16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing of Contaminated Coastal Sediment Collected from the Taehwa River Estuary, South Korea.
ABSTRACT: The Taehwa River Estuary is one of the largest enclosed bays in east Korea. In order to understand the environment of the Taehwa River Estuary, the microbial diversity in the sediment of the estuary was investigated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The predominant phyla in all locations were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes.
Project description:Deterioration of sediment quality has been found in the Nakdong River Estuary after large-scale reclamations. Here, I report microbial diversity in sediments of Nakdong River Estuary in the Republic of Korea based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes.
Project description:In fast-flowing, river-dominated estuaries, "hotspots" of microbial biogeochemical cycling can be found within areas of extended water retention. Lateral bays located off of the North and South channels of the Columbia River estuary are proposed to be such hotspots. Previous metagenomic studies on water samples indicated that these regions function both as sources and sinks of biogenic particles, with potential to impact organic matter fluxes in the estuary. To extend this work, we analyzed 11 sediment metagenomes from three disparate bays: the freshwater Cathlamet Bay, and the brackish Youngs Bay and more saline Baker Bay located nearer the mouth to the south and north of the main channel, respectively. Samples were collected from upper layers of sediments in August of 2011 and 2013 for DNA extraction and metagenome sequencing. All metagenomes were dominated by bacterial sequences, although diatom sequences as high as 26% of the total annotated sequences were observed in the higher salinity samples. Unsupervised 2D hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the eleven metagenome samples clustered into four groups by microbial taxonomic composition, with Bacteroides, diatom, and phage levels driving most of the grouping. Results of functional gene clustering further indicated that diatom bloom degradation stage (early vs. late) was an important factor. While the Flavobacteriia and Cytophagia classes were well represented in metagenomes containing abundant diatoms, taxa from the Bacteroidia class, along with certain members of the Sphingobacteriia class, were particularly abundant in metagenomes representing later stages of diatom decomposition. In contrast, the sediment metagenomes with low relative abundance of diatom and Bacteroidetes sequences appeared to have a metabolic potential biased toward microbial growth under nutrient limitation. While differences in water salinity clearly also influenced the microbial community composition and metabolic potential, our results highlight a central role for allochthonous labile organic matter (i.e., diatom detritus), in shaping bacterial taxonomic and functional properties in the Columbia River estuary lateral bay sediments. These results suggest that in fast-flowing, river-dominated estuaries, sediment microbial communities in areas of extended water retention, such as the lateral bays, may contribute disproportionately to estuarine organic matter degradation and recycling.
Project description:Sediment fluxes at the estuary-sea interface strongly impact particle matter exchanges between marine and continental sources along the land-sea continuum. However, human activities drive pressures on estuary physical functioning, hence threatening estuarine habitats and their ecosystem services. This study explores a 22-year numerical hindcast of the macrotidal Seine Estuary (France), experiencing contrasted meteorological conditions and anthropogenic changes (i.e., estuary deepening and narrowing). The hindcast was thoroughly validated for both water column and sediment bed dynamics and showed good capacities to simulate annual sediment budgets observed from 1990 to 2015. We aim at disentangling the relative contributions of meteorological and human-induced morphological changes on net sediment fluxes between the estuary and its adjacent coastal sea. Our results highlight that intense wave events induce fine sediment (≤ 100 µm) export to the sea but coarser sediment (≥ 210 µm) import within the estuary. Although intense river discharges induce mud export to the sea, moderate to large river discharges prove to support mud import within the estuary. Wave and river discharge events were less intense in 2005-2015 than in 1990-2000, reducing fine sediment export to the sea. The estuary deepening and narrowing due to human activities increased fine sediment import within the estuary, shifting the estuary from an exporting to importing system. We propose a conceptualization of mud flux response to river discharge and wave forcing, as well as anthropogenic pressures. It provides valuable insights into particle transfers along the land-sea continuum, contributing to a better understanding of estuarine ecosystem trajectories under global changes.
Project description:The Indian River Lagoon, located on the east coast of Florida, USA, is an Estuary of National Significance and an important economic and ecological resource. The Indian River Lagoon faces several environmental pressures, including freshwater discharges through the St. Lucie Estuary; accumulation of anoxic, fine-grained, organic-rich sediment; and metal contamination from agriculture and marinas. Although the Indian River Lagoon has been well-studied, little is known about its microbial communities; thus, a two-year 16S amplicon sequencing study was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal changes of the sediment bacterial and archaeal groups. In general, the Indian River Lagoon exhibited a prokaryotic community that was consistent with other estuarine studies. Statistically different communities were found between the Indian River Lagoon and St. Lucie Estuary due to changes in porewater salinity causing microbes that require salts for growth to be higher in the Indian River Lagoon. The St. Lucie Estuary exhibited more obvious prokaryotic seasonality, such as a higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteriales in wet season and a higher relative abundance of Flavobacteriales in dry season samples. Distance-based linear models revealed these communities were more affected by changes in total organic matter and copper than changes in temperature. Anaerobic prokaryotes, such as Campylobacterales, were more associated with high total organic matter and copper samples while aerobic prokaryotes, such as Nitrosopumilales, were more associated with low total organic matter and copper samples. This initial study fills the knowledge gap on the Indian River Lagoon bacterial and archaeal communities and serves as important data for future studies to compare to determine possible future changes due to human impacts or environmental changes.
Project description:Coastal estuaries and bays are exposed to both natural and anthropogenic environmental changes, inflicting intensive stress on the microbial communities inhabiting these areas. However, it remains unclear how microbial community diversity and their eco-functions are affected by anthropogenic disturbances rather than natural environmental changes. Here, we explored sediment microbial functional genes dynamics and community interaction networks in Hangzhou Bay (HZB), one of the most severely polluted bays on China's eastern coast. The results indicated key microbial functional gene categories, including N, P, S, and aromatic compound metabolism, and stress response, displayed significant spatial dynamics along environmental gradients. Sensitive feedbacks of key functional gene categories to N and P pollutants demonstrated potential impacts of human-induced seawater pollutants to microbial functional capacity. Seawater ammonia and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was identified as primary drivers in selecting adaptive populations and varying community composition. Network analysis revealed distinct modules that were stimulated in inner or outer bay. Importantly, the network keystone species, which played a fundamental role in community interactions, were strongly affected by N-pollutants. Our results provide a systematic understanding of the microbial compositional and functional dynamics in an urbanized coastal estuary, and highlighted the impact of human activities on these communities.
Project description:Contaminated aquifer (Dusseldorf-Flinger, Germany) templates extracted from 5 sediment depths ranging between 6.4 and 8.4 m below ground and over 3 years of sampling were amplified for amplicon pyrosequencing using the primers Ba27f (5’-aga gtt tga tcm tgg ctc ag-3’) and Ba519r (5’- tat tac cgc ggc kgc tg-3’), extended as amplicon fusion primers with respective primer A or B adapters, key sequence and multiplex identifiers (MID) as recommended by 454/Roche. Amplicons were purified and pooled as specified by the manufacturer. Emulsion PCR (emPCR), purification of DNA-enriched beads and sequencing run were performed following protocols and using a 2nd generation pyrosequencer (454 GS FLX Titanium, Roche) as recommended by the developer. Quality filtering of the pyrosequencing reads was performed using the automatic amplicon pipeline of the GS Run Processor (Roche), with a slight modification concerning the valley filter (vfScanAllFlows false instead of TiOnly) to extract the sequences. Demultiplexed raw reads were furhter trimmed for quality and lenght (>250 bp). Overall design: 15 samples examined in total from important plume zones of the aquifer sampled in Feb. 2006, Sep. 2008 and Jun. 2009 (5 every year of sampling).
Project description:Contaminated aquifer (Dusseldorf-Flinger, Germany) templates extracted from 5 sediment depths ranging between 6.4 and 8.4 m below ground and over 3 years of sampling were amplified for amplicon pyrosequencing using the primers Ba27f (5’-aga gtt tga tcm tgg ctc ag-3’) and Ba519r (5’- tat tac cgc ggc kgc tg-3’), extended as amplicon fusion primers with respective primer A or B adapters, key sequence and multiplex identifiers (MID) as recommended by 454/Roche. Amplicons were purified and pooled as specified by the manufacturer. Emulsion PCR (emPCR), purification of DNA-enriched beads and sequencing run were performed following protocols and using a 2nd generation pyrosequencer (454 GS FLX Titanium, Roche) as recommended by the developer. Quality filtering of the pyrosequencing reads was performed using the automatic amplicon pipeline of the GS Run Processor (Roche), with a slight modification concerning the valley filter (vfScanAllFlows false instead of TiOnly) to extract the sequences. Demultiplexed raw reads were furhter trimmed for quality and lenght (>250 bp). 15 samples examined in total from important plume zones of the aquifer sampled in Feb. 2006, Sep. 2008 and Jun. 2009 (5 every year of sampling).
Project description:The community composition of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (ß-AOB) in the River Elbe Estuary was investigated by high throughput sequencing of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) amplicons. In the course of the seasons surface sediment samples from seven sites along the longitudinal profile of the upper Estuary of the Elbe were investigated. We observed striking shifts of the ß-AOB community composition according to space and time. Members of the Nitrosomonas oligotropha-lineage and the genus Nitrosospira were found to be the dominant ß-AOB within the river transect, investigated. However, continuous shifts of balance between members of both lineages along the longitudinal profile were determined. A noticeable feature was a substantial increase of proportion of Nitrosospira-like sequences in autumn and of sequences affiliated with the Nitrosomonas marina-lineage at downstream sites in spring and summer. Slightly raised relative abundances of sequences affiliated with the Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosomonas mobilis-lineage and the Nitrosomonas communis-lineage were found at sampling sites located in the port of Hamburg. Comparisons between environmental parameters and AOB-lineage (ecotype) composition revealed promising clues that processes happening in the fluvial to marine transition zone of the Elbe estuary are reflected by shifts in the relative proportion of ammonia monooxygenase sequence abundance, and hence, we propose ß-AOB as appropriate indicators for environmental dynamics and the ecological condition of the Elbe Estuary.
Project description:Biodiversity monitoring is an essential component of restoration efforts. We sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons from sediments and waters of Hunts Point Riverside Park and Soundview Park, located in a historically degraded but recovering urban estuary in New York. In total, 16,165 unique amplicon sequence variants were recovered, and Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum.
Project description:Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.