The Composition of Root-Associated Bacteria and Fungi of Astragalus mongholicus and Their Relationship With the Bioactive Ingredients.
ABSTRACT: Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains several bioactive ingredients. The root-associated microbial communities play a crucial role in the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, the correlation of root-associated bacteria and fungi with the bioactive ingredients production in A. mongholicus has not been elucidated. This study aimed to examine the changes in soil properties, root bioactive ingredients, and microbial communities in different cultivation years. The root-associated bacterial and fungal composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The correlation between root-associated bacteria and fungi, soil properties, and six major bioactive ingredients were examined using multivariate correlation analysis. Results showed that soil properties and bioactive ingredients were distinct across different cultivation years. The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome was different from that of the root endosphere microbiome. The bacterial community structure was affected by the cultivation year and exhibited a time-decay pattern. Soil properties affected the fungal community composition. It was found that 18 root-associated bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and four fungal OTUs were positively and negatively correlated with bioactive ingredient content, respectively. The abundance of Stenotrophomonas in the rhizosphere was positively correlated with astragaloside content. Phyllobacterium and Inquilinus in the endosphere were positively correlated with the calycosin content. In summary, this study provided a new opportunity and theoretical reference for improving the production and quality of in A. mongholicus, which thus increase the pharmacological value of A. mongholicus.
Project description:Plant-associated microbiomes are key determinants of host-plant fitness, productivity, and function. However, compared to bacterial community, we still lack fundamental knowledge concerning the variation in the fungal microbiome at the plant niche level. In this study, we quantified the fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil, as well as leaf and root endosphere compartments of a subtropical island shrub, Mussaenda kwangtungensis, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We found that fungal microbiomes varied significantly across different plant compartments. Rhizosphere soil exhibited the highest level of fungal diversity, whereas the lowest level was found in the leaf endosphere. Further, the fungal communities inhabiting the root endosphere shared a greater proportion of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with rhizosphere communities than with leaf fungal endophyte communities, despite significant separation in community structure between the two belowground compartments. The fungal co-occurrence networks in the three compartments of M. kwangtungensis showed scale-free features and non-random co-occurrence patterns and matched the topological properties of small-world and evidently modular structure. Additionally, the rhizosphere network was more complex and showed higher centrality and connectedness than the leaf and root endosphere networks. Overall, our findings provide comprehensive insights into the structural variability, niche differentiation, and co-occurrence patterns in the plant associated fungal microbiome.
Project description:Background:Our aim was to explore how the ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree, Quercus acutissima, with a commercial truffle, Chinese black truffle (Tuber indicum), affects the host plant physiology and shapes the associated microbial communities in the surrounding environment during the early stage of symbiosis. Methods:To achieve this, changes in root morphology and microscopic characteristics, plant physiology indices, and the rhizosphere soil properties were investigated when six-month-old ectomycorrhizae were synthesized. Meanwhile, next-generation sequencing technology was used to analyze the bacterial and fungal communities in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil inoculated with T. indicum or not. Results:The results showed that colonization by T. indicum significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase in roots but significantly decreased the root activity. The biomass, leaf chlorophyll content and root peroxidase activity did not obviously differ. Ectomycorrhization of Q. acutissima with T. indicum affected the characteristics of the rhizosphere soil, improving the content of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and available nitrogen. The bacterial and fungal community composition in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil was altered by T. indicum colonization, as was the community richness and diversity. The dominant bacteria in all the samples were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the dominant fungi were Eukaryota_norank, Ascomycota, and Mucoromycota. Some bacterial communities, such as Streptomyces, SM1A02, and Rhizomicrobium were more abundant in the ectomycorrhizae or ectomycorrhizosphere soil. Tuber was the second-most abundant fungal genus, and Fusarium was present at lower amounts in the inoculated samples. Discussion:Overall, the symbiotic relationship between Q. acutissima and T. indicum had an obvious effect on host plant physiology, soil properties, and microbial community composition in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil, which could improve our understanding of the symbiotic relationship between Q. acutissima and T. indicum, and may contribute to the cultivation of truffle.
Project description:Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.
Project description:Mangrove forest trees play important ecological functions at the interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, despite playing crucial roles in plant health and productivity, there is little information on microbiomes of the tree species in mangrove ecosystems. Thus, in this study we aimed to characterize the microbiome in soil (rhizosphere) and plant (root, stem, and leaf endosphere) compartments of the widely distributed mangrove tree <i>Rhizophora stylosa</i>. Surprisingly, bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were only confidently detected in rhizosphere soil, while fungal OTUs were detected in all soil and plant compartments. The major detected bacterial phyla were affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. Several nitrogen-fixing bacterial OTUs were detected, and the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was confirmed by <i>nifH</i> gene based-PCR in all rhizosphere soil samples, indicating their involvement in N acquisition in the focal mangrove ecosystem. We detected taxonomically (54 families, 83 genera) and functionally diverse fungi in the <i>R. stylosa</i> mycobiome. Ascomycota (mainly Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) were most diverse in the mycobiome, accounting for 86% of total detected fungal OTUs. We found significant differences in fungal taxonomic and functional community composition among the soil and plant compartments. We also detected significant differences in fungal OTU richness (<i>p</i> < 0.002) and community composition (<i>p</i> < 0.001) among plant compartments. The results provide the first information on the microbiome of rhizosphere soil to leaf compartments of mangrove trees and associated indications of ecological functions in mangrove ecosystems.
Project description:Mangrove roots harbor a repertoire of microbial taxa that contribute to important ecological functions in mangrove ecosystems. However, the diversity, function, and assembly of mangrove root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche remain elusive. Here, we applied amplicon and metagenome sequencing to investigate the bacterial and fungal communities among four compartments (nonrhizosphere, rhizosphere, episphere, and endosphere) of mangrove roots. We found different distribution patterns for both bacterial and fungal communities in all four root compartments, which could be largely due to niche differentiation along the root compartments and exudation effects of mangrove roots. The functional pattern for bacterial and fungal communities was also divergent within the compartments. The endosphere harbored more genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid transport, and methane production, and fewer genes were found to be involved in sulfur reduction compared to other compartments. The dynamics of root-associated microbial communities revealed that 56-74% of endosphere bacterial taxa were derived from nonrhizosphere, whereas no fungal OTUs of nonrhizosphere were detected in the endosphere. This indicates that roots may play a more strictly selective role in the assembly of the fungal community compared to the endosphere bacterial community, which is consistent with the projections established in an amplification-selection model. This study reveals the divergence in the diversity and function of root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche, thereby highlighting a strictly selective role of soil-root interfaces in shaping the fungal community structure in the mangrove root systems.
Project description:Plant microbiota is a key determinant of plant health and productivity. The composition and structure of plant microbiota varies according to plant tissue and compartment, which are specific habitats for microbial colonization. To investigate the structural composition of the microbiome associated with tomato roots under natural systems, we characterized the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of three belowground compartments (rhizosphere, endosphere, and bulk soil) of tomato plants collected from 23 greenhouses in 7 geographic locations of South Korea. The microbial diversity and structure varied by rhizocompartment, with the most distinctive community features found in the endosphere. The bacterial and fungal communities in the bulk soil and rhizosphere were correlated with soil physicochemical properties, such as pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable cation levels, while this trend was not evident in the endosphere samples. A small number of core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in all samples from the rhizosphere and endosphere represented more than 60% of the total relative abundance. Among these core microbes, OTUs belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Streptomyces, and Variovorax, members of which are known to have beneficial effects on plant growth, were more relatively abundant in the endosphere samples. A co-occurrence network analysis indicated that the microbial community in the rhizosphere had a larger and more complex network than those in the bulk soil and endosphere. The analysis also identified keystone taxa that might play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions in the community. Additionally, profiling of predicted gene functions identified many genes associated with membrane transport in the endospheric and rhizospheric communities. Overall, the data presented here provide preliminary insight into bacterial, archaeal, and fungal phylogeny, functionality, and interactions in the rhizocompartments of tomato roots under real-world environments.
Project description:Background:The plant microbiome is one of the key determinants of plant health and metabolite production. The plant microbiome affects the plant's absorption of nutrient elements, improves plant tolerance to negative environmental factors, increases the accumulation of active components, and alters tissue texture. The microbial community is also important for the accumulation of secondary metabolites by plants. However, there are few studies on the niche differentiation of endophytic microorganisms of plants, especially at different elevations. Methods:We investigated the effects of altitude on the community composition of endophytic fungal communities and the differentiation of endophytic microorganisms among different niches in Paris polyphylla Sm. The rhizosphere soil, roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild-type P. polyphylla Sm. at different altitudes were sampled, and the fungal communities of all samples were analyzed by internal transcribed spacer one amplification sequencing. Results:The results showed that in rhizosphere soil, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that could be classified or identified decreased significantly with increasing altitude, whereas in the endosphere of plants, the total number of OTUs was higher at intermediate altitudes than other altitudes. Furthermore, the structural variability in the rhizosphere fungal community was significantly lower than that in the endophytic communities. In addition, our results confirmed the presence of niche differentiation among members of the endophytic microbial community. Finally, we also determined that the predominant genus of mycobiota in the rhizome was Cadophora. This study provides insight into the relationships between the endosphere microbiome and plants and can guide the artificial cultivation of this plant.
Project description:Wheat crop production needs nitrogen (N) for ensuring yield and quality. High doses of inorganic N fertilizer are applied to soil before sowing (basal dressing), with additional doses supplied along the cultivation (top dressing). Here, a long-term wheat field trial (12 plots), including four conditions (control, N top dressing, Trichoderma harzianum T34 seed-inoculation, and top dressing plus T34) in triplicate, was performed to assess, under high basal N fertilization, the influence of these treatments on crop yield and root microbial community shaping. Crop yield was not affected by top dressing and T. harzianum T34, but top dressing significantly increased grain protein and gluten contents. Twenty-seven-week old wheat plants were collected at 12 days after top dressing application and sampled as bulk soil, rhizosphere and root endosphere compartments in order to analyze their bacterial and fungal assemblies by 16S rDNA and ITS2 high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Significant differences for bacterial and fungal richness and diversity were detected among the three compartments with a microbial decline from bulk soil to root endosphere. The most abundant wheat root phyla were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria for bacteria, and Ascomycota and Basidiomycota for fungi. An enrichment of genera commonly associated with soils subjected to chemical N fertilization was observed: Kaistobacter, Mortierella, and Solicoccozyma in bulk soil, Olpidium in rhizosphere, and Janthinobacterium and Pedobacter in root endosphere. Taxa whose abundance significantly differed among conditions within each compartment were identified. Results show that: (i) single or strain T34-combined application of N top dressing affected to a greater extent the bulk soil bacterial levels than the use of T34 alone; (ii) when N top dressing and T34 were applied in combination, the N fertilizer played a more decisive role in the bacterial microbiome than T34; (iii) many genera of plant beneficial bacteria, negatively affected by N top dressing, were increased by the application of T34 alone; (iv) bulk soil and rhizosphere fungal microbiomes were affected by any of the three treatments assayed; and (v) all treatments reduced Claroideoglomus in bulk soil but the single application of T34 raised the rhizosphere levels of this mycorrhizal fungus.
Project description:Recent microbiome research has shown that soil fertility, plant-associated microbiome, and crop production can be affected by abiotic environmental parameters. The effect of aridity gradient on rhizosphere-soil (rhizosphere) and endosphere-root (endosphere) prokaryotic structure and diversity associated with cacti remain poorly investigated and understood. In the current study, next-generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the diversity and composition of bacteria and archaea associated with the rhizosphere and endosphere of Opuntia ficus-indica spineless cacti in four bioclimatic zones (humid, semi-arid, upper-arid, and lower-arid) in Tunisia. Our findings showed that bacterial and archaeal cactus microbiomes changed in inside and outside roots and along the aridity gradient. Plant compartment and aridity gradient were the influencing factors on the differentiation of microbial communities in rhizosphere and endosphere samples. The co-occurrence correlations between increased and decreased OTUs in rhizosphere and endosphere samples and soil parameters were determined according to the aridity gradient. Blastococcus, Geodermatophilus, Pseudonocardia, Promicromonospora, and Sphingomonas were identified as prevailing hubs and were considered as specific biomarkers taxa, which could play a crucial role on the aridity stress. Overall, our findings highlighted the prominence of the climatic aridity gradient on the equilibrium and diversity of microbial community composition in the rhizosphere and endosphere of cactus.
Project description:Microbes can colonize plant roots to modulate plant health and environmental fitness. Thus, using microbes to improve plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses will be promising to abate the heavy reliance of management systems on synthetic chemicals and limited resource. This is particularly important for turfgrass systems because intensive management for plant available nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), water, and pest control is necessary to maintain a healthy and aesthetic landscape. However, little is known on microbial species and host compatibility in turfgrass root endosphere and rhizosphere. Here, by using marker gene high throughput sequencing approaches we demonstrated that a few bacterial and fungal species prevailed the root endosphere and rhizosphere and were of a broad host spectrum. Irrespective of turfgrass species (bermudagrass, ultradwarf bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass, and tall fescue), defoliation intensities (i.e., mowing height and frequency), turfgrass sites, and sampling time, <i>Pseudomonas veronii</i> was predominant in the root endosphere, constituting ∼38% of the total bacterial community, which was much higher than its presence in the bulk soil (∼0.5%) and rhizosphere (∼4.6%). By contrast, <i>Janthinobacterium lividum</i> and fungal species of the genus <i>Pseudogymnoascus</i> were more abundant in the rhizosphere, constituting ∼15 and ∼ 39% of the total bacterial and fungal community, respectively, compared to their respective presence in the bulk soil (∼ 0.1 and 5%) and root endosphere (∼ 0.8 and 0.3%). Such stark contrasts in the microbiome composition between the root endosphere, rhizosphere, and bulk soil were little influenced by turfgrass species, suggesting the broad turfgrass host compatibility of these bacterial and fungal species. Further, their dominance in respective niches were mutually unaffected, implying the possibility of developing a multiple species formula for coping turfgrass with environmental stresses. These species were likely involved in controlling pests, such as infectious nematodes and fungi, decomposing root debris, and helping turfgrass water and nutrient uptake; yet these possibilities need to be further examined.