The Diels-Alder Approach towards Cannabinoid Derivatives and Formal Synthesis of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
ABSTRACT: Based on the Diels-Alder reaction of vinylchromenes with electron-poor dienophiles, we developed a strategy for the synthesis of tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. Substituted vinyl chromenes could be converted with several dienophiles to successfully isolate several complex molecules. These molecules already contain the cannabinoid-like base structure and further processing of one such derivative led to a precursor of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol. The most challenging step towards this precursor was an epoxidation step that was ultimately achieved via dimethyl dioxirane.
Project description:A formal, metal-free, [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition strategy is described based on a cascade of two pericyclic processes. The first step involves an intramolecular propargylic ene reaction of a 1,6-diyne to generate a vinylallene, which then reacts in an inter- or intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction with an alkenyl or alkynyl dienophile. Reactions involving unsymmetrical alkenyl and alkynyl dienophiles proceed with good to excellent regioselectivity, and the diastereoselectivity in the Diels-Alder step is also high, with endo cycloadducts produced as the exclusive products of the reaction. In the case of alkynyl dienophiles, [4 + 2] cycloaddition initially generates an isotoluene-type intermediate that isomerizes to the isolated aromatic product upon exposure to a catalytic amount of DBU at room temperature. The mechanism of several earlier fully intramolecular related transformations have been shown to involve an analogous process rather than the diradical-mediated pathways proposed previously.
Project description:A stereoselective intermolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition of an intermediate pyrazinone with both achiral and chiral acrylate-derived dienophiles provides rapid access to the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane core shared among several prenylated indole alkaloids. The product derived from cycloaddition with 2-nitroacrylate required an additional five to six synthetic operations to intercept established precursors to premalbrancheamide and brevianamide B. The chemistry detailed in this manuscript constitutes a formal total synthesis (12 steps each) of these [2.2.2]diazabicyclic natural products from proline methyl ester.
Project description:Intramolecular inverse electron demand cycloadditions of isatin-derived 1,2,4-triazines with acetylenic dienophiles tethered by amidations or transesterifications proceed in excellent yields to produce lactam- or lactone-fused ?-carbolines. Beginning with various isatins and alkynyl dienophiles, a pilot-scale library of eighty-eight ?-carbolines was prepared by using this robust methodology for biological evaluation.
Project description:Halocycloalkenones are demonstrated to function as potent dienophiles in inter- and intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloadditions. We have found 2-brominated cycloalkenone dienophiles to be both highly endo selective and significantly more reactive than their nonhalogenated parent compounds. A method for the facile conversion of brominated cyclobutanone DA adducts to synthetically useful cyclopropyl functional handles is described.
Project description:An efficient approach to cyclohexenyl chalcones employing highly electron rich 2'-hydroxychalcone dienophiles via electron transfer-initiated Diels-Alder cycloaddition is described. Using the methodology, the total synthesis of nicolaiodesin C has been accomplished.
Project description:We have found that some of the usually poor dienophiles (2-cycloenones) can undergo Diels-Alder reaction at -78 degrees C with unusually high stereoselectivity in the presence of niobium pentachloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. A remarkable difference in reaction rates for unsubstituted and alpha- or beta-methyl substituted 2-cycloenones was also observed.
Project description:Synthetic access to regiodifferentiated meta-amino phenols is described. The strategy relies upon distinct deprotonation conditions to afford regioisomeric thermodynamic and kinetic dienes that undergo a tandem Diels-Alder and retro-Diels-Alder sequence with assorted acetylenic dienophiles to afford a range of aromatic products.
Project description:After prosperous domino reactions towards benzopyrans, the products were used as the starting material in Lewis acid catalyzed and organocatalytic Diels-Alder reactions to build up a tricyclic system. Herein, an asymmetric induction up to 96% enantiomeric excess was obtained by the use of imidazolidinone catalysts. This approach can be utilized to construct the tricyclic system in numerous natural products, in particular the scaffold of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being the most representative one. Compared with other published methods, condensation with a preexisting cyclohexane moiety in the precursor is needed to gain the heterogenic tricycle systems, whereas we present a novel strategy towards cannabinoid derivatives based on a flexible modular synthesis.
Project description:The synthesis and Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopropenyl ketones are described. Cyclopropenyl ketones are highly reactive dienophiles that can engage a range of cyclic dienes and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene. The strategy of using cyclopropenyl ketones to facilitate Diels-Alder reactions is not limited to products that contain three-membered rings, as reductive opening by SmI2 can be used to produce a product that lacks a cyclopropane but retains a quaternary stereogenic center.
Project description:Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes promote the efficient radical cation Diels-Alder cycloaddition of electron-rich dienophiles upon irradiation with visible light. These reactions enable facile [4 + 2] cycloadditions that would be electronically mismatched under thermal conditions. Key to the success of this methodology is the availability of ligand-modified ruthenium complexes that enable rational tuning of the electrochemical properties of the catalyst without significantly perturbing the overall photophysical properties of the system.