Optimal timing and criteria of interim PET in DLBCL: a comparative study of 1692 patients.
ABSTRACT: Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (Interim-18F-FDG-PET, hereafter I-PET) has the potential to guide treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) if the prognostic value is known. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing and response criteria for evaluating prognosis with I-PET in DLBCL. Individual patient data from 1692 patients with de novo DLBCL were combined and scans were harmonized. I-PET was performed at various time points during treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. Scans were interpreted using the Deauville score (DS) and change in maximum standardized uptake value (ΔSUVmax). Multilevel Cox proportional hazards models corrected for International Prognostic Index (IPI) score were used to study the effects of timing and response criteria on 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). I-PET after 2 cycles (I-PET2) and I-PET4 significantly discriminated good responders from poor responders, with the highest hazard ratios (HRs) for I-PET4. Multivariable HRs for a PET-positive result at I-PET2 and I-PET4 were 1.71 and 2.95 using DS4-5, 4.91 and 6.20 using DS5, and 2.93 and 4.65 using ΔSUVmax, respectively. ΔSUVmax identified a larger proportion of poor responders than DS5 did. For all criteria, the negative predictive value was >80%, and positive predictive values ranged from 30% to 70% at I-PET2 and I-PET4. Unlike I-PET1, I-PET3 discriminated good responders from poor responders using DS4-5 and DS5 thresholds (HRs, 2.94 and 4.67, respectively). I-PET2 and I-PET4 predict good response equally during R-CHOP therapy in DLBCL. Optimal timing and response criteria depend on the clinical context. Good response at I-PET2 is suggested for de-escalation trials, and poor response using ΔSUVmax at I-PET4 is suggested for randomized trials that are evaluating new therapies.
Project description:Present work investigated the role of five different bacteria species as a corrosion inducer as well as corrosion inhibitor with carbon steel (CS). We observed the ability of different bacteria species on the metal surface attachment, biofilm formation, and determined Peroxidase, Catalase enzyme activity in the detached biofilm from the CS surface. We found that each strain has diverse conduct for surface attachment like DS1 3.3, DS2 2.5, DS3 4.3, DS4 4.0, and DS5 4.71 log cfu/cm2 and for biofilm 8.3 log cfu/cm2. The enzyme Peroxidase, Catalase was found in huge concentration inside the biofilm Peroxidase was maximum for DS4 36.0 U/ml and least for DS3 19.54 U/ml. Whereas, Catalase was highest for DS4, DS5 70.14 U/ml and least 57.2 U/ml for DS2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to examine the biofilm and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were utilized to observe corrosion in the presence of bacteria. The electrochemical results confirmed that DS1, DS3, DS4, and DS5 strains have statistically significant MIC-factors (Microbially Influenced Corrosion) of 5.46, 8.51, 2.36, and 1.04, while DS2 protective effect factor of 0.89. Weight reduction results with carbon steel likewise supports that corrosion was initiated by DS1 and DS3, while DS2 and DS5 have no any impact though with DS4 we watched less weight reduction however assumed no role in the corrosion. We established the relation of Peroxidase enzyme activity of the isolates. DS1, DS3 and having Peroxidase in the range 22.18, 19.54 U/ml which induce the corrosion whereas DS2 and DS5 having 28.57 and 27.0 U/ml has no any effect and DS4 36 U/ml has inhibitory effect, increasing concentration inhibiting the corrosion. For Catalase DS1, DS3 have 67.28, 61.57 U/ml which induce corrosion while DS2 and DS5 57.71 and 59.14 U/ml also has no effect whereas DS4 70.14 U/ml can inhibit corrosion. Results clearly express that in a specific range both enzymes can induce the corrosion. Our goals are to pursuit and locate the potential role of the enzyme in corrosion induction and inhibition. There is still further work is proceeded for the more profound perception.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This is a prospective, single-center trial in pediatric patients with sarcoma aiming to evaluate [18F]FDG PET/CT as a tool for early response assessment to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neo-CTX). METHODS:Bone or soft tissue sarcoma patients with (1) baseline [18F]FDG PET/CT within 4 weeks prior to the start of neo-CTX (PET1), (2) early interim [18F]FDG PET/CT (6 weeks after the start of neo-CTX (PET2), (3) evaluation of neo-CTX response by histology or MRI, and (4) definitive therapy after neo-CTX (surgery or radiation) were included. Semiquantitative PET parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak, MTV and TLG) and their changes from PET1 to PET2 (?PET) were obtained. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the predictive value of PET1, PET2 and ?PET parameters for overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). The secondary outcome was to evaluate if [18F]FDG PET/CT can predict the response to neo-CTX assessed by histopathology or MRI. Primary and secondary outcomes were also evaluated in a subpopulation of patients with bone involvement only. RESULTS:Thirty-four consecutive patients were enrolled (10 females; 24 males; median age 15.1 years). 17/34 patients (50%) had osteosarcoma, 13/34 (38%) Ewing's sarcoma, 2/34 (6%) synovial sarcoma and 2/34 (6%) embryonal liver sarcoma. Median follow-up was 39 months (range 16-84). Eight of 34 patients (24%) died, 9/34 (27%) were alive with disease, and 17/34 (50%) had no evidence of residual/recurrent disease. Fifteen of 34 (44%) and 19/34 (56%) were responders and non-responders, respectively. PET2-parameters were associated with longer TTP (p?<?0.02). ?MTV was associated with tissue response to neo-CTX (p?=?0.047). None of the PET1, PET2 or ?PET parameters were associated with OS. CONCLUSION:[18F]FDG PET/CT performed 6 weeks after the start of neo-CTX can serve as an early interim biomarker for TTP and pathologic response but not for OS in pediatric patients with sarcoma.
Project description:AIM:Our aim was (1) to evaluate the prevalence of steatosis in lymphoma patients and its evolution during treatment; (2) to evaluate the impact of hepatic steatosis on 18F-FDG liver uptake; and (3) to study how hepatic steatosis affects the Deauville score (DS) for discriminating between responders and non-responders. METHODS:Over a 1-year period, 358 PET scans from 227 patients [122 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 57 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 48 Follicular lymphoma (FL)] referred for baseline (n?=?143), interim (n?=?79) and end-of-treatment (EoT, n?=?136) PET scans were reviewed. Steatosis was diagnosed on the unenhanced CT part of PET/CT examinations using a cut-off value of 42 Hounsfield units (HU). EARL-compliant SULmax were recorded on the liver and the tumour target lesion. DS were then computed. RESULTS:Prevalence of steatosis at baseline, interim and EoT PET was 15/143 (10.5%), 6/79 (7.6%) and 16/136 (11.8%), respectively (p?=?0.62).Ten out of 27 steatotic patients (37.0%) displayed a steatotic liver on all examinations. Six patients (22.2%) had a disappearance of hepatic steatosis during their time-course of treatment. Only one patient developed steatosis during his course of treatment. Liver SULmax values were significantly lower in the steatosis versus non-steatotic groups of patients for interim (1.66?±?0.36 versus 2.15?±?0.27) and EoT (1.67?±?0.29 versus 2.17?±?0.30) PET. CT density was found to be an independent factor that correlated with liver SULmax, while BMI, blood glucose level and the type of chemotherapy regimen were not. Using a method based on this correlation to correct liver SULmax, all DS4 steatotic patients on interim (n?=?1) and EoT (n?=?2) PET moved to DS3. CONCLUSIONS:Steatosis is actually a theoretical but not practical issue in most patients but should be recognised and corrected in appropriate cases, namely, for those patients scored DS4 with a percentage difference between the target lesion and the liver background lower than 30%.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>MYC gene rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients are associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to compare patterns of 2[<sup>18</sup>F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) response in MYC + and MYC- DLBCL patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Interim PET/CT (I-PET) and end of treatment PET/CT (EoT-PET) scans of 81 MYC + and 129 MYC- DLBCL patients from 2 HOVON trials were reviewed using the Deauville 5-point scale (DS). DS1-3 was regarded as negative and DS4-5 as positive. Standardized uptake values (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were quantified at baseline, I-PET, and EoT-PET. Negative (NPV) and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated using 2-year overall survival.<h4>Results</h4>MYC + DLBCL patients had significantly more positive EoT-PET scans than MYC- patients (32.5 vs 15.7%, p = 0.004). I-PET positivity rates were comparable (28.8 vs 23.8%). In MYC + patients 23.2% of the I-PET negative patients converted to positive at EoT-PET, vs only 2% for the MYC- patients (p = 0.002). Nine (34.6%) MYC + DLBCL showed initially uninvolved localizations at EoT-PET, compared to one (5.3%) MYC- patient. A total of 80.8% of EoT-PET positive MYC + patients showed both increased lesional SUV and MTV compared to I-PET. In MYC- patients, 31.6% showed increased SUV and 42.1% showed increased MTV. NPV of I-PET and EoT-PET was high for both MYC subgroups (81.8-94.1%). PPV was highest at EoT-PET for MYC + patients (61.5%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>MYC + DLBCL patients demonstrate aberrant PET response patterns compared to MYC- patients with more frequent progression during treatment after I-PET negative assessment and new lesions at sites that were not initially involved.<h4>Trial registration number and date of registration</h4>HOVON-84: EudraCT: 2006-005,174-42, retrospectively registered 01-08-2008. HOVON-130: EudraCT: 2014-002,654-39, registered 26-01-2015.
Project description:18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (18F-FDG-PET) can be used for early response assessment in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It has been recently shown in the MUNICON trials that response-guided treatment algorithms based on early changes of the FDG tumor uptake detected by PET are feasible and that they can be implemented into clinical practice. Only 40%-50% of the patients respond metabolically to therapy. As metabolic non-response is known to be associated with a dismal prognosis, metabolic non-responders are increasingly treated with alternative neoadjuvant chemotherapies or chemoradiation in order to improve their clinical outcome. We plan to investigate whether PET can be used as response assessment during radiochemotherapy given as salvage treatment in early metabolic non-responders to standard chemotherapy.The HICON trial is a prospective, non-randomized, explorative imaging study evaluating the value of PET as a predictor of histopathological response in metabolic non-responders. Patients with resectable AEG type I and II according to Siewerts classification, staged cT3/4 and/or cN+ and cM0 by endoscopic ultrasound, spiral CT or MRI and FDG-PET are eligible. Tumors must be potentially R0 resectable and must have a sufficient FDG-baseline uptake. Only metabolic non-responders, showing a < 35% decrease of SUV two weeks after the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are eligible for the study and are taken to intensified taxane-based RCT (chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy) before surgery. 18FDG-PET scans will be performed before ( = Baseline) and after 14 days of standard neoadjuvant therapy as well as after the first cycle of salvage docetaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy (PET 1) and at the end of radiochemotherapy (PET2). Tracer uptake will be assessed semiquantitatively using standardized uptake values (SUV). The percentage difference ?SUV = 100 (SUV Baseline - SUV PET1)/SUV Baseline will be calculated and assessed as an early predictor of histopathological response. In a secondary analysis, the association between the difference SUV PET1 - SUV PET2 and histopathological response will be evaluated.The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of sequential 18FDG-PET in predicting histopathological response in AEG tumors to salvage neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients who do not show metabolic response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are known to provide an immune response seen on FDG PET studies. However, the time course of this metabolic response is unknown. We here present a temporal metabolic response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET.<h4>Methods</h4>262 oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET were included in the analysis. 231 patients had at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine while 31 patients had not been vaccinated. The SUVmax of the lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccination was compared to the contralateral to obtain an absolute change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax).<h4>Results</h4>ΔSUVmax was more significant at shorter times between FDG PET imaging and COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, with a median ΔSUVmax of 2.6 (0-7 days), 0.8 (8-14 days), and 0.3 (> 14 days), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Consideration should be given to performing FDG PET at least 2 weeks after the COVID-19 vaccine.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The present study compared the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) for predicting the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective analysis included 72 patients in whom adjacent structures showed involvement and/or cN2 NSCLC who received induction chemoradiotherapy (ICRT) and subsequent surgery at our hospital from 2008 to 2019. FDG-PET and CT were performed in all patients before and after ICRT using the same scanner with similar techniques. We calculated the reduction in the maximum standardized uptake value in FDG-PET (ΔSUVmax) and tumour size on CT (ΔCT-size) before and after ICRT and investigated the relationship between the pathological response and prognosis.<h4>Results</h4>The disease response was classified as a major pathological response in 43 patients, and a minor response in 29 patients. ΔSUVmax 60% and ΔCT-size 30% were identified as the optimal cut-off values for predicting a major pathological response. ΔSUVmax was superior to ΔCT-size in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Furthermore, ΔSUVmax was superior to ΔCT-size for predicting the prognosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on the results of the present study, FDG-PET appeared to have greater utility than CT in predicting the pathological response following ICRT and the postoperative prognosis in patients with locally advanced NSCLC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) is associated with improved survival of patients with HER2+ breast cancer. We investigated the ability of interim positron emission tomography (PET) regarding early prediction of pathology outcomes. METHODS: During 61 months, consecutive patients with locally advanced or large HER2+ breast cancer patients without distant metastases were included. All patients received NAT with four cycles of epirubicin+cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel+trastuzumab. ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) was performed at baseline (PET₁) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET₂). Maximum standardised uptake values were measured in the primary tumour as well as in the axillary lymph nodes. The correlation between pathologic response and SUV parameters (SUVmax at PET₁, PET₂ and ΔSUVmax) was examined with the t-test. The predictive performance regarding the identification of non-responders was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Thirty women were prospectively included and 60 PET/CT examination performed. At baseline, 22 patients had PET+ axilla and in nine of them ¹⁸F-FDG uptake was higher than in the primary tumour. At surgery, 14 patients (47%) showed residual tumour (non-pCR), whereas 16 (53%) reached pCR. Best prediction was obtained when considering the absolute residual SUVmax value at PET₂ (AUC=0.91) vs 0.67 for SUVmax at PET₁ and 0.86 for ΔSUVmax. The risk of non-pCR was 92.3% in patients with any site of residual uptake >3 at PET₂, no matter whether in breast or axilla, vs 11.8% in patients with uptake ≤3 (P=0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and overall accuracy of this cutoff were, respectively: 85.7%, 93.8%, 92.3%, 88.2% and 90%. CONCLUSION: The level of residual ¹⁸F-FDG uptake after two cycles of chemotherapy predicts residual disease at completion of NAT with chemotherapy+trastuzumab with high accuracy. Because many innovative therapeutic strategies are now available (e.g., addition of a second HER2-directed therapy or an antiangiogenic), early prediction of poor response is critical.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of early metabolic response assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) during radiation therapy (RT) for cervical cancer.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We identified 116 patients treated with definitive RT, including FDG-PET/CT-guided intracavitary brachytherapy, between 2009 and 2018. We calculated parameters including maximum (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for baseline FDG-PET/CT (PETbase) and image-guided brachytherapy planning FDG-PET/CT (PETIGBT). Multivariable analyses of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed.<h4>Results</h4>We observed a time-dependent decrease in PET parameters between PETbase and PETIGBT; ΔSUVmax, ΔSUVmean, ΔMTV, and ΔTLG were 65%, 61%, 78%, and 93%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 59.5 months, the 5-year DFS and OS rates were 66% and 79%, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% was associated with favorable DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 5.77) and OS (HR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.55 to 17.01). Patients with ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% (n=87) showed better DFS and OS than those with ΔSUVmax < 50% (n=29) (DFS, 76% vs. 35%, p < 0.001; OS, 90% vs. 41%, p < 0.001, respectively). Adenocarcinoma was frequently observed in ΔSUVmax < 50% compared to ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% (27.6% vs. 10.3%, p=0.003). In addition, models incorporating metabolic parameters showed improved accuracy for predicting DFS (p=0.012) and OS (p=0.004) than models with clinicopathologic factors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Changes in metabolic parameters, especially those in SUVmax by > 50%, can help improve survival outcome predictions for patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive RT.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> In extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, therapeutic management is difficult in the absence of reliable tool to affirm healing at the end of treatment. In this prospective multicenter study, we evaluated [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET for this purpose. <b>Methods:</b> Forty-two patients out of 55 included patients could be analyzed. Additionally to usual biological, histological and morphological explorations, [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET was performed at diagnosis (PET1), at the end of treatment (PET2), indeed 6 months later. Then patients were followed until 12 months after end of prescribed treatment. <b>Results:</b> PET1 was positive in 97.6% of patients and discovered unknown injured sites in 52.7% of cases. PET2 was positive in 83.3% of uncured patients, and in 82.3% of cured patients. The sum and mean value of SUV<sub>max</sub> measured in PET/CT lesions decreased between PET1 and PET2 in all patients. Mean value of SUV<sub>max</sub> (MSUV) and sum value of SUVmax on PET2 showed the highest AUC on ROC curves for the diagnosis of healing at the end of prescribed treatment; MSUV 3.5 on PET2 had a sensitivity of 76.5% and a specificity of 80.0% to affirm healing at the end of prescribed treatment. <b>Conclusions:</b> [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT was useful at diagnosis, discovering unknown lesions in 52.7% of cases. MSUV on PET2 was the best criteria to affirm healing at the end of prescribed treatment.