Once-Weekly Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Increases Strength, Stability and Body Composition in Amateur Golfers. A Randomized Controlled Study.
ABSTRACT: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), an innovative training technology, is considered as a joint-friendly, highly customizable and particularly time-effective option for improving muscle strength and stability, body composition and pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS on maximum isometric trunk (MITS), leg extensor strength (MILES), lean body mass (LBM) and body-fat content. A cohort of 54 male amateur golfers, 18 to 70 years old and largely representative for healthy adults, were randomly assigned to a WB-EMS (n = 27) or a control group (CG: n = 27). Bipolar low-frequency WB-EMS combined with low-intensity movements was conducted once per week for 20 min at the participants' locations, while the CG maintained their habitual activity. The intention to treat analysis with multiple imputation was applied. After 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS application with an attendance rate close to 100%, we observed significant WB-EMS effects on MITS (p < 0.001), MILES (p = 0.001), LBM (p = 0.034), but not body-fat content (p = 0.080) and low-back pain (LBP: p ≥ 0.078). In summary, the commercial setting of once-weekly WB-EMS application is effective to enhance stability, maximum strength, body composition and, to a lower extent, LBP in amateur golfers widely representative for a healthy male cohort.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is commercially advertised as a time-efficient resistance-type exercise technology. Indeed, the commercial, non-medical setting applies 20 min of WB-EMS only once a week. However, this setting conflicts with the approved scientific approach of higher training frequencies. Using data from an ongoing study on WB-EMS and golf performance as a vehicle, we evaluate the effect of once weekly WB-EMS on changes of fatty muscle infiltration, as a crucial parameter of muscle quality. Fifty-four moderately physically active male amateur golfers 18-70 years old were randomly allocated to a WB-EMS (<i>n</i> = 27) with a standard setting of once weekly 20 min and a non-WB-EMS control group (CG, <i>n</i> = 27). Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume and intrafascial muscle tissue (MT) volume per unit of intrafascial volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging were used to characterize muscle quality. Intention to treat analysis with multiple imputation was applied. WB-EMS was conducted at the participants' homes; thus, the attendance rate was close to 100%. After 16 weeks of intervention, we observed increases in volume-adjusted IMAT (<i>p</i> = 0.040) and decreases in MT (<i>p</i> = 0.206) in the CG. IMAT decreased in the WB-EMS group (<i>p</i> = 0.215), while MT increased significantly (<i>p</i> = 0.032). Of importance, group difference (i.e., "effects") for intra-group changes in volume-adjusted IMAT (effect size: <i>d</i>´ = 0.66; <i>p</i> = 0.028) and MT (<i>d</i>´ = 0.70; <i>p</i> = 0.020) was significant for both parameters. Once weekly WB-EMS application significantly affects muscle quality of the mid-thigh in moderately active, healthy men 18-70 years old.
Project description:High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30-50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks) that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as "single-set-to-failure protocol," while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6?s WB-EMS, 4?s rest; 85?Hz, 350?ms) over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM) as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press). LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93 ± 1.15%) were significant (p = .001); however, no significant group differences were detected (p = .395). Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7 ± 14.7%, p = .002, versus WB-EMS 7.3 ± 10.3%, p = .012) with no significant (p = .215) between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containing identical exercises without EMS. Primary study endpoints were bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (thip) as assessed by DXA. After 54 weeks of intervention, borderline nonsignificant intergroup differences were determined for LS-BMD (WB-EMS: 0.6 ± 2.5% versus CG -0.7 ± 2.5%, P = .051) but not for thip-BMD (WB-EMS: -1.1 ± 1.9% versus CG: -0.8 ± 2.3%, P = .771). With respect to secondary endpoints, there was a gain in lean body mass (LBM) of 1.5% (P = .006) and an increase in grip strength of 8.4% (P = .000) in the WB-EMS group compared to CG. WB-EMS effects on bone are less pronounced than previously reported effects on muscle mass. However, for subjects unable or unwilling to perform intense exercise programs, WB-EMS may be an option for maintaining BMD at the LS.
Project description:This study investigated differences in perfectionist traits and commitment between professional and amateur golfers, as well as correlations among perfectionist traits, commitment, and golf handicap. Using simple random sampling, 486 professional golfers (mean age = 22.1 ± 3.0, 52.1% female) and 233 amateur golfers (mean age = 44.8 ± 10.2, 55.8% female) were recruited and assessed using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and Expansion of Sports Commitment Model (ESCM). An ANCOVA, controlling for age, golf career length, and training time, revealed lower MPS self-oriented scores (10.3%; F = 8.9, p < 0.01; effect size [ES] = 0.498) and higher ESCM-Cognition (12.6%; F = 9.4, p < 0.01; ES = 0.691) and ESCM-Behavior (9.4%; F = 4.6, p = 0.03; ES = 0.479) scores in professional golfers than in amateur golfers. In partial correlations controlling for age, golf career length, and training time, professional golfers' MPS scores were negatively associated with ESCM-Cognition scores (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Professional golfers' mean golf handicap was positively correlated with MPS total (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). Altogether, golfers seeking to attain high levels of performance must consider the mental aspect of golfing and find ways to maximize commitment levels while minimizing perfectionist traits.
Project description:Patients undergoing the complex treatment for hematological malignancies are exposed to a high physiological and psychological distress inducing fatigue and physical inactivity. In line with cancer-related metabolic changes patients are predisposed for skeletal muscle mass loss that leads to a functional decline, affects therapeutic success, and quality of life. Benefits of physical exercise and nutritional interventions on muscle maintenance are observed in solid cancer patients, but marginally investigated in patients with hematological cancer. We here studied the effects of a combined supportive exercise and nutrition intervention using whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training and individualized nutritional support in patients actively treated for hematological malignancy. In a controlled pilot trial, 31 patients (67.7% male; 58.0 ± 16.7 years) with various hematological cancers were allocated to a control group (n = 9) receiving nutritional support of usual care regarding a high protein intake (>1.0 g/kg/d) or to a physical exercise group (n = 22) additionally performing WB-EMS training twice weekly for 12 weeks. Bodyweight and body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis were measured every 4 weeks. Physical function, blood parameters, quality of life and fatigue were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. No WB-EMS-related adverse effects occurred. Patients attending the exercise program presented a higher skeletal muscle mass than controls after 12-weeks (1.51 kg [0.41, 2.60]; p = 0.008). In contrast, patients of the control group showed a higher fat mass percentage than patients of the WB-EMS group (-4.46% [-7.15, -1.77]; p = 0.001) that was accompanied by an increase in serum triglycerides in contrast to a decrease in the WB-EMS group (change ± SD, control 36.3 ± 50.6 mg/dl; WB-EMS -31.8 ± 68.7 mg/dl; p = 0.064). No significant group differences for lower limb strength, quality of life, and fatigue were detected. However, compared to controls the WB-EMS group significantly improved in physical functioning indicated by a higher increase in the 6-min-walking distance (p = 0.046). A combined therapeutic intervention of WB-EMS and protein-rich nutritional support seems to be safe and effective in improving skeletal muscle mass and body composition in hematological cancer patients during active oncological treatment. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02293239.
Project description:Intramuscular density of monocarboxylate-transporter (MCT) could affect the ability to perform high amounts of fast and explosive actions during a soccer game. MCTs have been proven to be essential for lactate shuttling and pH regulation during exercise and can undergo notable adaptational changes depending on training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and direction of potential effects of a 7-weeks training period of jumps with superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation on soccer relevant performance surrogates and MCT density in soccer players. For this purpose, 30 amateur soccer players were randomly assigned to three groups. One group performed dynamic whole-body strength training including 3 x 10 squat jumps with WB-EMS (EG, n = 10) twice a week in addition to their daily soccer training routine. A jump training group (TG, n = 10) performed the same training routine without EMS, whereas a control group (CG, n = 8) merely performed their daily soccer routine. 2 (Time: pre vs. post) x 3 (group: EG, TG, CG) repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) revealed neither a significant time, group nor interaction effect for VO2peak, Total Time to Exhaustion and Lamax as well as MCT-1 density. Due to a lack of task-specificity of the underlying training stimuli, we conclude that seven weeks of WB-EMS superimposed to jump exercise twice a week does not relevantly influence aerobic performance or MCT density.
Project description:Strenuous training commonly results in amenorrhoea, which contributes to bone loss in some female collegiate athletes. However, the impact of athletic training on endocrine function and bone mineral density (BMD) in male collegiate athletes is less well understood. The objective of the study was to investigate the specific endocrine determinants of BMD in male collegiate runners and wrestlers, including the potential impact of gonadal steroid levels.? Cross-sectional study.? Twenty-six division I collegiate male athletes (wrestlers, runners and golfers).? Main outcome measures included (i) BMD endpoints measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); (ii) endocrine end-points: total and free oestradiol, total and free testosterone; (iii) body composition end-points: lean and fat mass, measured by DXA; and (iv) exercise end-points: maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max), number of miles run weekly and grip strength.? Free and total oestradiol levels were important positive determinants of BMD. In contrast, total and free testosterone levels were not significant predictors of BMD at any skeletal site (except for free testosterone at the radius). In addition, lean body mass, % ideal body weight, total body weight, body mass index (BMI) and hours per week of resistance training were positive predictors of BMD. VO(2) max was a negative predictor of BMD. Mean BMD was higher at all skeletal sites in the wrestlers compared with the runners and a comparison group (golfers).? Our data suggest that oestradiol levels, BMI, and resistance training are more important determinants of BMD in male collegiate athletes than testosterone.
Project description:Whole-body electro-myo-stimulation (WB-EMS) has been introduced as an alternative to physical training. Data about side effects and contraindications of WB-EMS are summarised. From healthy subjects, elevation of creatine-kinase (CK) activity with inter-individual variability was reported after WB-EMS. No data about applied current types, stimulation frequency and risk factors were given. In randomised trials investigating WB-EMS, CK activity was not measured. Seven cases of rhabdomyolysis after WB-EMS were found, and it remains open whether WB-EMS was the only risk factor. In healthy subjects, WB-EMS does not seem to affect blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake. The lists of exclusion criteria are, in part, contradictory between different studies, especially regarding malignancy and heart failure. Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis are not mentioned as contraindications for WB-EMS. Scientific research should concentrate on muscle damage as a side effect of WB-EMS considering current types applied, stimulation frequency and risk factors for rhabdomyolysis. Research about WB-EMS should include longitudinal muscle force measurements and MRI. Subjects, intending to perform WB-EMS, should undergo investigations by a physician comprising a screen for risk factors for rhabdomyolysis. The education of operators working in gyms with WB-EMS should be regulated and improved. Regulatory authorities should become aware of the problem. Those working in the field should start an initiative on an international level to increase the safety of WB-EMS.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostiulation (WB-EMS) has experienced a boom in recent years, even though its effectiveness is controversial. A sedentary lifestyle is deeply rooted in the European population, mainly in the elderly. This experimental study analyzed the impact of WB-EMS on the physical fitness of postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post-test. Both groups conducted a ten-week aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group overlaid the WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, both groups improved upper and lower body strength, lower extremity flexibility, agility, and speed levels (pBonferroni < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed at upper and lower body strength, agility, speed, and cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.05). The WB-EMS group scored better agility than the control group at the end of the intervention (pBonferroni < 0.05) and was the only group that improved cardiovascular endurance. WB-EMS shows a favorable isolate effect on the development of dynamic leg strength, agility, and cardiovascular endurance but did not in dynamic arm strength, gait speed, balance, or flexibility of postmenopausal women.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic superimposed submaximal whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training on maximal strength and power parameters of the leg muscles compared with a similar dynamic training without WB-EMS. Eighteen male sport students were randomly assigned either to a WB-EMS intervention (INT; n = 9; age: 28.8 (SD: 3.0) years; body mass: 80.2 (6.6) kg; strength training experience: 4.6 (2.8) years) or a traditional strength training group (CON; n = 9; age: 22.8 (2.5) years; body mass: 77.6 (9.0) kg; strength training experience: 4.5 (2.9) years). Both training intervention programs were performed twice a week over a period of 8 weeks with the only difference that INT performed all dynamic exercises (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises, jumps, and tappings) with superimposed WB-EMS. WB-EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of the individual maximal tolerable pain to ensure dynamic movement. Before (PRE), after (POST) and 2 weeks after the intervention (FU), performance indices were assessed by maximal strength (Fmax) and maximal power (Pmax) testing on the leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), and leg press (LP) machine as primary endpoints. Additionally, vertical and horizontal jumps and 30 m sprint tests were conducted as secondary endpoints at PRE, POST and FU testing. Significant time effects were observed for strength and power parameters on LE and LC (LE Fmax +5.0%; LC Pmax +13.5%). A significant time × group interaction effect was merely observed for Fmax on the LE where follow-up post hoc testing showed significantly higher improvements in the INT group from PRE to POST and PRE to FU (INT: +7.7%, p < 0.01; CON: +2.1%). These findings indicate that the combination of dynamic exercises and superimposed submaximal WB-EMS seems to be effective in order to improve leg strength and power. However, in young healthy adults the effects of superimposed WB-EMS were similar to the effects of dynamic resistance training without EMS, with the only exception of a significantly greater increase in leg extension Fmax in the WB-EMS group.