Impacts of ceftriaxone exposure during pregnancy on maternal gut and placental microbiota and its influence on maternal and offspring immunity in mice.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the association between microbiota found in the maternal gut and placenta, and whether ceftriaxone exposure during pregnancy could alter these microbiota, and consequently affect the immunity of the mothers and their offspring. The microbiota in the feces and placenta of the dams were comprehensively analyzed using16S rRNA sequencing. Furthermore, viable bacteria in the placentas and blood of pups were also isolated by plate cultivation then taxonomically identified in detail by clone sequencing. Serum cytokines collected from dams and pups were quantitatively profiled using Luminex. The spleen organ index of dams was significantly lower and the offspring serum interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in ceftriaxone-treated mice compared with the control group. The maternal fecal microbiota community was drastically altered in ceftriaxone-treated mice with significantly decreased diversity, depletion of Bacteroidetes and the blooming of Tenericutes. However, the placenta microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria especially characteristically by Ralstonia, which was distinct from the maternal gut microbiota, regardless of whether ceftriaxone treatment or not. Viable bacteria have been found in placenta and blood cultures. These results indicated that ceftriaxone exposure in pregnancy could dramatically alter maternal intestinal microbiota, which affected the immunity of the mothers and their offspring at least partly, characteristically by enhanced pro-inflammatory responses. This study also indicated that the placenta might harbor its own microbes and the microbes were distinct from maternal gut microbiota, which may not be affected by oral administration of ceftriaxone during pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early life microbiota is an important determinant of immune and metabolic development and may have lasting consequences. The maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy or breastfeeding is important for defining infant gut microbiota. We hypothesized that maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a critical determinant of infant immunity. To test this, pregnant BALB/c dams were fed vancomycin for 5 days prior to delivery (gestation; Mg), 14 days postpartum during nursing (Mn), or during gestation and nursing (Mgn), or no vancomycin (Mc). We analyzed adaptive immunity and gut microbiota in dams and pups at various times after delivery. RESULTS:In addition to direct alterations to maternal gut microbial composition, pup gut microbiota displayed lower ?-diversity and distinct community clusters according to timing of maternal vancomycin. Vancomycin was undetectable in maternal and offspring sera, therefore the observed changes in the microbiota of stomach contents (as a proxy for breastmilk) and pup gut signify an indirect mechanism through which maternal intestinal microbiota influences extra-intestinal and neonatal commensal colonization. These effects on microbiota influenced both maternal and offspring immunity. Maternal immunity was altered, as demonstrated by significantly higher levels of both total IgG and IgM in Mgn and Mn breastmilk when compared to Mc. In pups, lymphocyte numbers in the spleens of Pg and Pn were significantly increased compared to Pc. This increase in cellularity was in part attributable to elevated numbers of both CD4+ T cells and B cells, most notable Follicular B cells. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that perturbations to maternal gut microbiota dictate neonatal adaptive immunity.
Project description:Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and childhood disorders.
Project description:Maternal-fetal crosstalk has been implicated in long-term control of the health of offspring, including transgenerational hypertension. However, current knowledge is limited regarding maternal influences on the gut and its microbiome in blood pressure control in offspring. Therefore, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal factors influence the gut-brain axis impacting hypertension in offspring. We elected to use captopril, an antihypertensive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that possesses antibacterial properties, for the study. Pregnant female spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats were treated with captopril water (100 mg/[kg·day]) or sterile water throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, the pups from dams drinking sterile water were continued with sterile water until 12 weeks of age. The male pups from dams drinking captopril water were divided at weaning into 2 groups: offspring drinking captopril water and offspring withdrawn from captopril water, then drinking sterile water until 12 weeks of age. Captopril changed gut microbiota of spontaneously hypertensive rat dams, and some of these changes were reflected in their 12-week-old male offspring. These 12-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat male offspring exposed to captopril via dams demonstrated persistently decreased systolic blood pressure, decreased number of activated microglia and neuroinflammation, as well as improvement of gut inflammation and permeability. Therefore, maternal captopril treatment improves the dysregulated gut-brain axis in spontaneously hypertensive rat male offspring, providing conceptual support that targeting the gut-brain axis via the mother may be a viable strategy for control of hypertension in the offspring.
Project description:Background: It is well established that maternal exercise during pregnancy improves metabolic outcomes associated with obesity in mothers and offspring, however, its effects on the gut microbiota of both mother and offspring, are unknown. Here, we investigated whether wheel running exercise prior to and during pregnancy and prolonged feeding of an obesogenic diet were associated with changes in the gut microbiomes of Sprague-Dawley rat dams and their offspring. Female rats were fed either chow or obesogenic diet, and half of each diet group were given access to a running wheel 10 days before mating until delivery, while others remained sedentary. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess gut microbial communities in dams and their male and female offspring around the time of weaning. Results: Statistical analyses at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that maternal obesogenic diet decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered abundances of bacterial taxa previously associated with obesity such as Bacteroides and Blautia in dams, and their offspring of both sexes. Distance based linear modeling revealed that the relative abundances of Bacteroides OTUs were associated with adiposity measures in both dams and offspring. We identified no marked effects of maternal exercise on the gut microbiota of obesogenic diet dams or their offspring. In contrast, maternal exercise decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered the abundance of 88 microbial taxa in offspring of control dams. Thirty of these taxa were altered in a similar direction in offspring of sedentary obesogenic vs. control diet dams. In particular, the relative abundances of Oscillibacter OTUs were decreased in offspring of both exercised control dams and sedentary obesogenic diet dams, and associated with blood glucose concentrations and adiposity measures. Analyses of predicted bacterial metabolic pathways inferred decreased indole alkaloid biosynthesis in offspring of both obesogenic diet and exercised control dams. Conclusions: Our data suggest that maternal exercise prior to and during pregnancy resulted in gut dysbiosis in offspring of control dams. Importantly, alterations in the maternal gut microbiota by obesogenic diet or obesity were transferred to their offspring.
Project description:Maternal obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation can program an increased risk of obesity in offspring. In this context, improving maternal metabolism may help reduce the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Here we show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, selectively altering obese maternal gut microbial composition with prebiotic treatment reduces maternal energy intake, decreases gestational weight gain, and prevents increased adiposity in dams and their offspring. Maternal serum metabolomics analysis, along with satiety hormone and gut microbiota analysis, identified maternal metabolic signatures that could be implicated in programming offspring obesity risk and highlighted the potential influence of maternal gut microbiota on maternal and offspring metabolism. In particular, the metabolomic signature of insulin resistance in obese rats normalized when dams consumed the prebiotic. In summary, prebiotic intake during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal metabolism in diet-induced obese rats in a manner that attenuates the detrimental nutritional programming of offspring associated with maternal obesity. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of the maternal mechanisms influencing the developmental programming of offspring obesity and provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for a potential strategy to improve maternal and offspring metabolic outcomes in human pregnancy.
Project description:Development of the cerebral cortex may be influenced by the composition of the maternal gut microbiota. To test this possibility, we administered probiotic Lactococcus lactis in drinking water to mouse dams from day 10.5 of gestation until pups reached postnatal day 1 (P1). Pups were assessed in a battery of behavioral tests starting at 10 weeks old. We found that females, but not males, exposed to probiotic during prenatal development spent more time in the center of the open field and displayed decreased freezing time in cue associated learning, compared to controls. Furthermore, we found that probiotic exposure changed the density of cortical neurons and increased the density of blood vessels in the cortical plate of P1 pups. Sex-specific differences were observed in the number of mitotic neural progenitor cells, which were increased in probiotic exposed female pups. In addition, we found that probiotic treatment in the latter half of pregnancy significantly increased plasma oxytocin levels in mouse dams, but not in the offspring. These results suggest that exposure of naïve, unstressed dams to probiotic may exert sex-specific long-term effects on cortical development and anxiety related behavior in the offspring.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7 ± 3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1 ± 6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2 ± 5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4 ± 3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7-8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring.
Project description:Understanding the link between mother's obesity and regulation of the child's appetite is a prerequisite for the design of successful preventive strategies. Beyond the possible contributions of genetic heritage, family culture, and hormonal and metabolic environment during pregnancy, we investigate in the present paper the causal role of the transmission of the maternal microbiotas in obesity as microbiotas differ between lean and obese mothers, maternal microbiotas are the main determinants of a baby's gut colonization, and the intestinal microbiota resulting from the early colonization could impact the feeding behavior of the offspring with short- and long-term consequences on body weight. We thus investigated the potential role of vertical transfers of maternal microbiotas in programming the eating behavior of the offspring. Selectively bred obese-prone (OP)/obese-resistant (OR) Sprague-Dawley dams were used since differences in the cecal microbiota have been evidenced from males of that strain. Microbiota collected from vagina (at the end of gestation), feces, and milk (at postnatal days 1, 5, 10, and 15) of OP/OR dams were orally inoculated to conventional Fischer F344 recipient pups from birth to 15 days of age to create three groups of pups: F-OP, F-OR, and F-Sham group (that received the vehicle). We first checked microbiotal differences between inoculas. We then assessed the impact of transfer (from birth to adulthood) onto the intestinal microbiota of recipients rats, their growth, and their eating behavior by measuring their caloric intake, their anticipatory food reward responses, their preference for sweet and fat tastes in solutions, and the sensations that extend after food ingestion. Finally, we searched for correlation between microbiota composition and food intake parameters. We found that maternal transfer of microbiota differing in composition led to alterations in pups' gut microbiota composition that did not last until adulthood but were associated with specific eating behavior characteristics that were predisposing F-OP rats to higher risk of over consuming at subsequent periods of their life. These findings support the view that neonatal gut microbiotal transfer can program eating behavior, even without a significant long-lasting impact on adulthood microbiota composition.
Project description:In mammals, mothers are the primary caregiver, programmed, in part, by hormones produced during pregnancy. High-quality maternal care is essential for the survival and lifelong health of offspring. We previously showed that the paternally silenced imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (Phlda2) functions to negatively regulate a single lineage in the mouse placenta called the spongiotrophoblast, a major source of hormones in pregnancy. Consequently, the offspring's Phlda2 gene dosage may influence the quality of care provided by the mother. Here, we show that wild-type (WT) female mice exposed to offspring with three different doses of the maternally expressed Phlda2 gene-two active alleles, one active allele (the extant state), and loss of function-show changes in the maternal hypothalamus and hippocampus during pregnancy, regions important for maternal-care behaviour. After birth, WT dams exposed in utero to offspring with the highest Phlda2 dose exhibit decreased nursing and grooming of pups and increased focus on nest building. Conversely, 'paternalised' dams, exposed to the lowest Phlda2 dose, showed increased nurturing of their pups, increased self-directed behaviour, and a decreased focus on nest building, behaviour that was robustly maintained in the absence of genetically modified pups. This work raises the intriguing possibility that imprinting of Phlda2 contributed to increased maternal care during the evolution of mammals.
Project description:Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.