Cancer-secreted exosomal miR-21-5p induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability by targeting KRIT1.
ABSTRACT: Cancer-secreted exosomes are critical mediators of cancer-host crosstalk. In the present study, we showed the delivery of miR-21-5p from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to endothelial cells via exosomes increased the amount of miR-21-5p in recipient cells. MiR-21-5p suppressed Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) in recipient HUVECs and subsequently activated β-catenin signaling pathway and increased their downstream targets VEGFa and Ccnd1, which consequently promoted angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC. A strong inverse correlation between miR-21-5p and KRIT1 expression levels was observed in CRC-adjacent vessels. Furthermore, miR-21-5p expression in circulating exosomes was markedly higher in CRC patients than in healthy donors. Thus, our data suggest that exosomal miR-21-5p is involved in angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC and may be used as a potential new therapeutic target.
Project description:miR-21 is overexpressed in tumors and it displays oncogenic activity. Here, we show that expression of miR-21 in primary tumors anticorrelates with KRIT1/CCM1, an interacting partner of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1, involved in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM). We present evidences that miR-21 silences KRIT1 by targeting its mRNA 3'UTR and that this interaction is involved in tumor growth control. In fact, miR-21 over-expression or KRIT1 knock-down promote anchorage independent tumor cell growth compared to controls, whereas the opposite is observed when anti-miR-21 or KRIT1 overexpression are employed. Our findings suggest that miR-21 promotes tumor cell growth, at least in part, by down-modulating the potential tumor suppressor KRIT1.
Project description:Epithelial barrier maintenance and regulation requires an intact perijunctional actomyosin ring underneath the cell-cell junctions. By searching for known factors affecting the actin cytoskeleton, we identified Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) as a major regulator for epithelial barrier function through multiple mechanisms. KRIT1 is expressed in both small intestinal and colonic epithelium, and KRIT1 knockdown in differentiated Caco-2 intestinal epithelium decreases epithelial barrier function and increases cation selectivity. KRIT1 knockdown abolished Rho-associated protein kinase-induced and myosin II motor inhibitor-induced barrier loss by limiting both small and large molecule permeability but did not affect myosin light chain kinase-induced increases in epithelial barrier function. These data suggest that KRIT1 participates in Rho-associated protein kinase- and myosin II motor-dependent (but not myosin light chain kinase-dependent) epithelial barrier regulation. KRIT1 knockdown exacerbated low-dose TNF-induced barrier loss, along with increased cleaved caspase-3 production. Both events are blocked by pan-caspase inhibition, indicating that KRIT1 regulates TNF-induced barrier loss through limiting epithelial apoptosis. These data indicate that KRIT1 controls epithelial barrier maintenance and regulation through multiple pathways, suggesting that KRIT1 mutation in cerebral cavernous malformation disease may alter epithelial function and affect human health.-Wang, Y., Li, Y., Zou, J., Polster, S. P., Lightle, R., Moore, T., Dimaano, M., He, T.-C., Weber, C. R., Awad, I. A., Shen, L. The cerebral cavernous malformation disease causing gene KRIT1 participates in intestinal epithelial barrier maintenance and regulation.
Project description:KRIT1 (Krev/Rap1 Interaction Trapped-1) mutations are observed in ?40% of autosomal-dominant cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), a disease occurring in up to 0.5% of the population. We show that KRIT1 functions as a switch for ?1 integrin activation by antagonizing ICAP1 (Integrin Cytoplasmic Associated Protein-1)-mediated modulation of "inside-out" activation. We present cocrystal structures of KRIT1 with ICAP1 and ICAP1 with integrin ?1 cytoplasmic tail to 2.54 and 3.0 Å resolution (the resolutions at which I/?I = 2 are 2.75 and 3.0 Å, respectively). We find that KRIT1 binds ICAP1 by a bidentate surface, that KRIT1 directly competes with integrin ?1 to bind ICAP1, and that KRIT1 antagonizes ICAP1-modulated integrin activation using this site. We also find that KRIT1 contains an N-terminal Nudix domain, in a region previously designated as unstructured. We therefore provide insights to integrin regulation and CCM-associated KRIT1 function.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) are associated with the pathogenesis of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries and affecting 0.5% of the human population. However, growing evidence demonstrates that KRIT1 is implicated in the modulation of major redox-sensitive signaling pathways and mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting that its loss-of-function mutations may have pathological effects not limited to CCM disease. The aim of this study was to address whether KRIT1 loss-of-function predisposes to the development of pathological conditions associated with enhanced endothelial cell susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as arterial endothelial dysfunction (ED) and atherosclerosis. Silencing of KRIT1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resulted in increased expression of endothelial proinflammatory adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and in enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced apoptosis. These effects were associated with a downregulation of Notch1 activation that could be rescued by antioxidant treatment, suggesting that they are consequent to altered intracellular redox homeostasis induced by KRIT1 loss-of-function. Furthermore, analysis of the aorta of heterozygous <i>KRIT1</i><sup>+/-</sup> mice fed a high-fructose diet to induce systemic oxidative stress and inflammation demonstrated a 1.6-fold increased expression of VCAM-1 and an approximately 2-fold enhanced fat accumulation (7.5% vs 3.6%) in atherosclerosis-prone regions, including the aortic arch and aortic root, as compared to corresponding wild-type littermates. In conclusion, we found that KRIT1 deficiency promotes ED, suggesting that, besides CCM, KRIT1 may be implicated in genetic susceptibility to the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
Project description:Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP1) is a suppressor of integrin activation and directly binds to the cytoplasmic tail of ?1 integrins; its binding suppresses integrin activation by competition with talin. Krev/Rap1 interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1) releases ICAP1 suppression of integrin activation by sequestering ICAP1 away from integrin cytoplasmic tails. Here, the cocrystal structure of the PTB domain of ICAP1 in complex with a 29-amino-acid fragment (residues 170-198) of KRIT1 is presented to 1.7?Å resolution [the resolution at which ?I/?(I)? = 2.9 was 1.83?Å]. In previous studies, the structure of ICAP1 with integrin ?1 was determined to 3.0?Å resolution and that of ICAP1 with the N-terminal portion of KRIT1 (residues 1-198) was determined to 2.54?Å resolution; therefore, this study provides the highest resolution structure yet of ICAP1 and allows further detailed analysis of the interaction of ICAP1 with its minimal binding region in KRIT1.
Project description:Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular dysplasias that usually occur in the brain and are associated with mutations in the KRIT1/CCM1, CCM2/MGC4607/OSM/Malcavernin, and PDCD10/CCM3/TFAR15 genes. Here we report the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and FERM domain of the protein product of KRIT1 (KRIT1; Krev interaction trapped 1). The crystal structure reveals that the KRIT1 ARD contains 4 ankyrin repeats. There is an unusual conformation in the ANK4 repeat that is stabilized by Trp-404, and the structure reveals a solvent exposed ankyrin groove. Domain orientations of the three copies within the asymmetric unit suggest a stable interaction between KRIT1 ARD and FERM domains, indicating a globular ARD-FERM module. This resembles the additional F0 domain found N-terminal to the FERM domain of talin. Structural analysis of KRIT1 ARD-FERM highlights surface regions of high evolutionary conservation, and suggests potential sites that could mediate interaction with binding partners. The structure therefore provides a better understanding of KRIT1 at the molecular level.
Project description:Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with ?40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 Å co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain "modules."
Project description:Exosomes play important roles in proliferation and microenvironment modulation of many types of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the inhibitory effect of CRC cells-derived exosomes in angiogenesis has not been fully discussed. In this study, the roles of microRNA-183-5p (miR-183-5p) in abundant in exosomes secreted from the CRC cells were investigated. Initially, microarray analysis was employed to determine the differentially expressed miRNAs. Exosomes isolated from CRC cells were co-cultured with HMEC-1 cells to explore the role of exosomes in angiogenesis. Further, the effects of CRC cell-derived exosomal miR-183-5p on proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells were assessed. The preventative effect of exosomal miR-183-5p in vivo was measured in nude mice. Initially, it was found that FOXO1 was downregulated while miR-183-5p was upregulated in CRC. Additionally, the inhibition of miR-183-5p was suggested to suppress proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells through upregulating FOXO1. Then, in vitro assays demonstrated that CRC cell-derived exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p contributed to an enhanced proliferation, invasion and tube formation abilities of HMEC-1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments confirmed the tumor-promotive effects of CRC cell-derived exosomal miR-183-5p. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the CRC cell-derived exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p aggravates CRC through the regulation of FOXO1. Exosomes overexpressing miR-183-5p might be a potential treatment biomarker for CRC.
Project description:Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is a member of the family of cytoplasmic sorting nexin adaptor proteins that regulate endosomal trafficking of cell surface proteins. SNX17 localizes to early endosomes where it directly binds NPX(Y/F) motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of its target receptors to mediate their rates of endocytic internalization, recycling, and/or degradation. SNX17 has also been implicated in mediating cell signaling and can interact with cytoplasmic proteins. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped 1), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein associated with cerebral cavernous malformations, has previously been shown to interact with SNX17. Here, we demonstrate that SNX17 indeed binds directly to KRIT1 and map the binding to the second Asn-Pro-Xaa-Tyr/Phe (NPX(Y/F)) motif in KRIT1. We further characterize the interaction as being mediated by the FERM domain of SNX17. We present the co-crystal structure of SNX17-FERM with the KRIT1-NPXF2 peptide to 3.0 Å resolution and demonstrate that the interaction is highly similar in structure and binding affinity to that between SNX17 and P-selectin. We verify the molecular details of the interaction by site-directed mutagenesis and pulldown assay and thereby confirm that the major binding site for SNX17 is confined to the NPXF2 motif in KRIT1. Taken together, our results verify a direct interaction between SNX17 and KRIT1 and classify KRIT1 as a SNX17 binding partner.
Project description:Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are predominantly neurovascular lesions and are associated with mutations within the KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 genes. The protein products of KRIT1 and CCM2 (Krev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1) and cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2), respectively) directly interact with each other. Disease-associated mutations in KRIT1 and CCM2 mostly result in loss of their protein products, although rare missense point mutations can also occur. From gene sequencing of patients known or suspected to have one or more CCMs, we discover a series of missense point mutations in KRIT1 and CCM2 that result in missense mutations in the CCM2 and KRIT1 proteins. To place these mutations in the context of the molecular level interactions of CCM2 and KRIT1, we map the interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 and find that the CCM2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain displays a preference toward the third of the three KRIT1 NPX(Y/F) motifs. We determine the 2.75 Å co-crystal structure of the CCM2 PTB domain with a peptide corresponding to KRIT1(NPX(Y/F)3), revealing a Dab-like PTB fold for CCM2 and its interaction with KRIT1(NPX(Y/F)3). We find that several disease-associated missense mutations in CCM2 have the potential to interrupt the KRIT1-CCM2 interaction by destabilizing the CCM2 PTB domain and that a KRIT1 mutation also disrupts this interaction. We therefore provide new insights into the architecture of CCM2 and how the CCM complex is disrupted in CCM disease.