Hippocampal astrocytic neogenin regulating glutamate uptake, a critical pathway for preventing epileptic response.
ABSTRACT: Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder, is featured with recurrent seizures. Its underlying pathological mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence for loss of neogenin (NEO1), a coreceptor for multiple ligands, including netrins and bone morphological proteins, in the development of epilepsy. NEO1 is reduced in hippocampi from patients with epilepsy based on transcriptome and proteomic analyses. Neo1 knocking out (KO) in mouse brains displays elevated epileptiform spikes and seizure susceptibility. These phenotypes were undetectable in mice, with selectively depleted NEO1 in excitatory (NeuroD6-Cre+) or inhibitory (parvalbumin+) neurons, but present in mice with specific hippocampal astrocytic Neo1 KO. Additionally, neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus, a vulnerable region in epilepsy, in mice with astrocyte-specific Neo1 KO show reductions in inhibitory synaptic vesicles and the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current(mIPSC), but increase of the duration of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current and tonic NMDA receptor currents, suggesting impairments in both GABAergic transmission and extracellular glutamate clearance. Further proteomic and cell biological analyses of cell-surface proteins identified GLAST, a glutamate-aspartate transporter that is marked reduced in Neo1 KO astrocytes and the hippocampus. NEO1 interacts with GLAST and promotes GLAST surface distribution in astrocytes. Expressing NEO1 or GLAST in Neo1 KO astrocytes in the hippocampus abolishes the epileptic phenotype. Taken together, these results uncover an unrecognized pathway of NEO1-GLAST in hippocampal GFAP+ astrocytes, which is critical for GLAST surface distribution and function, and GABAergic transmission, unveiling NEO1 as a valuable therapeutic target to protect the brain from epilepsy.
Project description:Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a dense-core vesicle-associated protein that is involved in the secretion of BDNF. BDNF has a pivotal role in neuronal survival and development, including the development of inhibitory neurons and their circuits. However, how CAPS2 affects BDNF secretion and its biological significance in inhibitory neurons are largely unknown. Here we reveal the role of CAPS2 in the regulated secretion of BDNF and show the effect of CAPS2 on the development of hippocampal GABAergic systems. We show that CAPS2 is colocalized with BDNF, both synaptically and extrasynaptically in axons of hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of exogenous CAPS2 in hippocampal neurons of CAPS2-KO mice enhanced depolarization-induced BDNF exocytosis events in terms of kinetics, frequency, and amplitude. We also show that in the CAPS2-KO hippocampus, BDNF secretion is reduced, and GABAergic systems are impaired, including a decreased number of GABAergic neurons and their synapses, a decreased number of synaptic vesicles in inhibitory synapses, and a reduced frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Conversely, excitatory neurons in the CAPS2-KO hippocampus were largely unaffected with respect to field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, and synapse number and morphology. Moreover, CAPS2-KO mice exhibited several GABA system-associated deficits, including reduced late-phase long-term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses, decreased hippocampal theta oscillation frequency, and increased anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that CAPS2 promotes activity-dependent BDNF secretion during the postnatal period that is critical for the development of hippocampal GABAergic networks.
Project description:<h4>Key points</h4>Temporal lobe epilepsy is a complex neurological disease caused by imbalance of excitation and inhibition in the brain. Growing literature implicates altered Ca<sup>2+</sup> signalling in many aspects of epilepsy but the diversity of Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels that regulate this syndrome are not well-understood. Here, we report that mice lacking the store-operated Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel, Orai1, in the brain show markedly stronger seizures in response to the chemoconvulsants, kainic acid and pilocarpine. Electrophysiological analysis reveals that selective deletion of Orai1 channels in inhibitory neurons disables chemoconvulsant-induced excitation of GABAergic neurons in the CA1 hippocampus. Likewise, deletion of Orai1 in GABAergic neurons abrogates the chemoconvulsant-induced burst of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) on CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. This loss of chemoconvulsant inhibition likely aggravates status epilepticus in Orai1 KO mice. These results identify Orai1 channels as regulators of hippocampal interneuron excitability and seizures.<h4>Abstract</h4>Store-operated Orai1 channels are a major mechanism for Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry in many cells and mediate numerous functions including gene expression, cytokine production and gliotransmitter release. Orai1 is expressed in many regions of the mammalian brain; however, its role in regulating neuronal excitability, synaptic function and brain disorders has only now begun to be investigated. To investigate a potential role of Orai1 channels in status epilepticus induced by chemoconvulsants, we examined acute seizures evoked by intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA) and pilocarpine in mice with a conditional deletion of Orai1 (or its activator STIM1) in the brain. Brain-specific Orai1 and STIM1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited significantly stronger seizures (P = 0.00003 and P < 0.00001), and higher chemoconvulsant-induced mortality (P = 0.02) compared with wildtype (WT) littermates. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal brain slices revealed that KA stimulated the activity of inhibitory interneurons in the CA1 hippocampus (P = 0.04) which failed to occur in Orai1 KO mice. Further, KA and pilocarpine increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal neurons >twofold (KA: P = 0.04; pilocarpine: P = 0.0002) which was abolished in Orai1 KO mice. Mice with selective deletion of Orai1 in GABAergic neurons alone also showed stronger seizures to KA (P = 0.001) and pilocarpine (P < 0.00001) and loss of chemoconvulsant-induced increases in sIPSC responses compared with WT controls. We conclude that Orai1 channels regulate chemoconvulsant-induced excitation in GABAergic neurons and that destabilization of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in Orai1 KO mice aggravates chemoconvulsant-mediated seizures. These results identify Orai1 channels as novel molecular regulators of hippocampal neuronal excitability and seizures.
Project description:Alterations in the expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) have been associated with several neuropathological conditions including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which GLAST expression is altered are poorly understood. Here we used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches coupled with quantitative PCR and Western blot to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of GLAST expression by a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN). We show that treatment of cultured hippocampal mouse and fetal human astrocytes with a CaN inhibitor FK506 resulted in a dynamic modulation of GLAST protein expression, being downregulated after 24-48 h, but upregulated after 7 days of continuous FK506 (200 nM) treatment. Protein synthesis, as assessed by puromycin incorporation in neo-synthesized polypeptides, was inhibited already after 1 h of FK506 treatment, while the use of a proteasome inhibitor MG132 (1 ?M) shows that GLAST protein degradation was only suppressed after 7 days of FK506 treatment. In astrocytes with constitutive genetic ablation of CaN both protein synthesis and degradation were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that, in cultured astrocytes, CaN controls GLAST expression at a posttranscriptional level through regulation of GLAST protein synthesis and degradation.
Project description:The endocannabinoid system modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting the proliferation and survival of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). This is demonstrated by the disruption of adult neurogenesis under two experimental conditions: (1) NSPC-specific deletion of cannabinoid receptors and (2) constitutive deletion of the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLa) which produces the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). However, the specific cell types producing 2-AG relevant to neurogenesis remain unknown. Here we sought to identify the cellular source of endocannabinoids in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) in hippocampus, an important neurogenic niche. For this purpose, we used two complementary Cre-deleter mouse strains to delete Dagla either in neurons, or in astroglia and NSPCs. Surprisingly, neurogenesis was not altered in mice bearing a deletion of Dagla in neurons (Syn-Dagla KO), although neurons are the main source for the endocannabinoids in the brain. In contrast, a specific inducible deletion of Dagla in NPSCs and astrocytes (GLAST-CreERT2-Dagla KO) resulted in a strongly impaired neurogenesis with a 50% decrease in proliferation of newborn cells. These results identify Dagla in NSPCs in the DG or in astrocytes as a prominent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We also show a reduction of Daglb expression in GLAST-CreERT2-Dagla KO mice, which may have contributed to the neurogenesis phenotype.
Project description:The absence of the chloride channel CLC-3 in Clcn3(-/-) mice results in hippocampal degeneration with a distinct temporal-spatial sequence that resembles neuronal loss in temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined how the loss of CLC-3 might affect GABAergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. An electrophysiological study of synaptic function in hippocampal slices taken from Clcn3(-/-) mice before the onset of neurodegeneration revealed a substantial decrease in the amplitude and frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents compared with those in wild-type slices. We found that CLC-3 colocalized with the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Acidification of inhibitory synaptic vesicles induced by Cl(-) showed a marked dependence on CLC-3 expression. The decrease in inhibitory transmission in Clcn3(-/-) mice suggests that the neurotransmitter loading of synaptic vesicles was reduced, which we attribute to defective vesicular acidification. Our observations extend the role of Cl(-) in inhibitory transmission from that of a postsynaptic permeant species to a presynaptic regulatory element.
Project description:The PCDH19 gene (Xp22.1) encodes the cell-adhesion protein protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) and is responsible for a neurodevelopmental pathology characterized by female-limited epilepsy, cognitive impairment and autistic features, the pathogenic mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified a new interaction between PCDH19 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) alpha subunits in the rat brain. PCDH19 shRNA-mediated downregulation reduces GABAAR surface expression and affects the frequency and kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in cultured hippocampal neurons. In vivo, PCDH19 downregulation impairs migration, orientation and dendritic arborization of CA1 hippocampal neurons and increases rat seizure susceptibility. In sum, these data indicate a role for PCDH19 in GABAergic transmission as well as migration and morphological maturation of neurons.
Project description:Astrocytes are important regulators of excitatory synaptic networks. However, astrocytes regulation of inhibitory synaptic systems remains ill defined. This is particularly relevant since GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of excitatory cells and shape network function. To address this issue, we combined optogenetics and pharmacological approaches, two-photon confocal imaging and whole-cell recordings to specifically activate hippocampal somatostatin or paravalbumin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs or PV-INs), while monitoring inhibitory synaptic currents in pyramidal cells and Ca<sup>2+</sup> responses in astrocytes. We found that astrocytes detect SOM-IN synaptic activity via GABA<sub>B</sub>R and GAT-3-dependent Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling mechanisms, the latter triggering the release of ATP. In turn, ATP is converted into adenosine, activating A<sub>1</sub>Rs and upregulating SOM-IN synaptic inhibition of pyramidal cells, but not PV-IN inhibition. Our findings uncover functional interactions between a specific subpopulation of interneurons, astrocytes and pyramidal cells, involved in positive feedback autoregulation of dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells.
Project description:Focal ischemic stroke (FIS) is a leading cause of human death. Glial scar formation largely caused by reactive astrogliosis in peri-infarct region (PIR) is the hallmark of FIS. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally isolated from a rat glioma cell-line supernatant and is a potent survival neurotrophic factor. Here, using CreER<sup>T2</sup> -LoxP recombination technology, we generated inducible and astrocyte-specific GDNF conditional knockout (cKO), that is, GLAST-GDNF<sup>-/-</sup> cKO mice to investigate the effect of reactive astrocytes (RAs)-derived GDNF on neuronal death, brain damage, oxidative stress and motor function recovery after photothrombosis (PT)-induced FIS. Under non-ischemic conditions, we found that adult GLAST-GDNF<sup>-/-</sup> cKO mice exhibited significant lower numbers of Brdu+, Ki67+ cells, and DCX+ cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) in hippocampus than GDNF floxed (GDNF<sup>f/f</sup> ) control (Ctrl) mice, indicating endogenous astrocytic GDNF can promote adult neurogenesis. Under ischemic conditions, GLAST-GDNF<sup>-/-</sup> cKO mice had a significant increase in infarct volume, hippocampal damage and FJB+ degenerating neurons after PT as compared with the Ctrl mice. GLAST-GDNF<sup>-/-</sup> cKO mice also had lower densities of Brdu+ and Ki67+ cells in the PIR and exhibited larger behavioral deficits than the Ctrl mice. Mechanistically, GDNF deficiency in astrocytes increased oxidative stress through the downregulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in RAs. In summary, our study indicates that RAs-derived endogenous GDNF plays important roles in reducing brain damage and promoting brain recovery after FIS through neural regeneration and suggests that promoting anti-oxidant mechanism in RAs is a potential strategy in stroke therapy.
Project description:Both Fyn and tau have been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and neurotoxicity in many tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individual genetic ablation of <i>fyn</i> or <i>tau</i> appears to be protective against aberrant excitatory neuronal activities in AD and epilepsy models. It is, however, still unknown whether ablation of both Fyn and tau can likely elicit more profound anti-seizure and neuroprotective effects. Here, we show the effects of genetic deletion of Fyn and/or tau on seizure severity in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mouse models and neurobiological changes 24 h post-seizures. We used Fyn KO (<i>fyn</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), tau KO (<i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), double knockout (DKO) (<i>fyn</i> <sup>-/-</sup> <b>/</b> <i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), and wild-type (WT) mice of the same genetic background. Both tau KO and DKO showed a significant increase in latency to convulsive seizures and significantly decreased the severity of seizures post-PTZ. Although Fyn KO did not differ significantly from WT, in response to PTZ, Fyn KO still had 36 ± 8% seizure reduction and a 30% increase in seizure latency compared to WT. Surprisingly, in contrast to WT, Fyn KO mice showed higher mortality in <20 min of seizure induction; these mice had severe hydrocephalous. None of the <i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup> and DKO died during the study. In response to PTZ, all KO groups showed a significant reduction in neurodegeneration and gliosis, in contrast to WT, which showed increased neurodegeneration [especially, parvalbumin (PV)-GABAergic interneurons] and gliosis. DKO mice had the most reduced gliosis. Immunohistochemically, phospho-tau (AT8, pS199/S202), Fyn expression, as well as Fyn-tau interaction as measured by PLA increased in WT post-PTZ. Moreover, hippocampal Western blots revealed increased levels of AT8, tyrosine phospho-tau (pY18), and phosphorylated Src tyrosine family kinases (pSFK) in PTZ-treated WT, but not in KO, compared to respective controls. Furthermore, PV interneurons were protected from PTZ-induced seizure effects in all KO mice. The levels of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1) channels were also downregulated in astrocytes in the WT post-PTZ, while its levels did not change in KO groups. Overall, our results demonstrated the role of Fyn and tau in seizures and their impact on the mediators of early epileptogenesis in PTZ model.
Project description:Altered inhibition is a salient feature of hippocampal network reorganization in epilepsy. Hippocampal pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells show specific reduction in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R)-sensitive GABAergic inputs in experimental epilepsy. In the dentate gyrus, CB1Rs regulate synaptic release from accommodating interneurons (AC-INs) with adapting firing characteristics and axonal projections in the molecular layer, but not from fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs). However, it is not known whether the intrinsic physiology and synaptic inhibition of AC-INs responsible for CB1R-sensitive inhibition is altered in epilepsy. Using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy, we find that the basic physiological characteristics of AC-INs in epileptic rats are not different from age-matched controls. In paired interneuronal recordings, the amplitude of unitary inhibitory synaptic currents (uIPSCs) between AC-INs doubled after SE. Non-stationary noise analysis revealed that the post-SE strengthening of synapses between AC-INs resulted from an increase in postsynaptic receptors. Baseline synaptic release and CB1R antagonist enhancement of release at synapses between AC-INs were not different between control and post-SE rats. Additionally, uIPSC amplitude in FS-BCs to AC-INs pairs was unchanged after SE indicating input-specific microcircuit alterations in inhibitory inputs to AC-INs. At the network level, AC-INs showed no reduction in spontaneous and miniature inhibitory synaptic current (sIPSC or mIPSC) frequency or amplitude after SE. However, AC-IN mIPSC amplitude was persistently enhanced in post-SE and epileptic rats. CB1R agonist reduced the amplitude and suppressed a greater proportion of sIPSCs in AC-INs from post-SE and epileptic rats demonstrating a novel, cell-type specific increase in CB1R-sensitive inhibition of AC-INs after SE. This unique post-SE strengthening of inhibition between AC-INs could lead to activity-dependent suppression of AC-IN firing and compromise dentate CB1R-sensitive inhibition in epilepsy.