Phylogenomics of Allium section Cepa (Amaryllidaceae) provides new insights on domestication of onion.
ABSTRACT: Allium sect. Cepa (Amaryllidaceae) comprises economically important plants, yet resolving the phylogenetic relationships within the section has been difficult as nuclear and chloroplast-based phylogenetic trees have been incongruent. Until now, phylogenetic studies of the section have been based on a few genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome (plastomes) of four central Asian species of sect. Cepa: Allium oschaninii, A. praemixtum, A. pskemense and A. galanthum. Their chloroplast (cp) genomes included 114 unique genes of which 80 coded proteins. Seven protein-coding genes were highly variable and therefore promising for future phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Our plastome-based phylogenetic tree of Allium sect. Cepa revealed two separate clades: one comprising the central Asian species A. oschaninii, A. praemixtum, and A. pskemense, and another comprising A. galanthum, A. altaicum, and two cultivated species, A. cepa and A. fistulosum. These findings contradict previously reported phylogenies that relied on ITS and morphology. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are related to interspecific hybridization of species ancestral to A. galanthum and A. cepa followed by chloroplast capture; however, this is impossible to prove without additional data. Our results suggest that the central Asian Allium species did not play a role in the domestication of the common onion. Among the chloroplast genes, rpoC2 was identified as a gene of choice in further phylogeographical studies of the genus Allium.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of the parental origins of cultivated plants from wild relatives, especially after long periods of domestication, is not a trivial task. However, recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, among other approaches, have proved to be very informative in analyses of the origin and evolution of polyploid genomes. An established minor garden crop, triploid onion Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani, 1842) (2n = 3x = 24), is widespread in southeastern Asia and Europe. Our previous cytogenetic analyses confirmed its highly heterozygous karyotype and indicated its possible complex triparental genome origin. Allium cepa L. and Allium roylei Stearn were suggested as two putative parental species of A. × cornutum, whereas the third parental species remained hitherto unknown. RESULTS: Here we report the phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of 35S rDNA and the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of 5S rDNA of A. × cornutum and its relatives of the section Cepa. Both ITS and NTS sequence data revealed intra-individual variation in triploid onion, and these data clustered into the three main clades, each with high sequence homology to one of three other species of section Cepa: A. cepa, A. roylei, and unexpectedly, the wild Asian species Allium pskemense B. Fedtsh. Allium pskemense is therefore inferred to be the third, so far unknown, putative parental species of triploid onion Allium × cornutum. The 35S and 5S rRNA genes were found to be localised on somatic chromosomes of A. × cornutum and its putative parental species by double fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). The localisation of 35S and 5S rDNA in A. × cornutum chromosomes corresponded to their respective positions in the three putative parental species, A. cepa, A. pskemense, and A. roylei. GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) using DNA of the three putative parental diploids corroborated the results of the phylogenetic study. CONCLUSIONS: The combined molecular, phylogenetic and cytogenetic data obtained in this study provided evidence for a unique triparental origin of triploid onion A. × cornutum with three putative parental species, A. cepa, A. pskemense, and A. roylei.
Project description:With the development of molecular sequencing approaches, many taxonomic and phylogenetic problems of the genus Allium L. have been solved; however, the phylogenetic relationships of some subgenera or sections, such as section Bromatorrhiza, remain unresolved, which has greatly impeded our full understanding of the species relationships among the major clades of Allium. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of nine species in the Allium sect. Bromatorrhiza were determined using the Illumina paired-end sequencing, the NOVOPlasty de novo assembly strategy, and the PGA annotation method. The results showed that the cp genome exhibited high conservation and revealed a typical circular tetrad structure. Among the sect. Bromatorrhiza species, the gene content, SSRs, codon usage, and RNA editing site were similar. The genome structure and IR regions’ fluctuation were investigated while genes, CDSs, and non-coding regions were extracted for phylogeny reconstruction. Evolutionary rates (Ka/Ks values) were calculated, and positive selection analysis was further performed using the branch-site model. Five hypervariable regions were identified as candidate molecular markers for species authentication. A clear relationship among the sect. Bromatorrhiza species were detected based on concatenated genes and CDSs, respectively, which suggested that sect. Bromatorrhiza is monophyly. In addition, there were three genes with higher Ka/Ks values (rps2, ycf1, and ycf2), and four genes (rpoC2, atpF, atpI, and rpl14) were further revealed to own positive selected sites. These results provide new insights into the plastome component, phylogeny, and evolution of Allium species.
Project description:The section <i>Pallasia</i> is one of the components of the genus <i>Allium</i> subgenus <i>Allium</i> (Amaryllidaceae), and species relationship in this section is still not resolved very well, which hinders further evolutionary and adaptive studies. Here, the complete chloroplast genomes of five sect. <i>Pallasia</i> species were reported, and a comparative analysis was performed with other three related <i>Allium</i> species. The genome size of the eight species ranged from 151,672 bp to 153,339 bp in length, GC content changed from 36.7% to 36.8%, and 130 genes (except <i>Allium pallasii</i>), 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA were identified in each genome. By analyzing the IR/LSC and IR/SSC boundary, <i>A. pallasii</i> exhibited differences compared with other seven species. Phylogenetic analysis achieved high supports in each branch, seven of the eight <i>Allium</i> species cluster into a group, and <i>A. pallasii</i> exhibit a close relationship with <i>A. obliquum</i>. Higher pairwise Ka/Ks ratios were found in <i>A. schoenoprasoides</i> compared to <i>A. caeruleum</i> and <i>A. macrostemon</i> while a lower value of Ka/Ks ratios was detected between <i>A. caeruleum</i> and <i>A. macrostemon</i>. This study will be a great contribution to the future phylogenetic and adaptive research in <i>Allium</i>.
Project description:A putatively monophyletic group of annual Silene species is revised taxonomically and described as the new section S. sect. Arenosae. The species of this section were previously treated as a part of a widely circumscribed and polyphyletic S. sect. Rigidulae. Silene sect. Arenosae as circumscribed here consists of nine species. Members of the section show a predominantly E Mediterranean to SW Asian distribution pattern from Turkey southward to Egypt and eastward to Iran and Pakistan, although most of the species have a limited distribution range. The species of S. sect. Arenosae are characterized by narrowly lanceolate calyx teeth, which are often highly polymorphic, and lanceolate to oblanceolate (non-spathulate) basal leaves. The provided taxonomic revision is based on morphological characters and supported by phylogenetic analyses of two nuclear loci (nrITS and an intron of the RPB2 gene) and one chloroplast locus (the intron of the rps16 gene). The species descriptions are formalized using a novel implementation of the Prometheus Description Model.
Project description:Evolutionarily related species often share a common order of genes along homeologous chromosomes. Here we report the collinearity disruption of genes located on homeologous chromosome 4 in Allium species. Ultra-sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization with tyramide signal amplification (tyr-FISH) allowed the visualization of the alliinase multigene family, chalcon synthase gene and EST markers on Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum chromosomes. In A. cepa, bulb alliinase, root alliinase (ALL1) and chalcon synthase (CHS-B) genes were located in the long arm but EST markers (API18 and ACM082) were located in the short arm. In A. fistulosum, all the visualized genes and markers were located in the short arm. Moreover, root alliinase genes (ALL1 and AOB249) showed contrast patterns in number of loci. We suppose that the altered order of the genes/markers is the result of a large pericentric inversion. To get insight into the evolution of the chromosome rearrangement, we mapped the bulb alliinase gene in phylogenetically close and distant species. In the taxonomic clade including A. fistulosum, A. altaicum, A. oschaninii and A. pskemense and in phylogenetically distant species A. roylei and A. nutans, the bulb alliinase gene was located on the short arm of chromosome 4 while, in A. cepa and A. schoenoprasum, the bulb alliinase gene was located on the long arm of chromosome 4. These results have encouraging implications for the further tracing of inverted regions in meiosis of interspecific hybrids and studding chromosome evolution. Also, this finding may have a practical benefit as closely related species are actively used for improving onion crop stock.
Project description:The disjunctive distribution (Europe-Caucasus-Asia) and species diversification across Eurasia for the genus <i>Allium</i> sect. <i>Daghestanica</i> has fascinating attractions for researchers aiming to understanding the development and history of modern Eurasia flora. However, no any studies have been carried out to address the evolutionary history of this section. Based on the nrITS and cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF and rpl32-trnL), the evolutionary history of the third evolutionary line (EL3) of the genus <i>Allium</i> was reconstructed and we further elucidated the evolutionary line of sect. <i>Daghestanica</i> under this background. Our molecular phylogeny recovered two highly supported clades in sect. <i>Daghestanica</i>: the Clade I includes Caucasian-European species and Asian <i>A. maowenense</i>, <i>A. xinlongense</i> and <i>A. carolinianum</i> collected in Qinghai; the Clade II comprises Asian yellowish tepal species, <i>A. chrysanthum</i>, <i>A. chrysocephalum</i>, <i>A. herderianum</i>, <i>A. rude</i> and <i>A. xichuanense</i>. The divergence time estimation and biogeography inference indicated that Asian ancestor located in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the adjacent region could have migrated to Caucasus and Europe distributions around the Late Miocene and resulted in further divergence and speciation; Asian ancestor underwent the rapid radiation in the QTP and the adjacent region most likely due to the heterogeneous ecology of the QTP resulted from the orogeneses around 4-3 million years ago (Mya). Our study provides a picture to understand the origin and species diversification across Eurasia for sect. <i>Daghestanica</i>.
Project description:Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed. Phylogenetic relationships within Rubus were well-resolved by combined nuclear datasets rather than chloroplast markers. The phylogenetic inferences strongly supported that section Idaeobatus was a polyphyletic group with four distant clades. All samples of sect. Malachobatus formed a monophyletic clade, in which R. tsangorum and R. amphidasys of sect. Dalibardastrum, and R. peltatus from subsection Peltati of sect. Idaeobatus were always nested. Rubus pentagonus (2n = 2x = 14) from subsect. Alpestres of sect. Idaeobatus was a sister group to the polyploid sect. Malachobatus, as well as the polytomy of three sect. Cyalctis members. This suggests that some polyploids of Malachobatus might originate from common ancestors, via polyploidization of hybrids between R. pentagonus and sect. Cylactis species. They had experienced species explosion in a short time. Section Dalibardastrum species have potential parental lineages from subsects. Moluccani and Stipulosi of sect. Malachobatus. Based on molecular phylogenies, we also provided recommendations for the taxonomic treatments of four taxa. In addition, our results showed certain incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, which might be due to hybridization and introgression.
Project description:Scleria subgen. Hypoporum (Cyperaceae), with 68 species, is the second largest subgenus in Scleria. Species of this pantropically distributed subgenus generally occur in seasonally or permanently wet grasslands or on shallow soils over sandstone or lateritic outcrops, less often they can be found in (open) woodlands. Previous studies established the monophyly of the subgenus, but the relationships between the species remained uncertain. In this study, DNA sequence data of 61 taxa of Scleria subgen. Hypoporum, where possible represented by multiple accessions from across their distributional range, were obtained for four molecular markers: the coding chloroplast marker ndhF, the chloroplast intron rps16 and the nuclear ribosomal regions ETS and ITS. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. A species tree was constructed to summarise the results. The results indicate the existence of three sections: the monotypic, pantropically occurring, Scleria sect. Lithospermae, a new section from central and south America containing two species, and Scleria sect. Hypoporum, also pantropically distributed, containing the remainder of the species of the subgenus. Relationships in the latter section are not fully resolved. However, three or four different clades can be distinguished supported by some morphological characters. Our results indicate at least six new species in Scleria sect. Hypoporum. The new section and species are described in a taxonomical treatment. Their morphology is compared with (morphologically) closely related species.
Project description:Species belonging to Rosa section Synstylae (Rosaceae) are mainly distributed in East Asia, and represent recently diverged lineages within the genus. Over decades, inferring phylogenetic relationships within section Synstylae have been exceptional challenges, due to short branch lengths and low support values. Of approximately 36 species in the section Synstylae, Rosa multiflora, Rosa luciae and Rosa maximowicziana are widely distributed in the Sino-Japanese floristic region. In this study, we assembled chloroplast genomes of these three species to compare the genomic features within section Synstylae, and to compare with other infrageneric groups. We found that three Rosa sect. Synstylae species had lost infA genes with pseudogenization, and they were almost identical to each other. Two protein-coding gene regions (ndhF and ycf1) and five non-coding regions (5'matK-trnK, psbI-trnS-trnG, rps16-trnG, rpoB-trnC, and rps4-trnT) were identified as being highly informative markers. Within three section Synstylae chloroplast genomes, 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were detected, of which at least 13 motifs were identified to be effective markers. The phylogenetic relationships of R. multiflora, R. luciae and R. maximowicziana could not be resolved, even with chloroplast genome-wide data. This study reveals the chloroplast genomic data of Rosa sect. Synstylae, and it provides valuable markers for DNA barcoding and phylogenetic analyses for further studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Species of Paris Sect. Marmorata are valuable medicinal plants to synthesize steroidal saponins with effective pharmacological therapy. However, the wild resources of the species are threatened by plundering exploitation before the molecular genetics studies uncover the genomes and evolutionary significance. Thus, the availability of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Sect. Marmorata is necessary and crucial to the understanding the plastome evolution of this section and facilitating future population genetics studies. Here, we determined chloroplast genomes of Sect. Marmorata, and conducted the whole chloroplast genome comparison. RESULTS:This study presented detailed sequences and structural variations of chloroplast genomes of Sect. Marmorata. Over 40 large repeats and approximately 130 simple sequence repeats as well as a group of genomic hotspots were detected. Inverted repeat contraction of this section was inferred via comparing the chloroplast genomes with the one of P. verticillata. Additionally, almost all the plastid protein coding genes were found to prefer ending with A/U. Mutation bias and selection pressure predominately shaped the codon bias of most genes. And most of the genes underwent purifying selection, whereas photosynthetic genes experienced a relatively relaxed purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS:Repeat sequences and hotspot regions can be scanned to detect the intraspecific and interspecific variability, and selected to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Sect. Marmorata and other species in subgenus Daiswa. Mutation and natural selection were the main forces to drive the codon bias pattern of most plastid protein coding genes. Therefore, this study enhances the understanding about evolution of Sect. Marmorata from the chloroplast genome, and provide genomic insights into genetic analyses of Sect. Marmorata.