The interaction of child abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene is associated with amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in young adults.
ABSTRACT: Extensive research has demonstrated that rs1360780, a common single nucleotide polymorphism within the FKBP5 gene, interacts with early-life stress in predicting psychopathology. Previous results suggest that carriers of the TT genotype of rs1360780 who were exposed to child abuse show differences in structure and functional activation of emotion-processing brain areas belonging to the salience network. Extending these findings on intermediate phenotypes of psychopathology, we examined if the interaction between rs1360780 and child abuse predicts resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the amygdala and other areas of the salience network. We analyzed data of young European adults from the general population (N = 774; mean age = 18.76 years) who took part in the IMAGEN study. In the absence of main effects of genotype and abuse, a significant interaction effect was observed for rsFC between the right centromedial amygdala and right posterior insula (p < .025, FWE-corrected), which was driven by stronger rsFC in TT allele carriers with a history of abuse. Our results suggest that the TT genotype of rs1360780 may render individuals with a history of abuse more vulnerable to functional changes in communication between brain areas processing emotions and bodily sensations, which could underlie or increase the risk for psychopathology.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone that regulates glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and thereby impacts the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Evidence suggested that subjects exposed to childhood abuse and carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to stress-related disorders. METHOD:The hypothesis that abused TT genotype carriers show changes in gray matter (GM) volumes in affect-processing brain areas was investigated. About 1,826 Caucasian subjects (age???65 years) from the general population [Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)] in Germany were investigated. The interaction between rs1360780 and child abuse (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and its effect on GM were analyzed. RESULTS:Voxel-based whole-brain interaction analysis revealed three large clusters (FWE-corrected) of reduced GM volumes comprising the bilateral insula, the superior and middle temporal gyrus, the bilateral hippocampus, the right amygdala, and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in abused TT carriers. These results were not confounded by major depressive disorders. In region of interest analyses, highly significant volume reductions in the right hippocampus/parahippocampus, the bilateral anterior and middle cingulate cortex, the insula, and the amygdala were confirmed in abused TT carriers compared with abused CT/CC carriers. CONCLUSION:The results supported the hypothesis that the FKBP5 rs1360780 TT genotype predisposes subjects who have experienced childhood abuse to widespread structural brain changes in the subcortical and cortical emotion-processing brain areas. Those brain changes might contribute to an increased vulnerability of stress-related disorders in TT genotype carriers.
Project description:Childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders have both been associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid-receptor sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that subjects carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression. In all, 2157 Caucasian subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (German general population) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed by interview. Genotypes of rs1360780 were taken from the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Significant interaction (p=0.006) of physical abuse with the TT genotype of rs1360780 was found increasing the BDI-II score to 17.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.0-22.9) compared with 10.0 (8.2-11.7) in exposed CC/CT carriers. Likewise, the adjusted odds ratio for MDD in exposed TT carriers was 8.2 (95% CI=1.9-35.0) compared with 1.3 (0.8-2.3) in exposed subjects with CC/CT genotypes. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analyses confirmed a significant additive interaction effect (RERI=6.8; 95% CI=0.64-33.7; p<0.05). In explorative analyses, the most severe degree of sexual and emotional abuse also yielded significant interaction effects (p<0.05). This study revealed interactions between physical abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene, confirming its role in the individual susceptibility to depression. Given the large effect sizes, rs1360780 could be included into prediction models for depression in individuals exposed to childhood abuse.
Project description:Abstract Background: We have previously shown elevated cortisol levels during the day and a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR) at the onset of psychosis. Although stressful events and childhood abuse have been suggested to possibly play a role in these abnormalities, the evidence behind this link remains inconsistent, and it has been suggested that these could be partly due to genetic predisposition. The aim of this study was to test interaction between history of childhood abuse and rs1360780 FKBP5 genotype on cortisol levels during the day and cortisol awakening response. Methods: Eighty-two first-episode psychosis patients and 53 controls were enrolled in the study. Saliva samples were collected at multiple time points during the day to measure diurnal cortisol levels and cortisol awakening response (CAR); DNA was extracted from blood or saliva samples and evaluated for a functional polymorphism at the rs1360780 locus in FKBP5. Information about presence of absence childhood physical or sexual abuse was collected using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Univariate analyses were performed to test the effects of the interaction between presence of childhood abuse and FKBP5 genotype on cortisol measurements. Results: We found a significant interaction between history of childhood abuse and FKBP5 genotype on the CAR in first episode psychosis (F = 1.132, P = .01) but not in controls (P = .3). In particular patients with T allele (CT or TT) and history of childhood abuse had higher CAR than those with the same allele but without childhood abuse, while patients with CC genotype and history of childhood abuse had lower CAR than those with the same genotype but without childhood abuse. We also found a trend for interaction between history of childhood abuse and FKBP5 genotype on the cortisol levels during the day (F = 3.604, P = .06) in first episode psychosis but in controls (P = .3). In particular patients with T allele (CT or TT) and history of childhood abuse had higher diurnal cortisol levels than those with the same allele but without childhood abuse, while patients with CC genotype and history of childhood abuse had lower diurnal cortisol levels than those with the same genotype but without childhood abuse. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a role of interaction between childhood abuse and FKBP5 genotype in determining HPA axis abnormalities observed at the onset of psychosis.
Project description:Individual variation in physiological responsiveness to stress mediates risk for mental illness and is influenced by both experiential and genetic factors. Common polymorphisms in the human gene for FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which is involved in transcriptional regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have been shown to interact with childhood abuse and trauma to predict stress-related psychopathology. In the current study, we examined if such gene-environment interaction effects may be related to variability in the threat-related reactivity of the amygdala, which plays a critical role in mediating physiological and behavioral adaptations to stress including modulation of the HPA axis. To this end, 139 healthy Caucasian youth completed a blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging probe of amygdala reactivity and self-report assessments of emotional neglect (EN) and other forms of maltreatment. These individuals were genotyped for 6 FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9296158, rs3800373, rs9470080 and rs9394309) previously associated with psychopathology and/or HPA axis function. Interactions between each SNP and EN emerged such that risk alleles predicted relatively increased dorsal amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN, even after correcting for multiple testing. Two different haplotype analyses confirmed this relationship as haplotypes with risk alleles also exhibited increased amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN. Our results suggest that increased threat-related amygdala reactivity may represent a mechanism linking psychopathology to interactions between common genetic variants affecting HPA axis function and childhood trauma.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Recent research has identified a general psychopathology factor (GPF), which explains overlap in presentation of psychopathological symptoms. Unresolved-disorganized attachment (Ud) is another transdiagnostic risk factor that may be relevant to explain differences in patient characteristics within diagnostic classifications. <b>Objective</b>: In the current study, we examined unique relations of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with Ud and GPF. <b>Method</b>: RSFC data were collected from a mixed group of adolescents (<i>N</i> = 74) with and without psychiatric disorder, as part of the Emotional Pathways' Imaging Study in Clinical Adolescents (EPISCA) study. Ud was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Associations between Ud, GPF, and RSFC of the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and with amygdala-medial frontal connectivity were examined. <b>Results</b>: Ud was positively associated with greater functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the left lateral occipital cortex, precuneus, and superior parietal lobule. Furthermore, Ud was negatively associated with left amygdala-medial frontal cortex connectivity. GPF was not significantly associated with dACC or amygdala connectivity. <b>Conclusions</b>: Atypical amygdala connectivity may reflect a vulnerability factor rather than a biomarker of psychopathology. The unique association of Ud and amygdala RSFC, adjusted for a GPF, across participants with and without various classifications of psychopathology illustrates that dimensional approaches based on the AAI may complement psychiatric classifications in clinical research and practice.
Project description:Loss and abuse in children can lead to unresolved-disorganized (UD) attachment. How this condition relates to brain structure and functional connectivity (FC) is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) correlates of UD attachment in adolescents. Based on previous neuroimaging studies of trauma effects, we hypothesized that the structure of the amygdala and hippocampus and the FC of the latter would be linked to UD attachment. Anatomical and RSFC data were collected from a mixed group of adolescents (N = 74) with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), anxiety/depressive symptoms, and without psychiatric disorder as part of the Emotional Pathways' Imaging Study in Clinical Adolescents (EPISCA). Bilateral volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus were measured using the FMRIB Software Library, and RSFC of the hippocampus was assessed using seed-based correlation. UD attachment was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. Hierarchical regression and correlation were used to assess the associations between UD status (continuous and categorical), brain structure, and FC, adjusting for a general psychopathology factor, puberty stage, gender, age, and IQ. UD attachment was associated with a smaller left hippocampal volume, R<sup>2</sup> = .23, and a higher level of FC between the hippocampus and the middle temporal gyrus and lateral occipital cortex. The associations among UD attachment, specific brain structure, and FC across psychopathological classifications shows promise for dimensional complements to the dominant classificatory approach in clinical research and practice.
Project description:Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Patients treated with antidepressants influencing noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission showed different RSFC from locus coeruleus to DLPFC compared to patients treated with antidepressants influencing serotonergic neurotransmission only. In the opposite contrast patients showed stronger RSFC from dorsal raphe to posterior brain regions. Enhanced VTA-RSFC to amygdala as a central region of the salience network may indicate an over-attribution of the affective salience to internally-oriented processes. Significant correlation between decreased VTA-dACC functional connectivity and the BDI-II somatic symptoms indicates an association with diminished volition and behavioral activation in MDD. The observed differences in the FC of the midbrain/brainstem nuclei between two classes of antidepressants suggest differential neural effects of SSRIs and SNRIs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The influence of sex on the prevalence and clinical manifestations of functional dyspepsia (FD) has recently been a topic of increasing interest. However, brain MRI pathology based on sexual dimorphism in FD has not yet been investigated. The amygdala, which plays a vital role in processing gastrointestinal signals, may be associated with the sex-related pathophysiology of FD. METHODS:We investigated the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of amygdala subregions in patients with FD and healthy subjects as well as the sex differences between male and female FD patients. RESULTS:The results showed that FD patients manifested altered rsFC in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala subregions compared with HS and that female FD patients showed increased BLA rsFC with the insula (INS) and decreased BLA rsFC with the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex compared with male FD patients and female HS. DISCUSSION:Our findings suggest that FD females tend to have more severe dysfunction of cognitive-affective processing among the brain regions associated with the salience network, central executive network, and default mode network.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women, whose etiology remains uncertain, although it is known to be highly heterogeneous and genetically complex. PCOS often presents with hyperandrogenism symptoms. The present study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in the FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene (androgen target gene) are associated with an association for PCOS and hyperandrogenism.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a case-control study, and association analyses were conducted. A total of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene were evaluated in 775 PCOS patients who were diagnosed based on the Rotterdam Standard and 783 healthy Chinese Han women. Associations between FKBP5 SNPs and hormone levels were investigated. These 13 SNPs were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY system, and an association analysis between the phenotype and alleles and genotypes were conducted.<h4>Results</h4>The genotype frequencies for the rs1360780 and rs3800373 SNPs differed significantly between the PCOS cases and healthy controls (p = 0.025, OR is 1.63 (1.05-2.53) and p = 0.029, OR is 1.59 (1.03-2.45) respectively under co-dominant model). Moreover, the genotype frequencies and genetic model analysis for the SNPs rs1360780, rs9470080, rs9296158, rs1043805 and rs7757037 differed significantly between the hyperandrogenism and non-hyperandrogenism groups of PCOS patients. The TT genotype of rs1360780, the TT genotype of rs9470080, the TT genotype of rs1043805 or the GG genotype of rs7705037 (ORs are 2.13 (1.03-4.39), 1.81 (1.03-3.17), 2.94 (1.32-6.53) and 1.72 (1.04-2.84) respectively) were correlated with androgen level of PCOS patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study showed that FKBP5 gene polymorphisms are associated with PCOS generally (rs1360780 and rs3800373) and with the hyperandrogenism subtype specifically (rs1360780, rs9470080, rs9296158, rs1043805 and rs7757037).
Project description:During adolescence, considerable social and biological changes occur that interact with functional brain maturation, some of which are sex-specific. The amygdala is one brain area that has displayed sexual dimorphism, specifically in socio-affective (superficial amygdala [SFA]), stress (centromedial amygdala [CMA]), and learning and memory (basolateral amygdala [BLA]) processing. The amygdala has also been implicated in mood and anxiety disorders which display sex-specific features, most prominently observed during adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study examined the interaction of age and sex on resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala sub-regions, BLA and SFA, in a sample of healthy adolescents between the ages 10 and 16 years (n = 122, 71 boys). Whole-brain, voxel-wise partial correlation analyses were conducted to determine RSFC of bilateral BLA and SFA seed regions, created using the Eickhoff-Zilles maximum probability maps based on cytoarchitectonic mapping and FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to correct for multiple comparisons (threshold of 53 contiguous voxels with a z-value ? 2.25). Results indicated that with increasing age, there was a corresponding decrease in RSFC between both amygdala sub-regions and parieto-occipital cortices, with a concurrent increase in RSFC with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specifically, boys and girls demonstrated increased coupling of mPFC and left and right SFA with age, respectively; however, neither sex showed increased connectivity between mPFC and BLA, which could indicate relative immaturity of fronto-limbic networks that is similar across sex. A dissociation in connectivity between BLA- and SFA-parieto-occipital RSFC emerged, in which girls had weaker negative RSFC between SFA and parieto-occipital regions and boys had weaker negative RSFC of BLA and parieto-occipital regions with increased age, both standing in contrast to adult patterns of amygdala sub-regional RSFC. The present findings suggest relative immaturity of amygdala sub-regional RSFC with parieto-occipital cortices during adolescence, with unique patterns in both sexes that may support memory and socio-affective processing in boys and girls, respectively. Understanding the underlying normative functional architecture of brain networks associated with the amygdala during adolescence may better inform future research of the neural features associated with increased risk for internalizing psychopathology.