Modified secreted alkaline phosphatase as an improved reporter protein for N-glycosylation analysis.
ABSTRACT: N-glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification of proteins in eukaryotic cells. The modification is often analyzed in cells which are able to produce extracellular, glycosylated proteins. Here we report an improved method of the use of genetically modified, secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a reporter glycoprotein which may be used for glycoanalysis. Additional N-glycosylation sites introduced by site-directed mutagenesis significantly increased secretion of the protein. An improved purification protocol of recombinant SEAP from serum or serum-free media is also proposed. The method enables fast and efficient separation of reporter glycoprotein from a relatively small amount of medium (0.5-10 ml) with a high recovery level. As a result, purified SEAP was ready for enzymatic de-glycosylation without buffer exchange, sample volume reductions or other procedures, which are usually time-consuming and may cause partial loss of the reporter glycoprotein.
Project description:The ability to map patterns of gene expression noninvasively in living animals could have impact in many areas of biology. Reporter systems compatible with MRI could be particularly valuable, but existing strategies tend to lack sensitivity or specificity. Here we address the challenge of MRI-based gene mapping using the reporter enzyme secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), in conjunction with a water-soluble metalloporphyrin contrast agent. SEAP cleaves the porphyrin into an insoluble product that accumulates at sites of enzyme expression and can be visualized by MRI and optical absorbance. The contrast mechanism functions in vitro, in brain slices, and in animals. The system also provides the possibility of readout both in the living animal and by postmortem histology, and it notably does not require intracellular delivery of the contrast agent. The solubility switch mechanism used to detect SEAP could be adapted for imaging of additional reporter enzymes or endogenous targets.
Project description:We designed and engineered a dye production cassette encoding a heterologous pathway, including human tyrosine hydroxylase and Amanita muscaria 4,5-DOPA dioxygenase, for the biosynthesis of the betaxanthin family of plant and fungal pigments in mammalian cells. The system does not impair cell viability, and can be used as a non-protein reporter system to directly visualize the dynamics of gene expression by profiling absorbance or fluorescence in the supernatant of cell cultures, as well as for fluorescence labeling of individual cells. Pigment profiling can also be multiplexed with reporter proteins such as mCherry or the human model glycoprotein SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase). Furthermore, absorbance measurement with a smartphone camera using standard application software enables inexpensive, low-tech reporter quantification.
Project description:We aimed to produce an estrogen-responsive reporter plasmid that would permit monitoring of estrogen receptor function in the uterus in vivo. The plasmid pBL-tk-CAT(+)ERE was induced by estrogen in bovine endometrial stromal cells. When the CAT gene was replaced by the secreted alkaline phosphatase SeAP, the resulting construct pBL-tk-SeAP(+)ERE remained estrogen responsive. However when the tk promoter was replaced by the cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter, the resulting plasmid (pBL-cmv-SeAP(+)ERE) was not estrogen responsive. Inhibition of ERE function was not due to an effect in trans or due to lack of estrogen receptor. It was not due to an interaction between the cmv promoter and the SeAP gene. cmv promoter function was dependent on NF-kappaB, and mutagenesis in the NF-kappaB sites reduced basal reporter expression without imparting responsiveness to estrogen. A mutation in the TATA box also failed to impart estrogen responsiveness. Modeling of DNA accessibility indicated the ERE was inserted at a site accessible to transcription factors. We conclude that the cmv promoter inhibits ERE function in cis when the two sequences are located in the same construct, and that this effect does not involve an interaction between cmv and reporter gene, NF-kappaB sites or the TATA box, or DNA inaccessibility.
Project description:This study aimed to identify alternative anti-inflammatory compounds that modulate the activity of a relevant transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ). C/EBPδ is a master regulator of inflammatory responses in macrophages (Mϕ) and is mainly regulated at the level of <i>CEBPD</i> gene transcription initiation. To screen for <i>CEBPD</i>-modulating compounds, we generated a THP-1-derived reporter cell line stably expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under control of the defined <i>CEBPD</i> promoter (<i>CEBPD::SEAP</i>). A high-throughput screening of LOPAC<sup>®1280</sup> and ENZO<sup>®774</sup> libraries on LPS- and IFN-γ-activated THP-1 reporter Mϕ identified four epigenetically active hits: two bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors, I-BET151 and Ro 11-1464, as well as two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, SAHA and TSA. All four hits markedly and reproducibly upregulated SEAP secretion and <i>CEBPD::SEAP</i> mRNA expression, confirming screening assay reliability. Whereas BET inhibitors also upregulated the mRNA expression of the endogenous <i>CEBPD</i>, HDAC inhibitors completely abolished it. All hits displayed anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of <i>IL-6</i> and <i>CCL2</i> gene expression. However, I-BET151 and HDAC inhibitors simultaneously upregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory <i>IL-1ß</i>. The modulation of CEBPD gene expression shown in this study contributes to our understanding of inflammatory responses in Mϕ and may offer an approach to therapy for inflammation-driven disorders.
Project description:The direct association of the genome, transcriptome, metabolome, lipidome and proteome with the serum glycome has revealed systems of interconnected cellular pathways. The exact roles of individual glycoproteomes in the context of disease have yet to be elucidated. In a move toward personalized medicine, it is now becoming critical to understand disease pathogenesis, and the traits, stages, phenotypes and molecular features that accompany it, as the disruption of a whole system. To this end, we have developed an innovative technology on an automated platform, "GlycoSeqCap," which combines N-glycosylation data from six glycoproteins using a single source of human serum. Specifically, we multiplexed and optimized a successive serial capture and glycoanalysis of six purified glycoproteins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), transferrin (Trf), haptoglobin (Hpt) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), from 50 ?l of human serum. We provide the most comprehensive and in-depth glycan analysis of individual glycoproteins in a single source of human serum to date. To demonstrate the technological application in the context of a disease model, we performed a pilot study in an ovarian cancer cohort (n = 34) using discrimination and classification analyses to identify aberrant glycosylation. In our sample cohort, we exhibit improved selectivity and specificity over the currently used biomarker for ovarian cancer, CA125, for early stage ovarian cancer. This technology will establish a new state-of-the-art strategy for the characterization of individual serum glycoproteomes as a diagnostic and monitoring tool which represents a major step toward understanding the changes that take place during disease.
Project description:RP215 monoclonal antibody was shown to react with carbohydrate-associated epitope(s) in cancer cell-expressed glycoproteins known as CA215 based on indirect experimental evidences. Efforts have been made to identify glycans in CA215 that may be involved in the epitope recognition. More than 100 tryptic peptides, derived from affinity-purified CA215, consist mainly of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins (~60%), mucins (~7%), and others. Glycoanalysis was performed with affinity-purified CA215 from two cancer cell lines, including (1) N- and O-linked glycan profilings and linked glycoanalysis, (2) glycosylation site mappings, and (3) treatments with selected glycolytic enzymes. High mannose and complex bisecting structures with terminal sialic acid (NeuAc or NeuGc) were detected in N-glycans, whereas as many as 10 O-glycans structurally similar to those of mucins were identified. Through glycosylation site mappings, two N-linked and six out of eight O-linked glycans were detected and matched almost 100% with human immunoglobulin heavy chains. Treatments with several glycolytic enzymes were found to have little effect on the immunoactivity of the RP215-epitope. The same activity was also not affected by the cancer cell culture in human serum instead of bovine serum, indicating that NeuAc and NeuGc are not involved in epitope recognition. The immunoassay results also suggested that the affinity-purified cancer cell-expressed immunoglobulins revealed similar structures and immunoactivities to those of normal human immunoglobulins, except that two additional O-glycans were detected in the former. <i>Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of</i> Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry <i>to view the free supplemental file</i>.
Project description:A new recombinant phenotyping method was developed for the analysis of drug resistance mutations in human cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV strain T2211 was derived from strain AD169 by inserting unique restriction sites and a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene for rapid viral quantitation. Specific viral UL97 and pol gene mutations were transferred by recombination into T2211, and their drug resistance phenotypes (for ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir) were determined by the drug concentrations required to reduce supernatant SEAP activity by 50% (IC50). Changes in the IC50 conferred by the mutations tested (UL97 M460V, C592G, A594V, and L595S and pol del981-2) were similar to those previously reported in marker transfer and conventional plaque reduction assays. The combination of UL97 C592G and pol del981-2 conferred much higher ganciclovir resistance than either mutation alone. The UL97 polymorphism D605E had no measurable effect on ganciclovir susceptibility, alone or in combination with common UL97 resistance mutations. Transfer into strain T2211 facilitates the phenotyping of newly observed mutations, combinations of mutations, and clinical CMV sequences without an accompanying viral isolate.
Project description:Glycosylation is the most common post-translational modification of serum proteins, and changes in the type and abundance of glycans in human serum have been correlated with a growing number of human diseases. While the glycosylation pattern of human serum is well studied, little is known about the profiles of other mammalian species. Here, we report detailed glycosylation profiling of canine serum by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-ultraperformance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) and mass spectrometry. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a widely used model organism and of considerable interest for a large veterinary community. We found significant differences in the serum N-glycosylation profile of dogs compared to that of humans, such as a lower abundance of galactosylated and sialylated glycans. We also compare the N-glycan profile of canine serum to that of canine IgG - the most abundant serum glycoprotein. Our data will serve as a baseline reference for future studies when performing serum analyses of various health and disease states in dogs.
Project description:N-glycosylation, a posttranslational modification required for the accurate folding and stability of many proteins, has been observed in organisms of all domains of life. Although the haloarchaeal S-layer glycoprotein was the first prokaryotic glycoprotein identified, little is known about the glycosylation of other haloarchaeal proteins. We demonstrate here that the glycosylation of Haloferax volcanii flagellins requires archaeal glycosylation (Agl) components involved in S-layer glycosylation and that the deletion of any Hfx. volcanii agl gene impairs its swimming motility to various extents. A comparison of proteins in CsCl density gradient centrifugation fractions from supernatants of wild-type Hfx. volcanii and deletion mutants lacking the oligosaccharyltransferase AglB suggests that when the Agl glycosylation pathway is disrupted, cells lack stable flagella, which purification studies indicate consist of a major flagellin, FlgA1, and a minor flagellin, FlgA2. Mass spectrometric analyses of FlgA1 confirm that its three predicted N-glycosylation sites are modified with covalently linked pentasaccharides having the same mass as that modifying its S-layer glycoprotein. Finally, the replacement of any of three predicted N-glycosylated asparagines of FlgA1 renders cells nonmotile, providing direct evidence for the first time that the N-glycosylation of archaeal flagellins is critical for motility. These results provide insight into the role that glycosylation plays in the assembly and function of Hfx. volcanii flagella and demonstrate that Hfx. volcanii flagellins are excellent reporter proteins for the study of haloarchaeal glycosylation processes.
Project description:Archaea, like Eukarya and Bacteria, are able to N glycosylate select protein targets. However, in contrast to relatively advanced understanding of the eukaryal N glycosylation process and the information being amassed on the bacterial process, little is known of this posttranslational modification in Archaea. Toward remedying this situation, the present report continues ongoing efforts to identify components involved in the N glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein. By combining gene deletion together with mass spectrometry, AglE, originally identified as a homologue of murine Dpm1, was shown to play a role in the addition of the 190-Da sugar subunit of the novel pentasaccharide decorating the S-layer glycoprotein. Topological analysis of an AglE-based chimeric reporter assigns AglE as an integral membrane protein, with its N terminus and putative active site facing the cytoplasm. These finding, therefore, contribute to the developing picture of the N glycosylation pathway in Archaea.