Exosomal transfer of miR-429 confers chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: The development of multidrug resistance during chemotherapy is the main obstacle for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treatment. Exosomal transfer of carcinogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) might strengthen chemoresistance in recipient cells. Here, we identified through microarray analysis higher miR-429 expression in multidrug-resistant SKOV3 cells and their secreted exosomes (SKOV3-EXO) than in sensitive A2780 cells and their secreted exosomes. SKOV3-derived exosomes were internalized by A2780 cells, which permitted the transfer of miR-429. Exosomal miR-429 enhanced the proliferation and drug resistance of A2780 cells by targeting calcium-sensing receptor (CASR)/STAT3 pathway in vitro and in vivo. In addition, NF-κB-p65 was predicted to bind to the miR-429 promoter region, and the inhibition of NF-κB reduced the expression of miR-429 and led to the sensitivity of EOC cells. Consistently, A2780 cells co-incubated with SKOV3 pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor or miR-429 antagomir showed sensitivity to cisplatin and exhibited attenuated cell proliferation. Based on our data, exosomal miR-429 functions as a primary regulator of the chemoresistance and malignant phenotypes of EOC by targeting CASR through a mechanism promoted by NF-κB and might be a therapeutic target for EOC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:How exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from macrophages contribute to the development of drug resistance in the context of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poorly understood. METHODS:The miRNA levels were detected by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of HIF-1α, CD163 and PTEN-PI3K/AKT pathway were assessed by Western blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Exosomes were isolated, and then confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and WB. Internalization of macrophages-secreted exosomes in EOC cells was detected by Confocal microscope. Subsequently, Dual-luciferase reporter assay verified PTEN was the target of miR-223. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments, rescue experiments, and SKOV3 xenograft models were performed to uncover the underlying mechanisms of miR-223 and PTEN-PI3K/AKT pathway, as well as the exosomal miR-223 in inducing multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:Here, we showed hypoxic EOC cells triggered macrophages recruitment and induced macrophages into a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-like phenotype; exosomes derived from hypoxic macrophages enhanced the malignant phenotype of EOC cells, miR-223 was enriched in exosomes released from macrophages under hypoxia, which could be transferred to the co-cultivated EOC cells, accompanied by enhanced drug resistant of EOC cells. Besides, results from a functional assay revealed that exosomal miR-223 derived from macrophages promoted the drug resistance of EOC cells via the PTEN-PI3K/AKT pathway both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, patients with high HIF-1a expression had statistically higher CD163+ cell infiltration and intertumoral levels of miR-223. Finally, circulating exosomal miR-223 levels were closely related to the recurrence of EOC. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate a unique role of exosomal miR-223 in the cross-talk between macrophages and EOC cells in chemotherapy resistance, through a novel exosomal miR-223/PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circulating miRNAs are known to play important roles in intercellular communication. However, the effects of exosomal miRNAs on cells are not fully understood.<h4>Methods</h4>To investigate the role of exosomal miR-1246 in ovarian cancer (OC) microenvironment, we performed RPPA as well as many other in vitro functional assays in ovarian cancer cells (sensitive; HeyA8, Skov3ip1, A2780 and chemoresistant; HeyA8-MDR, Skov3-TR, A2780-CP20). Therapeutic effect of miR-1246 inhibitor treatment was tested in OC animal model. We showed the effect of OC exosomal miR-1246 uptake on macrophages by co-culture experiments.<h4>Findings</h4>Substantial expression of oncogenic miR-1246 OC exosomes was found. We showed that Cav1 gene, which is the direct target of miR-1246, is involved in the process of exosomal transfer. A significantly worse overall prognosis were found for OC patients with high miR-1246 and low Cav1 expression based on TCGA data. miR-1246 expression were significantly higher in paclitaxel-resistant OC exosomes than in their sensitive counterparts. Overexpression of Cav1 and anti-miR-1246 treatment significantly sensitized OC cells to paclitaxel. We showed that Cav1 and multi drug resistance (MDR) gene is involved in the process of exosomal transfer. Our proteomic approach also revealed that miR-1246 inhibits Cav1 and acts through PDGF? receptor at the recipient cells to inhibit cell proliferation. miR-1246 inhibitor treatment in combination with chemotherapy led to reduced tumor burden in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that when OC cells are co-cultured with macrophages, they are capable of transferring their oncogenic miR-1246 to M2-type macrophages, but not M0-type macrophages.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Our results suggest that cancer exosomes may contribute to oncogenesis by manipulating neighboring infiltrating immune cells. This study provide a new mechanistic therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance and tumor progression through exosomal miR-1246 in OC patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Owing to late diagnosis in advanced disease stages, prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is poor. The quantification of deregulated levels of microRNAs could facilitate earlier diagnosis and improve prognosis of EOC.<h4>Methods</h4>Seven microRNAs (miR-7, miR-16, miR-25, miR-93, miR-182, miR-376a and miR-429) were quantified in the serum of 180 EOC patients and 66 healthy women by TaqMan PCR microRNA assays. Median follow-up time was 21 months. The effects of miR-7 and miR-429 on apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in two (EOC) cell lines.<h4>Results</h4>Serum levels of miR-25 (P=0.0001) and miR-93 (P=0.0001) were downregulated, whereas those of miR-7 (P=0.001) and miR-429 (P=0.0001) were upregulated in EOC patients compared with healthy women. The four microRNAs discriminated EOC patients from healthy women with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92%. The levels of miR-429 positively correlated with CA125 values (P=0.0001) and differed between FIGO I-II and III-IV stages (P=0.001). MiR-429 was an independent predictor of overall survival (P=0.011). Overexpressed miR-429 in SKOV3 cells led to suppression of cell migration (P=0.037) and invasion (P=0.011). Increased levels of miR-7 were associated with lymph node metastases (P=0.0001) and FIGO stages III-IV (P=0.0001). Overexpressed miR-7 in SKOV3 cells resulted in increased cell migration (P=0.001) and invasion (P=0.011). Additionally, the increased levels of miR-376a correlated with FIGO stages III-IV (P=0.02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data indicate the diagnostic potential of miR-7, miR-25, miR-93 and miR-429 in EOC and the prognostic potential of miR-429. This microRNA panel may be promising molecules to be targeted in the treatment of EOC.
Project description:The carrier role of exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in gene and drug therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNA-146a (miR-146a) from hUCMSCs in ovarian cancer (OC). Following the generation of docetaxel (DTX)-resistant SKOV3 cells and taxane-resistant A2780 cells, exosomes were isolated from hUCMSCs and added to the chemoresistant cells. Microarray analysis revealed that miR-146a expression was upregulated in DTX/SKOV3 cells among 15 ectopically expressed miRNAs. Analysis using the StarBase and miRSearch databases demonstrated that miR-146a targeted laminin ?2 (LAMC2), which was further verified using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Subsequently, miR-146a inhibitor or LAMC2 overexpression vectors were transfected into hUCMSCs or OC cells, respectively, and their effects on growth and chemoresistance in OC cells were assessed. The hUCMSC-derived exosomes reduced cell growth and chemoresistance in OC. Furthermore, hUCMSC-derived exosomes with miR-146a expression knocked down increased OC cell growth and chemoresistance, which was mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via LAMC2.
Project description:Exosomes are membrane vesicles that mediate intercellular communication by transporting their molecular cargo from cell to cell. We investigated whether serum levels of exosomal miR-373, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c and circulating exosomes have diagnostic and prognostic relevance in a cohort of 163 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients using TaqMan MicroRNA assays and ELISA. The serum concentrations of exosomal miR-373 (p = 0.0001), miR-200a (p = 0.0001), miR-200b (p = 0.0001) and miR-200c (p = 0.028) were significantly higher in EOC patients than healthy women. The levels of miR-200a (p = 0.0001), miR-200b (p = 0.0001) and miR-200c (p = 0.019) could distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. While the levels of miR-373 and miR-200a were increased in all FIGO/lymph node stages (p = 0.0001), the levels of miR-200b and miR-200c were higher in patients with FIGO stage III-IV (p = 0.0001, p = 0.008, respectively) including lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0001, p = 0.004, respectively) than FIGO stages I-II. The increased levels of miR-200b and miR-200c were also associated with CA125 values (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, respectively) and a shorter overall survival (p = 0.007, p = 0.017, respectively). The levels of exosomes were excessively elevated in EOC patients (p = 0.0001). In all three cohorts, they were positively associated with the serum levels of exosomal miR-373 (p = 0.004), miR-200a (p = 0.0001), miR-200b (p = 0.0001) and miR-200c (p = 0.008). In conclusion, the increased levels of exosomal miR-200b and miR-200c mainly observed in advanced EOC suggest that these microRNAs may be involved in tumor progression. The high concentrations of exosomes in EOC patients imply an excessive, active exosomal secretion in EOC.
Project description:Specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are packaged in exosomes that regulate processes in tumor development and progression. The current study focuses on the influence of exosomal miRNAs in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MiRNA profiles were determined in exosomes from plasma of 106 EOC patients, eight ovarian cystadenoma patients, and 29 healthy women by TaqMan real-time PCR-based miRNA array cards containing 48 different miRNAs. In cell culture experiments, the impact of miR-200b and miR-320 was determined on proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines. We report that miR-21 (P = 0.0001), miR-100 (P = 0.034), miR-200b (P = 0.008), and miR-320 (P = 0.034) are significantly enriched, whereas miR-16 (P = 0.009), miR-93 (P = 0.014), miR-126 (P = 0.012), and miR-223 (P = 0.029) are underrepresented in exosomes from plasma of EOC patients as compared to those of healthy women. The levels of exosomal miR-23a (P = 0.009, 0.008) and miR-92a (P = 009, 0.034) were lower in ovarian cystadenoma patients than in EOC patients and healthy women, respectively. The exosomal levels of miR-200b correlated with the tumor marker CA125 (P = 0.002) and patient overall survival (P = 0.019). MiR-200b influenced cell proliferation (P = 0.0001) and apoptosis (P < 0.008). Our findings reveal specific exosomal miRNA patterns in EOC and ovarian cystadenoma patients, which are indicative of a role of these miRNAs in the pathogenesis of EOC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>microRNAs (miRNAs) stably exist in circulating blood and are encapsulated in extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. The aims of this study were to identify which exosomal miRNAs are highly produced from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, to analyze whether serum miRNA can be used to discriminate patients with EOC from healthy volunteers, and to investigate the functional role of exosomal miRNAs in ovarian cancer progression.<h4>Methods</h4>Exosomes were collected from the culture media of serous ovarian cancer cell lines, namely TYK-nu and HeyA8 cells. An exosomal miRNA microarray revealed that several miRNAs including miR-99a-5p were specifically elevated in EOC-derived exosomes. Expression levels of serum miR-99a-5p in 62 patients with EOC, 26 patients with benign ovarian tumors, and 20 healthy volunteers were determined by miRNA quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the role of exosomal miR-99a-5p in peritoneal dissemination, neighboring human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were treated with EOC-derived exosomes and then expression levels of miR-99a-5p were examined. Furthermore, mimics of miR-99a-5p were transfected into HPMCs and the effect of miR-99a-5p on cancer invasion was analyzed using a 3D culture model. Proteomic analysis with the tandem mass tag method was performed on HPMCs transfected with miR-99a-5p and then potential target genes of miR-99a-5p were examined.<h4>Results</h4>The serum miR-99a-5p levels were significantly increased in patients with EOC, compared with those in benign tumor patients and healthy volunteers (1.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed with a cut-off of 1.41 showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.75, respectively, for detecting EOC (area under the curve?=?0.88). Serum miR-99a-5p expression levels were significantly decreased after EOC surgeries (1.8 to 1.3, p?=?0.002), indicating that miR-99a-5p reflects tumor burden. Treatment with EOC-derived exosomes significantly increased miR-99a-5p expression in HPMCs. HPMCs transfected with miR-99a-5p promoted ovarian cancer invasion and exhibited increased expression levels of fibronectin and vitronectin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Serum miR-99a-5p is significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients. Exosomal miR-99a-5p from EOC cells promotes cell invasion by affecting HPMCs through fibronectin and vitronectin upregulation and may serve as a target for inhibiting ovarian cancer progression.
Project description:Exosomes carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play critical roles in the regulation of development, growth and metastasis of cancer. Bioinformatic predictions identified differentially expressed SRY-box 9 (SOX9) in OC, and the regulatory miRNA miR-139-5p. Here, we aim to evaluate the function of exosomal miR-139-5p in the sensitivity of ovarian cancer (OC) cells to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP). Expression pattern of miR-139-5p and SOX9 in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) and DDP-resistant cells (SKOV3/DDP) was identified using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The relationship between miR-139-5p and SOX9 was validated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. SKOV3/DDP cell line was developed and introduced with miR-30a-5p mimic to analyse the effects of miR-30a-5p on resistance to DDP. The <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> effects of exosomal miR-30a-5p on resistance of SKOV3 cells to DDP were assessed in a co-culture system of exosomes and OC cells as well as in tumour-bearing nude mice. High expression of SOX9 and low expression of miR-30-5p were witnessed in OC. Furthermore, miR-30-5p, a downregulated miRNA in SKOV3/DDP cells, increased the rate of cell apoptosis and enhanced the sensitivity of SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP by targeting SOX9. Moreover, exosomes carrying miR-30a-5p were identified to sensitize SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. These data together supported an important conclusion that DDP-resistant OC cell-derived exosomal miR-30a-5p enhanced cellular sensitivity to DDP, highlighting a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance.
Project description:In human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), various miRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. We investigated miRNAs known to be involved in EOC progression and analyzed their expression in tissues and serum-derived exosomes from benign serous cystadenoma, borderline serous tumor, low-grade serous ovarian cancer, and high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients (HGSO). The HGSO group was divided based on the platinum-free interval, which is defined as the duration from the completion of platinum-based chemotherapy to recurrence. We also analyzed the mRNA levels of target genes that candidate miRNAs might regulate in patient tissues. miR-214-3p was highly expressed in tissues and exosomes derived from EOC with high malignancy and also found to regulate the expression of LIM homeobox domain 6 (LHX6) mRNA. Serum exosomal levels of miR-214-3p were significantly increased in platinum-resistant HGSO (25.2-fold, p < 0.001) compared to the exosomal expression of benign tumor patients. On transfection of miR-214-3p inhibitor in EOC cells, cell proliferation was inhibited while apoptotic cell death was increased. Collectively, we suggest that miR-214-3p in serum exosomes can be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of ovarian tumor, and its inhibition can be a supportive treatment for EOC.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Exosomal microRNA (miRNA) as a mediator of intercellular communication plays an essential part in tumor-relevant angiogenesis. Therapy against angiogenesis has been demonstrated to have a remarkable antitumor efficacy in various malignancies, but not as expected in ovarian cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Exosomal miRNA sequencing and gene function experiments were used to identify the differential expressed miRNAs in exosomes and their mRNA targets. SKOV3 cell line that stably overexpressed miR-92b-3p was constructed by lentivirus. In vitro, angiogenesis was analyzed by tube formation assay and migration assay. The angiogenic and antitumor effects in vivo were assessed in zebrafish and nude mouse models. Combination index was calculated to assess the synergetic inhibition of angiogenesis between miR-92b-3p and Apatinib. Peptides were conjugated with exosomal membranes to obtain engineered exosomes.<h4>Results</h4>Ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes facilitated the angiogenesis and migration capability of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The expression of miR-92b-3p was much lower in ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes than that in immortalized ovarian epithelial cell-derived exosomes. The exosomal miR-92b-3p modulated tumor-associated angiogenesis via targeting SOX4. Besides, Peptide-engineered exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p showed the stronger abilities of anti-angiogenesis and antitumor than parental exosomes, whether alone or combined with Apatinib.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate the effect and mechanism of exosomal miR-92b-3p from ovarian cancer cells on tumor-associated angiogenesis and the potential of artificially generated exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p to be used as anti-angiogenic agent, which may provide a new approach for anti-angiogenic therapy of ovarian cancer.