A plant endophyte Staphylococcus hominis strain MBL_AB63 produces a novel lantibiotic, homicorcin and a position one variant.
ABSTRACT: Here we report a jute endophyte Staphylococcus hominis strain MBL_AB63 isolated from jute seeds which showed promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus SG511 when screening for antimicrobial substances. The whole genome sequence of this strain, annotated using BAGEL4 and antiSMASH 5.0 to predict the gene clusters for antimicrobial substances identified a novel antimicrobial peptide cluster that belongs to the class I lantibiotic group. The predicted lantibiotic (homicorcin) was found to be 82% similar to a reported peptide epicidin 280 having a difference of seven amino acids at several positions of the core peptide. Two distinct peaks obtained at close retention times from a RP-HPLC purified fraction have comparable antimicrobial activities and LC-MS revealed the molecular mass of these peaks to be 3046.5 and 3043.2 Da. The presence of an oxidoreductase (homO) similar to that of epicidin 280- associated eciO or epilancin 15X- associated elxO in the homicorcin gene cluster is predicted to be responsible for the reduction of the first dehydrated residue dehydroalanine (Dha) to 2-hydroxypropionate that causes an increase of 3 Da mass of homicorcin 1. Trypsin digestion of the core peptide and its variant followed by ESI-MS analysis suggests the presence of three ring structures, one in the N-terminal and other two interlocking rings at the C-terminal region that remain undigested. Homicorcin exerts bactericidal activity against susceptible cells by disrupting the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane through pore formation as observed under FE-SEM.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides. The recently discovered lantibiotic epilancin 15X produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis 15X154 contains an unusual N-terminal lactate group. To understand its biosynthesis, the epilancin 15X biosynthetic gene cluster was identified. The N-terminal lactate is produced by dehydration of a serine residue in the first position of the core peptide by ElxB, followed by proteolytic removal of the leader peptide by ElxP and hydrolysis of the resulting new N-terminal dehydroalanine. The pyruvate group thus formed is reduced to lactate by an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase designated ElxO. The enzymatic activity of ElxB, ElxP, and ElxO were investigated in vitro or in vivo and the importance of the N-terminal modification for peptide stability against bacterial aminopeptidases was assessed.
Project description:Lantibiotics are a large family of antibacterial peptide natural products containing multiple post-translational modifications, including the thioether structures lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Efforts to probe structure-activity relationships and engineer improved pharmacological properties have driven the development of new methods to produce non-natural analogues of these compounds. In this study, solid-supported chemical synthesis was used to produce analogues of the potent lantibiotic epilancin 15X, in order to assess the importance of several N-terminal post-translational modifications for biological activity. Surprisingly, substitution of these moieties, including the unusual N-terminal D-lactyl moiety, resulted in relatively small changes in the antimicrobial activity and pore-forming ability of the peptides.
Project description:Epicidin 280 is a novel type A lantibiotic produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis BN 280. During C18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography two epicidin 280 peaks were obtained; the two compounds had molecular masses of 3,133 +/- 1.5 and 3,136 +/- 1.5 Da, comparable antibiotic activities, and identical amino acid compositions. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that epicidin 280 exhibits 75% similarity to Pep5. The strains that produce epicidin 280 and Pep5 exhibit cross-immunity, indicating that the immunity peptides cross-function in antagonization of both lantibiotics. The complete epicidin 280 gene cluster was cloned and was found to comprise at least five open reading frames (eciI, eciA, eciP, eciB, and eciC, in that order). The proteins encoded by these open reading frames exhibit significant sequence similarity to the biosynthetic proteins of the Pep5 operon of Staphylococcus epidermidis 5. A gene for an ABC transporter, which is present in the Pep5 gene cluster but is necessary only for high yields (G. Bierbaum, M. Reis, C. Szekat, and H.-G. Sahl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:4332-4338, 1994), was not detected. Instead, upstream of the immunity gene eciI we found an open reading frame, eciO, which could code for a novel lantibiotic modification enzyme involved in reduction of an N-terminally located oxopropionyl residue. Epicidin 280 produced by the heterologous host Staphylococcus carnosus TM 300 after introduction of eciIAPBC (i.e., no eciO was present) behaved homogeneously during reverse-phase chromatography.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides with substantial posttranslational modifications. They are characterized by the unique amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine, which are introduced by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues and linkage of the resulting dehydrated amino acids with Cys residues. BLAST searches using the mersacidin biosynthetic enzyme (MrsM) in the NCBI database revealed a new class II lantibiotic gene cluster in Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442. Production of an antimicrobial substance with activity against Gram-positive bacteria was detectable in a cell wash extract of this strain. The substance was partially purified, and mass spectrometric analysis predicted a peptide of 2,786 Da in the active fraction. In order to characterize the putative lantibiotic further, heterologous expression of the predicted biosynthetic genes was performed in Escherichia coli. Coexpression of the prepeptide (PseA) along with the corresponding modification enzyme (PseM) resulted in the production of a modified peptide with the corresponding mass, carrying four out of eight possible dehydrations and supporting the presence of four thioether and one disulfide bridge. After the proteolytic removal of the leader, the core peptide exhibited antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, pseudomycoicidin is a novel lantibiotic with antimicrobial activity that was heterologously produced in E. coli.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small microbial peptide antibiotics that are characterized by the presence of the thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Lantibiotics possess structural genes which encode inactive prepeptides. During maturation, the prepeptide undergoes posttranslational modifications including the introduction of rare amino acids as lanthionine and methyllanthione as well as the proteolytic removal of the leader. The structural gene (lanA) as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP), regulation (lanR, lanK), export (lanT(P)) and immunity (lanEFG) are organized in biosynthetic gene clusters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence comparisons in the NCBI database showed that Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 harbours a putative lantibiotic gene cluster which comprises two structural genes (licA1, licA2) and two modification enzymes (licM1, licM2) in addition to 10 ORFs that show sequence similarities to proteins involved in lantibiotic production. A heat labile antimicrobial activity was detected in the culture supernatant and a heat stabile activity was present in the isopropanol cell wash extract of this strain. In agar well diffusion assays both fractions exhibited slightly different activity spectra against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to demonstrate the connection between the lantibiotic gene cluster and one of the antibacterial activities, two Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 mutant strains harbouring insertions in the structural genes of the modification enzymes licM1 and licM2 were constructed. These strains were characterized by a loss of activity in the isopropanol extract and substractive MALDI-TOF predicted masses of 3020.6 Da and 3250.6 Da for the active peptides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, B. licheniformis DSM 13 produces an antimicrobial substance that represents the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin and that shows activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.
Project description:The lantibiotic mersacidin is an antimicrobial peptide of 20 amino acids that is produced by Bacillus sp. strain HIL Y-85,54728. Lantibiotics are antibiotics containing nonproteinogenic amino acids like lanthionine and/or 3-methyllanthionine. Mersacidin interferes with cell wall biosynthesis by targeting the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II and inhibits the growth of MRSA and other gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, mersacidin could be a lead substance for the development of new antibacterial agents. The clinical VISA isolates S. aureus 137/93A and its spontaneous mutant S. aureus 137/93G show reduced sensitivity towards mersacidin. This phenotype could not be traced to factors being responsible for vancomycinresistance (i.e. the thickened cell wall). Here, we focussed on the comparative transcriptome analysis of S. aureus 137/93A and S. aureus SG511 (sensitive strain) via full genome S. aureus microarrays to identify genes involved in the reduced sensitivity towards mersacidin. Overall design: In this experiment, the transcriptomes of S. aureus 137/93A and S. aureus SG511 (sensitive strain) should be compared via microarray analysis. To this end, S. aureus 137/93A and S. aureus SG511 were grown without mersacidin to determine the genes which are differently expressed in these strains. Each experiment was performed 2 times including a dye swap resulting in two chips per competitive comparison with the incorporated dye reversed. All hybridizations were done with equal amounts of fluorescence-labeled cDNA probes or picomols of dye.
Project description:A new bacterial strain, displaying potent antimicrobial properties against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, was isolated from food. Based on its phenotypical and biochemical properties as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the bacterium was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa and it was designated as strain OSY-DF. The antimicrobials produced by this strain were isolated from the fermentation broth and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two antimicrobials were found: a known antibiotic, polymyxin E1, which is active against gram-negative bacteria, and an unknown 2,983-Da compound showing activity against gram-positive bacteria. The latter was purified to homogeneity, and its antimicrobial potency and proteinaceous nature were confirmed. The antimicrobial peptide, designated paenibacillin, is active against a broad range of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, including Bacillus spp., Clostridium sporogenes, Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Listeria spp., Pediococcus cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Furthermore, it possesses the physico-chemical properties of an ideal antimicrobial agent in terms of water solubility, thermal resistance, and stability against acid/alkali (pH 2.0 to 9.0) treatment. Edman degradation, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to sequence native and chemically modified paenibacillin. While details of the tentative sequence need to be elucidated in future work, the peptide was unequivocally characterized as a novel lantibiotic, with a high degree of posttranslational modifications. The coproduction of polymyxin E1 and a lantibiotic is a finding that has not been reported earlier. The new strain and associated peptide are potentially useful in food and medical applications.
Project description:Lantibiotics are highly modified peptides that are part of the bacteriocin family of antimicrobial peptides. We have identified a Phr peptide quorum sensing system (TprA/PhrA) that controls the expression of a lantibiotic gene cluster in the Gram-positive human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have characterized the basic mechanism for a Phr peptide signaling system in S. pneumoniae D39 and found that it induces expression of the lantibiotic genes when pneumococcal cells are at high density in the presence of galactose, a main sugar of the human nasopharynx, a highly competitive microbial environment. In this study we used RNA-seq analysis to examine the changes in relative transcript amounts caused by ∆tprA and ∆phrA mutations or the addition of the 10-residue synthetic PhrA peptide. These analyses reveal that PhrA peptide addition induces the transcription of a cluster of lantibiotic gene that appear to process and provide immunity to a lantibiotic peptide. In addition, TprA, a transcriptional factor regulated by a Phr peptide, autoregulates its own transcription. Overall design: RNA samples were prepared from a wild-type strain, a wild-type strain treated with PhrA peptide, and three mutant strains. Three independent biological replicates of RNA were prepared for each strain or condition. cDNA libraries were sequenced and the sequencing results were used as the data base for differential expression analysis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lantibiotics are small lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Salivaricin 9 is a newly discovered lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius. In this study we present the mechanism of action of salivaricin 9 and some of its properties. Also we developed new methods to produce and purify the lantibiotic from strain NU10.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Salivaricin 9 was found to be auto-regulated when an induction assay was applied and this finding was used to develop a successful salivaricin 9 production system in liquid medium. A combination of XAD-16 and cation exchange chromatography was used to purify the secondary metabolite which was shown to have a molecular weight of approximately 3000 Da by SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated the presence of salivaricin 9, a 2560 Da lantibiotic. Salivaricin 9 is a bactericidal molecule targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. The membrane permeabilization assay showed that salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane and induced pore formation which resulted in cell death. The morphological changes of test bacterial strains incubated with salivaricin 9 were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy which confirmed a pore forming mechanism of inhibition. Salivaricin 9 retained biological stability when exposed to high temperature (90-100°C) and stayed bioactive at pH ranging 2 to 10. When treated with proteinase K or peptidase, salivaricin 9 lost all antimicrobial activity, while it remained active when treated with lyticase, catalase and certain detergents.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The mechanism of antimicrobial action of a newly discovered lantibiotic salivaricin 9 was elucidated in this study. Salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane of its targeted cells and induced pore formation. This project has given new insights on lantibiotic peptides produced by S. salivarius isolated from the oral cavities of Malaysian subjects.
Project description:Attempts to isolate novel antimicrobial peptides from microbial sources have been on the rise recently, despite their low efficacy in therapeutic applications. Here, we report identification and characterization of a new efficient antimicrobial peptide from a bacterial strain designated A3 that exhibited highest identity with Paenibacillus ehimensis. Upon purification and subsequent molecular characterization of the antimicrobial peptide, referred to as penisin, we found the peptide to be a bacteriocin-like peptide. Consistent with these results, RAST analysis of the entire genome sequence revealed the presence of a lantibiotic gene cluster containing genes necessary for synthesis and maturation of a lantibiotic. While circular dichroism and one-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance experiments confirmed a random coil structure of the peptide, similar to other known lantibiotics, additional biochemical evidence suggests posttranslational modifications of the core peptide yield six thioether cross-links. The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative biosynthetic gene penA showed approximately 74% similarity with elgicin A and 50% similarity with the lantibiotic paenicidin A. Penisin effectively killed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and did not exhibit hemolysis activity. Unlike other lantibiotics, it effectively inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, 80 mg/kg of body weight of penisin significantly reduced bacterial burden in a mouse thigh infection model and protected BALB/c mice in a bacteremia model entailing infection with Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, suggesting that it could be a promising new antimicrobial peptide.