Establishment, Validation, and Initial Application of a Sensitive LC-MS/MS Assay for Quantification of the Naturally Occurring Isomers Itaconate, Mesaconate, and Citraconate.
ABSTRACT: Itaconate is derived from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate and links innate immunity and metabolism. Its synthesis is altered in inflammation-related disorders and it therefore has potential as clinical biomarker. Mesaconate and citraconate are naturally occurring isomers of itaconate that have been linked to metabolic disorders, but their functional relationships with itaconate are unknown. We aimed to establish a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for the quantification of itaconate, mesaconate, citraconate, the pro-drug 4-octyl-itaconate, and selected TCA intermediates. The assay was validated for itaconate, mesaconate, and citraconate for intra- and interday precision and accuracy, extended stability, recovery, freeze/thaw cycles, and carry-over. The lower limit of quantification was 0.098 µM for itaconate and mesaconate and 0.049 µM for citraconate in 50 µL samples. In spike-in experiments, itaconate remained stable in human plasma and whole blood for 24 and 8 h, respectively, whereas spiked-in citraconate and mesaconate concentrations changed during incubation. The type of anticoagulant in blood collection tubes affected measured levels of selected TCA intermediates. Human plasma may contain citraconate (0.4-0.6 µM, depending on the donor), but not itaconate or mesaconate, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood induced only itaconate. Concentrations of the three isomers differed greatly among mouse organs: Itaconate and citraconate were most abundant in lymph nodes, mesaconate in kidneys, and only citraconate occurred in brain. This assay should prove useful to quantify itaconate isomers in biomarker and pharmacokinetic studies, while providing internal controls for their effects on metabolism by allowing quantification of TCA intermediates.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, and many other bacteria are able to utilize the C5-dicarboxylic acid itaconate (methylenesuccinate). Itaconate degradation starts with its activation to itaconyl coenzyme A (itaconyl-CoA), which is further hydrated to (S)-citramalyl-CoA, and citramalyl-CoA is finally cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. The xenobiotic-degrading betaproteobacterium Burkholderia xenovorans possesses a P. aeruginosa-like itaconate degradation gene cluster and is able to grow on itaconate and its isomer mesaconate (methylfumarate). Although itaconate degradation proceeds in B. xenovorans in the same way as in P. aeruginosa, the pathway of mesaconate utilization is not known. Here, we show that mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. As this enzyme (Bxe_A3136) has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration, we conclude that B. xenovorans class I fumarase is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source.
Project description:Bio-based platform molecules such as itaconic, fumaric, and muconic acid offer much promise in the formation of sustainable unsaturated polyester resins upon reaction with suitable diols and polyols. The C=C bonds present in these polyester chains allows for post-polymerization modification and such moieties are conventionally utilized in curing processes during the manufacture of coatings. The C=C modification sites can also act as points to add useful pendants which can alter the polymers final properties such as glass transition temperature, biodegradability, hardness, polarity, and strength. A commonly observed modification is the addition of secondary amines via an aza-Michael addition. Conventional procedures for the addition of amines onto itaconate polyesters require reaction times of several days as a result of undesired side reactions, in particular, the formation of the less reactive mesaconate regioisomer. The slow reversion of the mesaconate back to itaconate, followed by subsequent amine addition, is the primary reason for such extended reaction times. Herein we report our efforts toward finding a suitable catalyst for the aza-Michael addition of diethylamine onto a model substrate, dimethyl itaconate, with the aim of being able to add amine onto the itaconate units without excessive regioisomerization to the inactive mesaconate. A catalyst screen showed that iodine on acidic alumina results in an effective, heterogeneous, reusable catalyst for the investigated aza-Michael addition. Extending the study further, itaconate polyester was prepared by Candida Antartica Lipase B (CaL-B) via enzymatic polytranesterification and subsequently modified with diethylamine using the iodine on acidic alumina catalyst, dramatically reducing the required length of reaction (>70% addition after 4 h). The approach represents a multidisciplinary example whereby biocatalytic polymerization is combined with chemocatalytic modification of the resultant polyester for the formation of useful bio-based polyesters.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)/pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) axis directs the universal survival principles of immune resistance and tolerance in monocytes by controlling anabolic and catabolic energetics. Immune resistance shifts to immune tolerance during inflammatory shock syndromes when inactivation of PDC by increased PDK activity disrupts the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle support of anabolic pathways. The transition from immune resistance to tolerance also diverts the TCA cycle from citrate-derived cis-aconitate to itaconate, a recently discovered catabolic mediator that separates the TCA cycle at isocitrate and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Itaconate inhibits succinate dehydrogenase and its anabolic role in mitochondrial ATP generation. We previously reported that inhibiting PDK in septic mice with dichloroacetate (DCA) increased TCA cycle activity, reversed septic shock, restored innate and adaptive immune and organ function, and increased survival. Here, using unbiased metabolomics in a monocyte culture model of severe acute inflammation that simulates sepsis reprogramming, we show that DCA-induced activation of PDC restored anabolic energetics in inflammatory monocytes while increasing TCA cycle intermediates, decreasing itaconate, and increasing amino acid anaplerotic catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Our study provides new mechanistic insight that the DCA-stimulated PDC homeostat reconfigures the TCA cycle and promotes anabolic energetics in monocytes by reducing levels of the catabolic mediator itaconate. It further supports the theory that PDC is an energy sensing and signaling homeostat that restores metabolic and energy fitness during acute inflammation.
Project description:1. Cell-free extracts, prepared from a non-fluorescent Pseudomonas grown on m-cresol, oxidized gentisate and certain alkyl-substituted gentisates with the consumption of 1 mol of oxygen and the formation of 1 mol of pyruvate from 1 mol of substrate. 2. In addition to pyruvate, malate was formed from gentisate; citramalate was formed from 3-methylgentisate and 4-methylgentisate; 2,3-dimethylmalate was formed from 3,4-dimethylgentisate. 3. One enantiomer, d-(-)-citramalate, was formed enzymically from 3-methylgentisate, 4-methylgentisate and citraconate. l-(+)-Citramalate was formed from mesaconate by the same extracts. When examined as its dimethyl ester by gas-liquid chromatography, enzymically formed 2,3-dimethylmalate showed the same behaviour as one of the two racemates prepared from the synthetic compound. 4. Maleate, citraconate and 2,3-dimethylmaleate were rapidly hydrated by cell extracts, but ethylfumarate and 2,3-dimethylfumarate were not attacked. 5. Cell extracts oxidized 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate to give pyruvate and phthalate. 6. Alkylgentisates were oxidized by a gentisate oxygenase (EC 184.108.40.206) present in Pseudomonas 2,5. The ring-fission products were attacked by maleylpyruvase, but not by fumarylpyruvase, and their u.v.-absorption spectra were those expected for alkyl-substituted maleylpyruvates. 7. When supplemented with ATP, CoA, succinate and Mg(2+) ions, an enzyme system from cells grown with 2,5-xylenol formed pyruvate from d- but not from l-citramalate. Extracts from cells grown with dl-citramalate or with itaconate attacked both d- and l-citramalate; other alkylmalates were cleaved in similar fashion to give pyruvate or 2-oxobutyrate. 8. These results accord with a general sequence of reactions in which the benzene nucleus of an alkylgentisate is cleaved to give an alkyl-substituted maleylpyruvate. The ring-fission products are hydrolysed to give pyruvate, plus alkylmalic acids which then undergo aldol fissions, probably as their CoA esters. In Pseudomonas 2,5 several homologous sequences of this general type appear to be catalysed by a single battery of enzymes with broad substrate specificities, whereas the metabolic capabilities of the fluorescent Pseudomonas 3,5 are more restricted. 9. Intact cells of both organisms metabolize d-malic acid by reactions that have not been elucidated, but are different from those which degrade alkylmalates.
Project description:Macrophage activation in response to LPS is coupled to profound metabolic changes, typified by accumulation of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, itaconate, and succinate. We have identified that endogenous type I IFN controls the cellular citrate/?-ketoglutarate ratio and inhibits expression and activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH); and, via 13C-labeling studies, demonstrated that autocrine type I IFN controls carbon flow through IDH in LPS-activated macrophages. We also found that type I IFN-driven IL-10 contributes to inhibition of IDH activity and itaconate synthesis in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our findings have identified the autocrine type I IFN pathway as being responsible for the inhibition of IDH in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
Project description:Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. They are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and were recently described as biomarkers of complex diseases like the metabolic syndrome. Quantification of acylcarnitine species can become challenging because various species occur as isomers and/or have very low concentrations. Here we describe a new LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 56 acylcarnitine species with acyl-chain lengths from C2 to C18. Our method includes amino acid-derived positional isomers, like methacrylyl-carnitine (2-M-C3:1-CN) and crotonyl-carnitine (C4:1-CN), and odd-numbered carbon species, like pentadecanoyl-carnitine (C15:0-CN) and heptadecanoyl-carnitine (C17:0-CN), occurring at very low concentrations in plasma and tissues. Method validation in plasma and liver samples showed high sensitivity and excellent accuracy and precision. In an application to samples from streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, we identified significantly increased concentrations of acylcarnitines derived from branched-chain amino acid degradation and of odd-numbered straight-chain species, recently proposed as potential biomarkers for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method presented here allows robust quantification of isomeric acylcarnitine species and extends the palette of acylcarnitines with diagnostic potential derived from fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Project description:Itaconic acid is an important platform chemical that can easily be incorporated into polymers and has the potential to replace petrochemical-based acrylic or methacrylic acid. A number of microorganisms have been developed for the biosynthesis of itaconate including Aspergillus terreus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the number of strains and conditions that can be tested for increased itaconate titers are currently limited because of the lack of high-throughput screening methods. Here we identified itaconate-inducible promoters and their corresponding LysR-type transcriptional regulators from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that the YpItcR/P ccl inducible system is highly inducible by itaconic acid in the model gammaproteobacterium E. coli and the betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus necator (215- and 105-fold, respectively). The kinetics and dynamics of the YpItcR/P ccl inducible system are investigated, and we demonstrate, that in addition to itaconate, the genetically encoded biosensor is capable of detecting mesaconate, cis-, and trans-aconitate in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the fluorescence-based biosensor is applied in E. coli to identify the optimum expression level of cadA, the product of which catalyzes the conversion of cis-aconitate into itaconate. The fluorescence output is shown to correlate well with itaconate concentrations quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet spectroscopy. This work highlights the potential of the YpItcR/P ccl inducible system to be applied as a biosensor for high-throughput microbial strain development to facilitate improved itaconate biosynthesis.
Project description:The metabolic signaling pathways that drive pathologic tissue inflammation and damage in humans with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are not well understood. Using combined methods in plasma high-resolution metabolomics, lipidomics and cytokine profiling from a multicohort study of humans with pulmonary TB disease, we discovered that IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling was closely associated with TCA cycle remodeling, characterized by accumulation of the proinflammatory metabolite succinate and decreased concentrations of the anti-inflammatory metabolite itaconate. This inflammatory metabolic response was particularly active in persons with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB that received at least 2 months of ineffective treatment and was only reversed after 1 year of appropriate anti-TB chemotherapy. Both succinate and IL-1β were significantly associated with proinflammatory lipid signaling, including increases in the products of phospholipase A2, increased arachidonic acid formation, and metabolism of arachidonic acid to proinflammatory eicosanoids. Together, these results indicate that decreased itaconate and accumulation of succinate and other TCA cycle intermediates is associated with IL-1β-mediated proinflammatory eicosanoid signaling in pulmonary TB disease. These findings support host metabolic remodeling as a key driver of pathologic inflammation in human TB disease.
Project description:Itaconate is a small molecule metabolite that is endogenously produced by cis-aconitate decarboxylase-1 (ACOD1) in mammalian cells and influences numerous cellular processes. The metabolic consequences of itaconate in cells are diverse and contribute to its regulatory function. Here, we have applied isotope tracing and mass spectrometry approaches to explore how itaconate impacts various metabolic pathways in cultured cells. Itaconate is a competitive and reversible inhibitor of Complex II/succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that alters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism leading to succinate accumulation. Upon activation with coenzyme A (CoA), itaconyl-CoA inhibits adenosylcobalamin-mediated methylmalonyl-CoA (MUT) activity and, thus, indirectly impacts branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and fatty acid diversity. Itaconate, therefore, alters the balance of CoA species in mitochondria through its impacts on TCA, amino acid, vitamin B<sub>12</sub>, and CoA metabolism. Our results highlight the diverse metabolic pathways regulated by itaconate and provide a roadmap to link these metabolites to potential downstream biological functions.