mg/kg/day omeprazole. Like omeprazole, ZN27 reduced gastric injury vs. vehicle controls. ZN27-treated mice displayed better gastric architecture, with thicker mucosa and less hyperemia, inflammation, and submucosal edema, and lost less weight than vehicle controls. Gastric pH, serum creatinine, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and renal and hepatic histology were unaffected by ZN27. Blinded scoring of pFAK-Y-397 immunoreactivity at the edge of ZN27-treated lesions demonstrated increased FAK activation, compared to vehicle-treated lesions, confirming target activation in vivo. These results suggest that ZN27 ameliorates ongoing aspirin-associated gastric mucosal injury by a pathway involving FAK activation. ZN27-derivatives may be useful to promote gastric mucosal repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pentagastrin enhances gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against acid and protects the gastric mucosa from experimental injury. AIMS: To investigate whether this gastroprotection is mediated by histamine receptors or occurs as a secondary effect of acid secretion stimulation. METHODS: The effects of omeprazole (100 mumol/kg), ranitidine (20 mg/kg), and pyrilamine (10 mg/kg) on pentagastrin (80 micrograms/kg/h) induced gastroprotection against acidified aspirin injury were examined in a luminal pH controlled model. The effects of these compounds on pentagastrin enhanced gastroprotective mechanisms were investigated using intravital microscopy, in which intracellular pH of gastric surface cells (pH1), mucus gel thickness, gastric mucosal blood flow, and acid output were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: Pentagastrin protected rat gastric mucosa from acidified aspirin injury. This gastroprotection was abolished by ranitidine, but not omeprazole or pyrilamine. Pentagastrin induced a hyperaemic response to luminal acid challenge, increased mucus gel thickness, and elevated pHi during acid challenge. Ranitidine reversed these enhanced defence mechanisms, whereas omeprazole and pyrilamine preserved these effects. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that pentagastrin associated gastroprotection and enhanced defence mechanisms against acid result mainly from activation of histamine H2 receptors, and not as an effect of the stimulation of acid secretion.
Project description:Mosapride is known to affect gastric motility, however whether mosapride has anti-ulcergenic effects in gastric mucosal injury is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mosapride on aspirin-induced gastric injuries. GES-1 cells were cultured and divided into 5 groups: Control group, aspirin injury group (treated with 18.2 mmol/l aspirin) and mosapride pretreatment groups (treated with 0.4, 0.5, or 0.6 µmol/l mosapride). Cell proliferation was evaluated via MTT assay and cell apoptosis was investigated via flow cytometry. The expression of occludin was determined by western blot analysis. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: Control group, aspirin injury group (150 mg/kg) and mosapride pretreatment groups (0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 mg/kg). Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by administering 200 mg/kg aspirin daily for 4 days. Rats in the mosapride groups were pretreated with mosapride 1 h prior to aspirin administration. Histological changes were evaluated under a light microscope and gastric epithelial TJs were observed via transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the aspirin injury group compared with the control (P<0.05), whereas apoptosis was significantly decreased in the mosapride pretreatment groups compared with the aspirin group (P<0.05). Cell viability was significantly increased in the mosapride pretreatment groups compared with the aspirin injury group (P<0.05), and that of the aspirin injury group was significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the aspirin injury group, occludin expression was significantly increased in the three mosapride pre-treatment groups (all P<0.05). It was also demonstrated that gastric damage was significantly attenuated in the mosapride pretreatment groups compared with the aspirin injury group (P<0.05). Impaired TJ integrity was observed in aspirin injury group, whereas TJs in the mosapride groups were almost intact. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that mosapride exerts a gastroprotective action on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury at least in part via attenuating cell apoptosis and increasing occludin expression.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Administration of aspirin has the potential for significant side effects of gastrointestinal (GI) injury mainly caused by gastric acid stimulation, especially in long-term users or users with original gastrointestinal diseases. The debate on the optimal treatment of aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury is ongoing. We aimed to compare and rank the different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury based on current evidence. <b>Methods:</b> We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Chinese databases for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury from inception to 1 May 2021. All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. <b>Results:</b> A total of 10 RCTs, which comprised 503 participants, were included in the analysis. The overall quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high. Eleven different treatments, including omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, famotidine, geranylgeranylacetone, misoprostol, ranitidine bismuth citrate, chili, phosphatidylcholine complex, omeprazole plus rebamipide, and placebo, were evaluated in terms of preventing gastrointestinal injury. It was suggested that omeprazole plus rebamipide outperformed other treatments, whereas geranylgeranylacetone and placebo were among the least treatments. <b>Conclusion:</b> This is the first systematic review and network meta-analysis of different treatments for aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. Our study suggested that omeprazole plus rebamipide might be considered the best option to treat aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. More multicenter, high quality, large sample size randomized controlled trials will confirm the advantages of these medicines in the treatment of aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury in the future.
Project description:This study evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. AC-YVAD-CMK, omeprazole, or vehicle were administered to mice before cold-restraint stress- or ethanol-induced gastric injury. Survival rates and histological evidence of gastric injury of mice pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK or omeprazole, and exposed to cold-restraint stress, improved significantly relative to the vehicle group. The increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 following cold-stress injury were decreased by AC-YVAD-CMK, but not omeprazole, pretreatment. The increased expression of CD68 in gastric tissues was inhibited significantly by AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment. Inhibiting caspase-1 activity in the NLRP3 inflammasome decreased gastric cell apoptosis, and the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment significantly inhibited cold-restraint stress-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated IκB-alpha and P38. General anatomy and histological results showed the protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury. Overall, our results showed that the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK protected against acute gastric injury in mice by affecting the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuating inflammatory processes and apoptosis. This was similar to the mechanism associated with NF-κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.
Project description:Lycopene is an important natural red pigment with strong singlet oxygen and peroxide free radical quenching ability. Ethanol directly destroys the epithelial cells of gastric mucosa, causing oxidative damage and inflammation. To evaluate the effect of lycopene on the ethanol induced gastric injury, 112 adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control, lycopene control, gastric injury control, omeprazole (20 mg/kg) positive control, and lycopene experimental groups (at doses of 10, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight) in this study. The general and pathological evaluation, gastric secretion, as well as the levels of antioxidant and inflammatory factors were detected. In lycopene experimental groups, the amount of gastric juice were lower than that in the gastric injury control group; the levels of T-SOD, and the levels of MDA and inflammatory factors (MMP-9 and MCP-1) decreased. However, general and pathological evaluation of gastric tissues revealed that lycopene (especially at high doses) could aggravate acute gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol. Therefore, lycopene (especially at high doses) aggravates acute gastric mucosal injury caused by ethanol, but this was not due to oxidative stress or inflammatory factors. In lycopene control group, the levels of MTL, T-SOD, and NO increased, but the levels of ALT and AST decreased, indicating that lycopene has a protective effect on the stomach and liver when ethanol wasn't taken. It reminds us that, when alcohol is consumed in large quantities, consumption of lycopene products should be carefully considered.
Project description:Low-dose aspirin represents the best option in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, but its extensive use in primary prevention is limited by the occurrence of gastric mucosal lesions and increased risk of bleeding. We investigated the safety profile of a novel sublingual aspirin formulation in 200 healthy volunteers, randomly assigned to ten (<i>n</i> = 20 each) different 7-day once-daily treatment regimens. Gastric mucosal injury based on the modified Lanza score (MLS), the histopathology of gastric mucosa and the serum determination of thromboxane B<sub>2</sub> (TXB<sub>2</sub>) and urinary 11-dehydro-TXB<sub>2</sub> levels were evaluated at basal as well as after 7 days of each placebo or aspirin treatment regimen. In Groups A and B (placebo-oral and sublingual, respectively), no changes in MLS and in gastric mucosal micro-vessel diameter were found at day 7. In contrast, in Groups C and D (oral standard aspirin-100 and 50 mg daily, respectively), the median MLS was significantly increased. Very few changes were found in Groups E and F (standard sublingual aspirin-100 and 50 mg, respectively). Groups G and H (oral administration of micronized collagen-cogrinded aspirin) showed gastric protection compared to Groups C and D. Moreover, Groups I and L (sublingual collagen-cogrinded aspirin-100 and 50 mg, respectively) showed a significant reduction (Group I) or total abolition (Group L) of gastric mucosal lesions and no difference compared to the standard one in serum TXB<sub>2</sub> and urinary 11-dehydro-TXB<sub>2</sub> levels. In conclusion, our data show that the new formulation leads to a better safety profile compared to standard aspirin, representing a better therapeutic option for extended use in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is well established that long-term use of aspirin can cause gastric mucosal injury. ACEIs and ARBs are inversely related to gastric ulcer development. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms, which can affect ACEI and ARB transport, and gastric mucosal erosion in elderly male Chinese patients with cardiovascular disease who use aspirin. METHODS:Patients taking aspirin and an ACEI or ARB concomitantly who had undergone endoscopic screening for gastric erosion were analyzed for SLCO1B1 polymorphisms by a TaqMan assay. RESULTS:The frequency of the SLCO1B1*1b/*1b diplotype (42% vs. 24%; p?=?0.002) was significantly higher in the gastric mucosal erosion group than in the control group. After adjustment for significant factors, SLCO1B1*1b/*1b (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.59-4.17; p?<?0.05) was found to be associated with gastric mucosal erosion in aspirin users. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of the SLCO1B1*1b/*1b diplotype may be a risk factor for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal erosion in elderly Chinese men taking aspirin and an ACEI or ARB concomitantly.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dogs with immune-mediated disease are often coadministered glucocorticoids and aspirin, but ulcerogenic effects of current protocols are unknown.<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare gastrointestinal changes among dogs administered aspirin, prednisone, and combination treatment.<h4>Animals</h4>Twenty-four healthy research dogs.<h4>Methods</h4>Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of dogs administered placebo, aspirin (2 mg/kg q24h), prednisone (2 mg/kg q24h), or combination treatment PO for 28?days. Clinical signs were recorded daily, with laboratory work performed at baseline and day 28. Gastrointestinal mucosal hemorrhages, erosions, and ulcers were numerated for endoscopic studies performed on days 0, 14, and 28; endoscopic mucosal lesion scores were calculated. Results were compared using mixed model repeated-measures analyses of variance and generalized estimating equation proportional odds models. P < .05 was considered significant.<h4>Results</h4>Gastric mucosal lesion scores differed by treatment-by-time (F[6, 40] =?4.4, P?=?.002), treatment (F[3, 20] =?7.1, P = .002), and time (F[2, 40] =?18.9, P < .001). Post hoc analysis revealed increased scores in the aspirin (day 14 only), prednisone, and prednisone/aspirin groups during treatment. Ulcers were identified on 14 studies, representing 10 dogs. Dogs receiving prednisone and prednisone/aspirin had 11.1 times (95% CI, 1.7-73.6) and 31.5 times (95% CI, 3.5-288.0) higher odds, respectively, of having endoscopic mucosal lesion scores ?4 than dogs receiving placebo (P ? .01).<h4>Conclusions and clinical importance</h4>Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs commonly in dogs administered aspirin, prednisone, or prednisone/aspirin treatment, with higher lesion scores for dogs receiving combination treatment. Even severe lesions are not accompanied by clinical signs.
Project description:Current knowledge about clinical and genetic risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury is not sufficient to prevent these gastric mucosal lesions.We recruited aspirin takers as the exposed group and healthy volunteers as the control group. The exposed group was categorized into two subgroups such as subgroup A as gastric mucosal injury diagnosed by gastroscopy, including erosion, ulcer or bleeding of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum; subgroup B as no injury of the gastric mucosa was detected by gastroscopy. Clinical information was collected, and 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated.Among 385 participants, 234 were in the aspirin-exposed group. According to gastroscopy, 82 belonged to subgroup A, 91 belonged to subgroup B, and gastroscopic results of 61 participants were not available. Using the Chi-square test and logistic regression, we found that peptic ulcer history (odds ratio [OR] = 5.924, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.115-16.592), dual anti-platelet medication (OR = 3.443, 95% CI: 1.154-10.271), current Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.242, 95% CI: 1.032-4.870), male gender (OR = 2.211, 95% CI: 1.027-4.760), GG genotype of rs2243086 (OR = 4.516, 95% CI: 1.180-17.278), and AA genotype of rs1330344 (OR = 2.178, 95% CI: 1.016-4.669) were more frequent in subgroup A than subgroup B. In aspirin users who suffered from upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the frequency of the TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 was higher than in those without upper gastrointestinal bleeding.Peptic ulcer history, dual anti-platelet medication, H. pylori current infection, and male gender were possible clinical risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. GG genotype of rs2243086 and AA genotype of rs1330344 were possible genetic risk factors. TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 may be risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in aspirin users.