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Effects of innate immune receptor stimulation on extracellular α-synuclein uptake and degradation by brain resident cells.


ABSTRACT: Synucleinopathies are age-related neurological disorders characterized by the progressive deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates and include Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Although cell-to-cell α-syn transmission is thought to play a key role in the spread of α-syn pathology, the detailed mechanism is still unknown. Neuroinflammation is another key pathological feature of synucleinopathies. Previous studies have identified several immune receptors that mediate neuroinflammation in synucleinopathies, such as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). However, the species of α-syn aggregates varies from study to study, and how different α-syn aggregate species interact with innate immune receptors has yet to be addressed. Therefore, we investigated whether innate immune receptors can facilitate the uptake of different species of α-syn aggregates. Here, we examined whether stimulation of TLRs could modulate the cellular uptake and degradation of α-syn fibrils despite a lack of direct interaction. We observed that stimulation of TLR2 in vitro accelerated α-syn fibril uptake in neurons and glia while delaying the degradation of α-syn in neurons and astrocytes. Internalized α-syn was rapidly degraded in microglia regardless of whether TLR2 was stimulated. However, cellular α-syn uptake and degradation kinetics were not altered by TLR4 stimulation. In addition, upregulation of TLR2 expression in a synucleinopathy mouse model increased the density of Lewy-body-like inclusions and induced morphological changes in microglia. Together, these results suggest that cell type-specific modulation of TLR2 may be a multifaceted and promising therapeutic strategy for synucleinopathies; inhibition of neuronal and astroglial TLR2 decreases pathogenic α-syn transmission, but activation of microglial TLR2 enhances microglial extracellular α-syn clearance.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8080790 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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