Biased action of the CXCR4-targeting drug plerixafor is essential for its superior hematopoietic stem cell mobilization.
ABSTRACT: Following the FDA-approval of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilizer plerixafor, orally available and potent CXCR4 antagonists were pursued. One such proposition was AMD11070, which was orally active and had superior antagonism in vitro; however, it did not appear as effective for HSC mobilization in vivo. Here we show that while AMD11070 acts as a full antagonist, plerixafor acts biased by stimulating β-arrestin recruitment while fully antagonizing G protein. Consequently, while AMD11070 prevents the constitutive receptor internalization, plerixafor allows it and thereby decreases receptor expression. These findings are confirmed by the successful transfer of both ligands' binding sites and action to the related CXCR3 receptor. In vivo, plerixafor exhibits superior HSC mobilization associated with a dramatic reversal of the CXCL12 gradient across the bone marrow endothelium, which is not seen for AMD11070. We propose that the biased action of plerixafor is central for its superior therapeutic effect in HSC mobilization.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that diabetes impairs hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). In this study, we tested whether the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor, differently from G-CSF, is effective in mobilizing HSCs in patients with diabetes. In a prospective study, individuals with and without diabetes (n = 10/group) were administered plerixafor to compare CD34(+) HSC mobilization; plerixafor was equally able to mobilize CD34(+) HSCs in the two groups, whereas in historical data, G-CSF was less effective in patients with diabetes. In a retrospective autologous transplantation study conducted on 706 patients, diabetes was associated with poorer mobilization in patients who received G-CSF with/without chemotherapy, whereas it was not in patients who received G-CSF plus plerixafor. Similarly in an allogeneic transplantation study (n = 335), diabetes was associated with poorer mobilization in patients who received G-CSF. Patients with diabetes who received G-CSF without plerixafor had a lower probability of reaching >50/?L CD34(+) HSCs, independent from confounding variables. In conclusion, diabetes negatively impacted HSC mobilization after G-CSF with or without chemotherapy but had no effect on mobilization induced by G-CSF with plerixafor. This finding has major implications for the care of patients with diabetes undergoing stem cell mobilization and transplantation and for the vascular regenerative potential of bone marrow stem cells.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has curative potential for patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, HSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood are used more frequently than bone marrow. However, current standard mobilizing agents yield grafts that may not contain sufficient HSCs. Here, using murine models, we discovered that FLT3L synergized with plerixafor to mobilize phenotypically defined HSCs and their combination (FP) was superior to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or in combination with plerixafor (GP). Additionally, FP mobilized more regulatory T cells, natural killer cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells compared with G-CSF alone or GP. Both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts mobilized by FP led to long-term survival in transplanted mice. Collectively, FP represents a promising novel and potent mobilization regimen with potential clinical application in both the autologous and allogeneic transplantation settings.
Project description:For infants with SCID, the ideal conditioning regimen before allogeneic HCT would omit cytotoxic chemotherapy to minimize short- and long-term complications. We performed a prospective pilot trial with G-CSF plus plerixafor given to the host to mobilize HSC from their niches. We enrolled six patients who received CD34-selected haploidentical cells and one who received T-replete matched unrelated BM. All patients receiving G-CSF and plerixafor had generally poor CD34(+) cell and Lin(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) CD90(+) CD45RA(-) HSC mobilization, and developed donor T cells, but no donor myeloid or B-cell engraftment. Although well tolerated, G-CSF plus plerixafor alone failed to overcome physical barriers to donor engraftment.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that plerixafor mobilization and apheresis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is safe and can allow collection of sufficient CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) collection for clinical gene therapy applications. However, the quantities of plerixafor-mobilized CD34+ cells vary between different SCD patients for unknown reasons. Twenty-three participants with SCD underwent plerixafor mobilization followed by apheresis, processing, and HSC enrichment under a phase 1 safety and efficacy study conducted at 2 institutions. Linear regression or Spearman's correlation test was used to assess the relationships between various hematologic and clinical parameters with total CD34+ cells/kg collected. Median CD34+ cells/kg after 2 or fewer mobilization and apheresis cycles was 4.0 × 106 (range, 1.5-12.0). Similar to what is observed generally, CD34+ yield correlated negatively with age (P < .001) and positively with baseline (P = .003) and preapheresis blood CD34+ cells/µL (P < .001), and baseline white blood cell (P = .01) and platelet counts (P = .03). Uniquely for SCD, CD34+ cell yields correlated positively with the number of days hydroxyurea was held (for up to 5 weeks, P = .01) and negatively with markers of disease severity, including hospitalization frequency within the preceding year (P = .01) and the number of medications taken for chronic pain (P = .002). Unique SCD-specific technical challenges in apheresis were also associated with reduced CD34+ cell collection efficiency and purification. Here, we describe factors that impact plerixafor mobilization success in patients with SCD, confirming known factors as described in other populations in addition to reporting previously unknown disease specific factors in patients with SCD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03226691.
Project description:The safety and efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization was investigated in adult splenectomized (SPL) and non-SPL patients with thalassemia major, in two clinical trials, using different mobilization modes: granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-alone, G-CSF following pretreatment with hydroxyurea (HU), plerixafor-alone. G-CSF-mobilization was both safe and effective in non-SPL patients. However, in SPL patients the procedure resulted in excessive response to G-CSF, expressed as early hyperleukocytosis necessitating significant dose reduction, and suboptimal CD34(+) cells yields. One-month HU-pretreatment prevented hyperleukocytosis and allowed successful CD34(+) cell collections when an optimal washout period was maintained, but it significantly prolonged the mobilization procedure. Plerixafor resulted in rapid and effective mobilization in both SPL and non-SPL patients and was well-tolerated. For gene therapy of thalassemia, G-CSF or Plerixafor could be used as mobilization agents in non-SPL patients whereas Plerixafor appears to be the mobilization agent of choice in SPL adult thalassemics in terms of safety and efficacy.
Project description:Novel therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) based on genetically engineered autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are critically dependent on a safe and effective strategy for cell procurement. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of plerixafor when used in transfused patients with SCD for HSC mobilization. Six adult patients with SCD were recruited to receive a single dose of plerixafor, tested at lower than standard (180 µg/kg) and standard (240 µg/kg) doses, followed by CD34+ cell monitoring in peripheral blood and apheresis collection. The procedures were safe and well-tolerated. Mobilization was successful, with higher peripheral CD34+ cell counts in the standard vs the low-dose group. Among our 6 donors, we improved apheresis cell collection results by using a deep collection interface and starting apheresis within 4 hours after plerixafor administration. In the subjects who received a single standard dose of plerixafor and followed the optimized collection protocol, yields of up to 24.5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg were achieved. Interestingly, the collected CD34+ cells were enriched in immunophenotypically defined long-term HSCs and early progenitors. Thus, we demonstrate that plerixafor can be employed safely in patients with SCD to obtain sufficient HSCs for potential use in gene therapy.
Project description:Plerixafor?+?granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is administered to patients with lymphoma who are poor mobilizers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Europe. This international, multicenter, non-interventional registry study (NCT01362972) evaluated long-term follow-up of patients with lymphoma who received plerixafor for HSC mobilization versus other mobilization methods. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance baseline characteristics between comparison groups. The following mobilization regimens were compared: G-CSF?+?plerixafor (G?+?P) versus G-CSF alone; G?+?P versus G-CSF?+?chemotherapy (G?+?C); and G-CSF?+?plerixafor?+?chemotherapy (G?+?P?+?C) versus G?+?C. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Overall, 313/3749 (8.3%) eligible patients were mobilized with plerixafor-containing regimens. After propensity score matching, 70 versus 36 patients were matched in the G?+?P versus G-CSF alone cohort, 124 versus 124 in the G?+?P versus G?+?C cohort, and 130 versus 130 in the G?+?P?+?C versus G?+?C cohort. For both PFS and OS, the upper bound of confidence interval for the hazard ratio was >1.3 for all comparisons, implying that non-inferiority was not demonstrated. No major differences in PFS, OS, and CIR were observed between the plerixafor and comparison groups.
Project description:A randomized, multicenter, open-label study explored the effect of a fixed-dose (FD) of plerixafor versus the approved weight-based (WB) dose for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and a body weight of ?70?kg. After mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 10??g/kg/day for 4 days, patients were randomized 1:1 to either plerixafor FD 20?mg (n?=?30) or WB 0.24?mg/kg (n?=?31) on the evening of Day 4. Co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving ?5?×?106 CD34+ cells/kg in ?4 days of apheresis, and total systemic exposure to plerixafor (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 10?h [AUC0-10]). There was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of patients attaining the primary efficacy endpoint (60% FD arm, 55% WB arm; P?=?0.395). Exposure to plerixafor was greater in the FD arm relative to the WB arm; however, there was no appreciable difference regarding fold increases of peripheral blood CD34+ cells. The safety profile was similar between treatment groups. These results suggest there is no statistically significant difference in HSC mobilization with a standard WB dosing regimen of plerixafor plus G-CSF in patients with low body weight compared with an FD regimen.
Project description:High-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation of hematopoietic cells is a crucial treatment option for hematologic malignancy patients. Current mobilization regimes often do not provide adequate numbers of CD34(+) cells. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and ligand SDF-1 are integrally involved in homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Disruption of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis by the CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been demonstrated in Phase II and Phase III trials to improve mobilization when used in conjunction with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This approach is safe with few adverse events and produces significantly greater numbers of CD34(+) cells when compared to G-CSF alone. New plerixafor initiatives include use in volunteer donors for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and in other disease targets.
Project description:Many patients with hematological neoplasms fail to mobilize sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) precluding subsequent autologous HSC transplantation. Plerixafor, a specific antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, can rescue some but not all patients who failed to mobilize with G-CSF alone. These refractory poor mobilizers cannot currently benefit from autologous transplantation. To discover alternative targetable pathways to enhance HSC mobilization, we studied the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the effect of HIF-1? pharmacological stabilization on HSC mobilization in mice. We demonstrate in mice with HSC-specific conditional deletion of the Hif1a gene that the oxygen-labile transcription factor HIF-1? is essential for HSC mobilization in response to G-CSF and Plerixafor. Conversely, pharmacological stabilization of HIF-1? with the 4-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4497 synergizes with G-CSF and Plerixafor increasing mobilization of reconstituting HSCs 20-fold compared with G-CSF plus Plerixafor, currently the most potent mobilizing combination used in the clinic.