Project description:This study introduces two new families, one new genus, 22 new species, 10 new combinations, four epitypes, and 16 interesting new host and / or geographical records. Cylindriaceae (based on Cylindrium elongatum) is introduced as new family, with three new combinations. Xyladictyochaetaceae (based on Xyladictyochaeta lusitanica) is introduced to accommodate Xyladictyochaeta. Pseudoanungitea gen. nov. (based on P. syzygii) is described on stems of Vaccinium myrtillus (Germany). New species include: Exophiala eucalypticola on Eucalyptus obliqua leaf litter, Phyllosticta hakeicola on leaves of Hakea sp., Setophaeosphaeria citricola on leaves of Citrus australasica, and Sirastachys cyperacearum on leaves of Cyperaceae (Australia); Polyscytalum chilense on leaves of Eucalyptus urophylla (Chile); Pseudoanungitea vaccinii on Vaccinium myrtillus (Germany); Teichospora quercus on branch tissue of Quercus sp. (France); Fusiconidium lycopodiellae on stems of Lycopodiella inundata, Monochaetia junipericola on twig of Juniperus communis, Myrmecridium sorbicola on branch tissues of Sorbus aucuparia, Parathyridaria philadelphi on twigs of Philadelphus coronarius, and Wettsteinina philadelphi on twigs of Philadelphus coronarius (Germany); Zygosporium pseudogibbum on leaves of Eucalyptus pellita (Malaysia); Pseudoanungitea variabilis on dead wood (Spain); Alfaria acaciae on leaves of Acacia propinqua, Dictyochaeta mimusopis on leaves of Mimusops caffra, and Pseudocercospora breonadiae on leaves of Breonadia microcephala (South Africa); Colletotrichum kniphofiae on leaves of Kniphofia uvaria, Subplenodomus iridicola on Iris sp., and Trochila viburnicola on twig cankers on Viburnum sp. (UK); Polyscytalum neofecundissimum on Quercus robur leaf litter, and Roussoella euonymi on fallen branches of Euonymus europaeus (Ukraine). New combinations include: Cylindrium algarvense on leaves of Eucalyptus sp. (Portugal), Cylindrium purgamentum on leaf litter (USA), Cylindrium syzygii on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Australia), Microdochium musae on leaves of Musa sp. (Malaysia), Polyscytalum eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita (Malaysia), P. eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus (Australia), P. grevilleae on leaves of Grevillea (Australia), P. nullicananum on leaves of Eucalyptus (Australia), Pseudoanungitea syzygii on Syzygium cordatum leaf litter (South Africa), and Setophaeosphaeria sidae on leaves of Sida sp. (Brazil). New records include: Sphaerellopsis paraphysata on leaves of Phragmites sp., Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali on leaves of Melaleuca sp. and Eucalyptus regnans, and Xyladictyochaeta lusitanica on leaf litter of Eucalyptus sp. (Australia); Camarosporidiella mackenziei on twigs of Caragana sp. (Finland); Cyclothyriella rubronotata on twigs of Ailanthus altissima, Rhinocladiella quercus on Sorbus aucuparia branches (Germany); Cytospora viticola on stems of Vitis vinifera (Hungary); Echinocatena arthrinioides on leaves of Acacia crassicarpa (Malaysia); Varicosporellopsis aquatilis from garden soil (Netherlands); Pestalotiopsis hollandica on needles of Cupressus sempervirens (Spain), Pseudocamarosporium africanum on twigs of Erica sp. (South Africa), Pseudocamarosporium brabeji on branch of Platanus sp. (Switzerland); Neocucurbitaria cava on leaves of Quercus ilex (UK); Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa on decaying wood of Carpinus betulus, Haplograhium delicatum on decaying Carpinus betulus wood (Ukraine). Epitypes are designated for: Elsinoë mimosae on leaves of Mimosa diplotricha (Brazil), Neohendersonia kickxii on Fagus sylvatica twig bark (Italy), Caliciopsis maxima on fronds of Niphidium crassifolium (Brazil), Dictyochaeta septata on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla (Chile), and Microdochium musae on leaves of Musa sp. (Malaysia).
Project description:Seven new genera, 26 new species, 10 new combinations, two epitypes, one new name, and 20 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera are: <i>Italiofungus</i> (based on <i>Italiofungus phillyreae</i>) on leaves of <i>Phillyrea latifolia</i> (Italy); <i>Neolamproconium</i> (based on <i>Neolamproconium silvestre</i>) on branch of <i>Tilia</i> sp. (Ukraine); <i>Neosorocybe</i> (based on <i>Neosorocybe pini</i>) on trunk of <i>Pinus sylvestris</i> (Ukraine); <i>Nothoseptoria</i> (based on <i>Nothoseptoria caraganae</i>) on leaves of <i>Caragana arborescens</i> (Russia); <i>Pruniphilomyces</i> (based on <i>Pruniphilomyces circumscissus</i>) on <i>Prunus cerasus</i> (Russia); <i>Vesiculozygosporium</i> (based on <i>Vesiculozygosporium echinosporum</i>) on leaves of <i>Muntingia calabura</i> (Malaysia); <i>Longiseptatispora</i> (based on <i>Longiseptatispora curvata</i>) on leaves of <i>Lonicera tatarica</i> (Russia). New species are: <i>Barrmaelia serenoae</i> on leaf of <i>Serenoa repens</i> (USA); <i>Chaetopsina gautengina</i> on leaves of unidentified grass (South Africa); <i>Chloridium pini</i> on fallen trunk of <i>Pinus sylvestris</i> (Ukraine); <i>Cadophora fallopiae</i> on stems of <i>Reynoutria sachalinensis</i> (Poland); <i>Coleophoma eucalyptigena</i> on leaf litter of <i>Eucalyptus</i> sp. (Spain); <i>Cylindrium corymbiae</i> on leaves of <i>Corymbia maculata</i> (Australia); <i>Diaporthe tarchonanthi</i> on leaves of <i>Tarchonanthus littoralis</i> (South Africa); <i>Elsinoe eucalyptorum</i> on leaves of <i>Eucalyptus propinqua</i> (Australia); <i>Exophiala quercina</i> on dead wood of <i>Quercus</i> sp., (Germany); <i>Fusarium californicum</i> on cambium of budwood of <i>Prunus dulcis</i> (USA); <i>Hypomyces gamsii</i> on wood of <i>Alnus glutinosa</i> (Ukraine); <i>Kalmusia araucariae</i> on leaves of <i>Araucaria bidwillii</i> (USA); <i>Lectera sambuci</i> on leaves of <i>Sambucus nigra</i> (Russia); <i>Melanomma populicola</i> on fallen twig of <i>Populus canadensis</i> (Netherlands), <i>Neocladosporium syringae</i> on branches of <i>Syringa vulgarishorus</i> (Ukraine); <i>Paraconiothyrium iridis</i> on leaves of <i>Iris pseudacorus</i> (Ukraine); <i>Pararoussoella quercina</i> on branch of <i>Quercus robur</i> (Ukraine); <i>Phialemonium pulveris</i> from bore dust of deathwatch beetle (France); <i>Polyscytalum pinicola</i> on needles of <i>Pinus tecunumanii</i> (Malaysia); <i>Acervuloseptoria fraxini</i> on <i>Fraxinus pennsylvanica</i> (Russia); <i>Roussoella arundinacea</i> on culms of <i>Arundo donax</i> (Spain); <i>Sphaerulina neoaceris</i> on leaves of <i>Acer negundo</i> (Russia); <i>Sphaerulina salicicola</i> on leaves of <i>Salix fragilis</i> (Russia); <i>Trichomerium syzygii</i> on leaves of <i>Syzygium cordatum</i> (South Africa); <i>Uzbekistanica vitis-viniferae</i> on dead stem of <i>Vitis vinifera</i> (Ukraine); <i>Vermiculariopsiella eucalyptigena</i> on leaves of <i>Eucalyptus</i> sp. (Australia).
Project description:The structural mechanical properties and electronic properties of a new silicon allotrope Si96 are investigated at ambient pressure by using a first-principles calculation method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the framework of generalized gradient approximation. The elastic constants and phonon calculations reveal that Si96 is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. The conduction band minimum and valence band maximum of Si96 are at the R and G point, which indicates that Si96 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. The anisotropic calculations show that Si96 exhibits a smaller anisotropy than diamond Si in terms of Young's modulus, the percentage of elastic anisotropy for bulk modulus and shear modulus, and the universal anisotropic index AU. Interestingly, most silicon allotropes exhibit brittle behavior, in contrast to the previously proposed ductile behavior. The void framework, low density, and nanotube structure make Si96 quite attractive for applications such as hydrogen storage and electronic devices that work at extreme conditions, and there are potential applications in Li-battery anode materials.
Project description:This paper reports on some interesting taxa recently found in the Arabian Peninsula and the island of Socotra. Among them is a new species of brachypterous grasshopper Sphodromerus carapezzanussp. n. (Acrididae: Calliptaminae), described from an isolated area in Dhofar (Oman). A female Heteracris hemiptera (Uvarov, 1935) (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae) is reported, with morphological characters which do not fully comply with those of any known subspecies. Two species, hitherto rarely documented, are also reported, Phaneroptila insularis Uvarov, 1957 (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) from Socotra and Cataloipus thomasi Uvarov, 1933 (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae) from Oman. Pycnodictya dentata Krauss, 1902 (Acrididae: Oedipodinae) is reported from Saudi Arabia, constituting a new record for the country.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Secretion stress is caused by compromised folding, modification or transport of proteins in the secretory pathway. In fungi, induction of genes in response to secretion stress is mediated mainly by the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei exposed to secretion stress and comparing these to those found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Chemostat cultures of T. reesei expressing human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and batch bioreactor cultures treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) to prevent correct protein folding were analysed with cDNA subtraction and cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) experiments. ESTs corresponding to 457 unique genes putatively induced under secretion stress were isolated and the expression pattern of 60 genes was confirmed by Northern analysis. Expression of these genes was also studied in a strain over-expressing inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IREI) protein, a sensor for the UPR pathway. To compare the data with that of S. cerevisiae, published transcriptome profiling data on various stress responses in S. cerevisiae was reanalysed. The genes up-regulated in response to secretion stress included a large number of secretion related genes in both organisms. In addition, analysis of T. reesei revealed up regulation of the cpc1 transcription factor gene and nucleosomal genes. The induction of the cpcA and histone gene H4 were shown to be induced also in cultures of Aspergillus nidulans treated with DTT. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the genes induced under secretion stress has revealed novel features in the stress response in T. reesei and in filamentous fungi. We have demonstrated that in addition to the previously rather well characterised induction of genes for many ER proteins or secretion related proteins also other types of responses exist.
Project description:Peptidotriazolamers are hybrid foldamers with features of peptides and triazolamers, containing alternation of amide bonds and 1,4-disubstituted 1H-1,2,3-triazoles with conservation of the amino acid side chains. We report on the synthesis of a new class of peptidomimetics, containing 1,4-disubstituted 1H-1,2,3-triazoles in alternation with amide bonds and the elucidation of their conformational properties in solution. Based on enantiomerically pure propargylamines bearing the stereogenic center in the propargylic position and ?-azido esters, building blocks were obtained by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. With these building blocks the peptidotriazolamers were readily available by solution phase synthesis. A panel of homo- and heterochiral tetramers, hexamers, and heptamers was synthesized and the heptamer Boc-Ala-Val-?[4Tz]Phe-Leu?[4Tz]Phe-Leu?[4Tz]Val-OAll as well as an heterochiral and a Gly-containing equivalent were structurally characterized by NMR-based molecular dynamics simulations using a specifically tailored force field to determine their conformational and solvation properties. All three variants adopt a compact folded conformation in DMSO as well as in water. In addition to the heptamers we predicted the conformational behavior of similar longer oligomers i.e., Boc-Ala-(Ala?[4Tz]Ala)6-OAll as well as Boc-Ala-(d-Ala?[4Tz]Ala)6-OAll and Boc-Ala-(Gly?[4Tz]Ala)6-OAll. Our calculations predict a clear secondary structure of the first two molecules in DMSO that collapses in water due to the hydrophobic character of the side chains. The homochiral compound folds into a regular helical structure and the heterochiral one shows a twisted "S"-shape, while the Gly variant exhibits no clear secondary structure.
Project description:Coelomycetous fungi are ubiquitous in soil, sewage, and sea- and freshwater environments. However, freshwater coelomycetous fungi have been very rarely reported in the literature. Knowledge of coelomycetous fungi in freshwater habitats in Spain is poor. The incubation of plant debris, from freshwater in various places in Spain into wet chambers, allowed us to detect and isolate in pure culture several pycnidia-producing fungi. Fungal strains were phenotypically characterized, and a phylogenetic study was carried out based on the analysis of concatenated nucleotide sequences of the D1-D2 domains of the 28S nrRNA gene (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the nrDNA, and fragments of the RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (<i>rpb</i>2) and beta tubulin (<i>tub</i>2) genes. As a result of these, we report the finding of two novel species of <i>Neocucurbitaria</i>, three of <i>Neopyrenochaeta,</i> and one of <i>Pyrenochaetopsis</i>. Based on the phylogenetic study, we also transferred <i>Neocucurbitaria prunicola</i> to the genus <i>Allocucurbitaria</i>. This work makes an important contribution to the knowledge of the mycobiota of plant debris in freshwater habitats.
Project description:Primary hypoparathyroidism can occur due to an activating mutation of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR). Most patients remain asymptomatic and therefore not diagnosed until adulthood. We present a 38-year-old lady who had a history of muscle cramps since 8 years. She presented with vomiting, abdomen pain and body ache, showed clinical evidence of hypovolemia, severe hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperphosphatemia and metabolic alkalosis. Her 24 h urinary phosphorus was low and 24 h urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride were high. Her intact parathormone was on the lower side of the normal range. She improved once we had corrected her biochemical abnormalities. By excluding acquired causes of hypoparathyroidism, we are able to conclude that this may be a case of primary hypoparathyroidism due to activating mutation of CaSR.
Project description:We present the case of a 65-year-old male who presented with stable angina and dyspnea on exertion. His initial workup yielded a positive treadmill stress test for reversible apical ischemia, and transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated impaired systolic function. Cardiac catheterization was then performed, revealing severe atherosclerotic disease including multiple coronary artery aneurysms. As a result, the patient was advised to and subsequently underwent a coronary artery bypass graft. This case highlights the presence of multiple coronary artery aneurysms and the ability to appreciate these pathologic findings on multiple imaging modalities, including coronary angiogram, transesophageal echocardiography, and direct visualization through the surgical field.
Project description:One new order, one new family, and one new combination are presented, as the result of molecular phylogenetic analyses. The new order Stereopsidales and the new family Stereopsidaceae are described incorporating Stereopsis radicans and S. globosa, formerly Clavulicium globosum. We show that not only do these species represent an old overlooked lineage, but both species harbor cryptic diversity. In addition, a third species, C. macounii, appears as a plausible sister to the new lineage, but there is conflict in the data. All specimens of S. radicans and S. globosa analysed here are from the South and Central Americas; several records of S. radicans have been made also from tropical Asia. We expect the true diversity in this group to be a lot higher than presented in this paper. Stereopsis radicans was formerly included in Polyporales, but a placement within that order is rejected by our data through SH tests. The dataset consisted of four nuclear markers: rpb2, tef1, LSU and SSU, each of which was analysed separately using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Recombination detection tests indicate no plausible recombinations. The potential of S. radicans, S. globosa and C. macounii being amphitallic is briefly discussed.