G-Protein-Coupled Receptor and Ion Channel Genes Used by Influenza Virus for Replication.
ABSTRACT: Influenza virus causes epidemics and sporadic pandemics resulting in morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Influenza viruses require host genes to replicate. RNA interference (RNAi) screens can identify host genes coopted by influenza virus for replication. Targeting these proinfluenza genes can provide therapeutic strategies to reduce virus replication. Nineteen proinfluenza G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and 13 proinfluenza ion channel genes were identified in human lung (A549) cells by use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These proinfluenza genes were authenticated by testing influenza virus A/WSN/33-, A/CA/04/09-, and B/Yamagata/16/1988-infected A549 cells, resulting in the validation of 16 proinfluenza GPCR and 5 proinfluenza ion channel genes. These findings showed that several GPCR and ion channel genes are needed for the production of infectious influenza virus. These data provide potential targets for the development of host-directed therapeutic strategies to impede the influenza virus productive cycle so as to limit infection.IMPORTANCE Influenza epidemics result in morbidity and mortality each year. Vaccines are the most effective preventive measure but require annual reformulation, since a mismatch of vaccine strains can result in vaccine failure. Antiviral measures are desirable particularly when vaccines fail. In this study, we used RNAi screening to identify several GPCR and ion channel genes needed for influenza virus replication. Understanding the host genes usurped by influenza virus during viral replication can help identify host genes that can be targeted for drug repurposing or for the development of antiviral drugs. The targeting of host genes is refractory to drug resistance generated by viral mutations, as well as providing a platform for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.
Project description:Influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics resulting in morbidity, mortality, and economic losses worldwide. Understanding how to regulate influenza virus replication is important for developing vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Identifying microRNAs (miRs) that affect host genes used by influenza virus for replication can support an antiviral strategy. In this study, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and ion channel (IC) host genes in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells used by influenza virus for replication (Orr-Burks <i>et al.</i>, 2021) were examined as miR target genes following A/CA/04/09- or B/Yamagata/16/1988 replication. Thirty-three miRs were predicted to target GPCR or IC genes and their miR mimics were evaluated for their ability to decrease influenza virus replication. Paired miR inhibitors were used as an ancillary measure to confirm or not the antiviral effects of a miR mimic. Fifteen miRs lowered influenza virus replication and four miRs were found to reduce replication irrespective of virus strain and type differences. These findings provide evidence for novel miR disease intervention strategies for influenza viruses.
Project description:Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of the host functions co-opted for viral replication is of interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle and to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Among the various approaches used to explore host factor involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle, perhaps the most powerful is RNAi-based genome-wide screening, which has shed new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle.
Project description:Influenza virus causes three to five million severe respiratory infections per year in seasonal epidemics, and sporadic pandemics, three of which occurred in the twentieth century and are a continuing global threat. Currently licensed antivirals exclusively target the viral neuraminidase or M2 ion channel, and emerging drug resistance necessitates the development of novel therapeutics. It is believed that a host-targeted strategy may combat the development of antiviral drug resistance. To this end, a class of molecules known as iminosugars, hydroxylated carbohydrate mimics with the endocyclic oxygen atom replaced by a nitrogen atom, are being investigated for their broad-spectrum antiviral potential. The influenza virus glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are susceptible to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum ?-glucosidases by certain iminosugars, leading to reduced virion production or infectivity, demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In some experiments, viral strain-specific effects are observed. Iminosugars may also inhibit other host and virus targets with antiviral consequences. While investigations of anti-influenza iminosugar activities have been conducted since the 1980s, recent successes of nojirimycin derivatives have re-invigorated investigation of the therapeutic potential of iminosugars as orally available, low cytotoxicity, effective anti-influenza drugs.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) matrix protein 2 (M2) is among the smallest bona fide, hence extensively studied, ion channel proteins. The M2 ion channel activity is not only essential for virus replication, but also involved in modulation of cellular homeostasis in a variety of ways. It is also the target for ion channel inhibitors, i.e., anti-influenza drugs. Thus far, several studies have been conducted to elucidate its biophysical characteristics, structure-function relationships of the ion channel, and the M2-host interactome. In this review, we discuss M2 protein synthesis and assembly into an ion channel, its roles in IAV replication, and the pathophysiological impact on the host cell.
Project description:In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential for viral replication and propagation. These latter compounds have been developed quite recently. Among the first group, we will focus especially on hemagglutinin, M2 channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. The second group of compounds may pave the way for personalized treatment and influenza management. Combination therapies are also discussed. In recent decades, few antiviral molecules against influenza virus infections have been available; this has conditioned their use during human and animal outbreaks. Indeed, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs have usually been administered in mono-therapy and, sometimes, in an uncontrolled manner to farm animals. This has led to the emergence of viral strains displaying resistance, especially to compounds of the amantadane family. For this reason, it is particularly important to develop new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. Indeed, although vaccination is the most powerful means of mitigating the effects of influenza epidemics, antiviral drugs can be very useful, particularly in delaying the spread of new pandemic viruses, thereby enabling manufacturers to prepare large quantities of pandemic vaccine. In addition, antiviral drugs are particularly valuable in complicated cases of influenza, especially in hospitalized patients. To write this overview, we mined various databases, including Embase, PubChem, DrugBank and Chemical Abstracts Service, and patent repositories.
Project description:Influenza viruses exploit host cell machinery to replicate, resulting in epidemics of respiratory illness. In turn, the host expresses antiviral restriction factors to defend against infection. To find host cell modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors with roles in endosomal acidification, vesicular trafficking, mitochondrial metabolism, and RNA splicing. We discovered that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM1, 2, and 3 restrict an early step in influenza A viral replication. The IFITM proteins confer basal resistance to influenza A virus but are also inducible by interferons type I and II and are critical for interferon's virustatic actions. Further characterization revealed that the IFITM proteins inhibit the early replication of flaviviruses, including dengue virus and West Nile virus. Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate immunity to at least three major human pathogens.
Project description:Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we report the discovery of a host factor as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs. By using cell-based virus replication screening of a chemical library and several additional assays, we identified clonidine as a new anti-influenza agent in vitro. We found that clonidine, which is an agonist of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR), has an inhibitory effect on the replication of various influenza virus strains. ?2-AR is a Gi-type G protein-coupled receptor that reduces intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. In-depth analysis showed that stimulation of ?2-ARs leads to impairment of influenza virus replication and that ?2-AR agonists inhibit the virus assembly step, likely via a cAMP-mediated pathway. Although clonidine administration did not reduce lung virus titers or prevent body weight loss, it did suppress lung edema and improve survival in a murine lethal infection model. Clonidine may thus protect against lung damage caused by influenza virus infection. Our results identify ?2-AR-mediated signaling as a key pathway to exploit in the development of anti-influenza agents.
Project description:Viroporins like influenza A virus M2, hepatitis C virus p7, HIV-1 Vpu and picornavirus 2B associate with host membranes, and create hydrophilic corridors, which are critical for viral entry, replication and egress. The 6K proteins from alphaviruses are conjectured to be viroporins, essential during egress of progeny viruses from host membranes, although the analogue in Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) remains relatively uncharacterized. Using a combination of electrophysiology, confocal and electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations we show for the first time that CHIKV 6K is an ion channel forming protein that primarily associates with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. The ion channel activity of 6K can be inhibited by amantadine, an antiviral developed against the M2 protein of Influenza A virus; and CHIKV infection of cultured cells can be effectively inhibited in presence of this drug. Our study provides crucial mechanistic insights into the functionality of 6K during CHIKV-host interaction and suggests that 6K is a potential therapeutic drug target, with amantadine and its derivatives being strong candidates for further development.
Project description:Influenza virus infection through seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics has been a major public health concern for decades. Incomplete protection from vaccination and increased antiviral resistance due to frequent mutations of influenza viruses have led to a continuous need for new therapeutic options. The functional significance of host protein and influenza virus interactions has been established, but relatively less is known about the interaction of host noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, with influenza viruses. In this review, we summarize host noncoding RNA profiles during influenza virus infection and the regulation of influenza virus infection by host noncoding RNAs. Influenza viral non-coding RNAs are briefly discussed. Increased understanding of the molecular regulation of influenza viral replication will be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets against the influenza virus.
Project description:Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-?B), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.