Exosomal miR-92b-3p Promotes Chemoresistance of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through the PTEN/AKT Pathway.
ABSTRACT: Resistance to first-line chemotherapy drugs has become an obstacle to improving the clinical prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Exosomal microRNAs have been shown to play pro- and anti-chemoresistant roles in various cancers, but their role in SCLC chemoresistance has never been explored. In this study, we observed that the expression of exosomal miR-92b-3p was significantly increased in patients who developed chemoresistance. Luciferase reporter analysis confirmed that PTEN was a target gene of miR-92b-3p. The PTEN/AKT regulatory network was related to miR-92b-3p-mediated cell migration and chemoresistance in vitro and in vivo in SCLC. Importantly, exosomes isolated from the conditioned medium of SBC-3 cells overexpressing miR-92b-3p could promote SCLC chemoresistance and cell migration. Furthermore, we found that plasma miR-92b-3p levels were significantly higher in patients with chemoresistant SCLC than in those with chemosensitive SCLC, but the levels were down-regulated in patients who achieved remission. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that SCLC patients with high miR-92b-3p expression were associated with shorter progression-free survival. Overall, our results suggested that exosomal miR-92b-3p is a potential dynamic biomarker to monitor chemoresistance in SCLC and represents a promising therapeutic target for chemoresistant SCLC.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Exosomal microRNA (miRNA) as a mediator of intercellular communication plays an essential part in tumor-relevant angiogenesis. Therapy against angiogenesis has been demonstrated to have a remarkable antitumor efficacy in various malignancies, but not as expected in ovarian cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Exosomal miRNA sequencing and gene function experiments were used to identify the differential expressed miRNAs in exosomes and their mRNA targets. SKOV3 cell line that stably overexpressed miR-92b-3p was constructed by lentivirus. In vitro, angiogenesis was analyzed by tube formation assay and migration assay. The angiogenic and antitumor effects in vivo were assessed in zebrafish and nude mouse models. Combination index was calculated to assess the synergetic inhibition of angiogenesis between miR-92b-3p and Apatinib. Peptides were conjugated with exosomal membranes to obtain engineered exosomes.<h4>Results</h4>Ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes facilitated the angiogenesis and migration capability of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The expression of miR-92b-3p was much lower in ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes than that in immortalized ovarian epithelial cell-derived exosomes. The exosomal miR-92b-3p modulated tumor-associated angiogenesis via targeting SOX4. Besides, Peptide-engineered exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p showed the stronger abilities of anti-angiogenesis and antitumor than parental exosomes, whether alone or combined with Apatinib.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate the effect and mechanism of exosomal miR-92b-3p from ovarian cancer cells on tumor-associated angiogenesis and the potential of artificially generated exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p to be used as anti-angiogenic agent, which may provide a new approach for anti-angiogenic therapy of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor in the world and the second leading cause of cancer death. Multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a major obstacle in the clinical treatment of CRC. The clear molecular mechanism of MDR is complex, and miRNAs play an important role in drug resistance. This study used small RNAomic screens to analyze the expression profiles of miRNAs in CRC HCT8 cell line and its chemoresistant counterpart HCT8/T cell line. It was found that miR-92b-3p was highly expressed in HCT8/T cells. Knockdown of miR-92b-3p reversed the resistance of MDR HCT8/T cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro and in vivo. Paclitaxel (PTX, a chemotherapy medication) could stimulate CRC cells to up-regulate miR-92b-3p expression and conferred cellular resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In studies on downstream molecules, results suggested that miR-92b-3p directly targeted Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1C (<i>CDKN1C</i>, which encodes a cell cycle inhibitor p57Kip2) to inhibit its expression and regulate the sensitivity of CRC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mechanism study revealed that the miR-92b-3p/<i>CDKN1C</i> axis exerted a regulatory effect on the sensitivity of CRC cells via the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings showed that miR-92b-3p/<i>CDKN1C</i> was an important regulator in the development of drug resistance in CRC cells, suggesting its potential application in drug resistance prediction and treatment.
Project description:Although several studies have reported that microRNA (miR)-92b-3p is involved in various cellular processes related to carcinogenesis, its physiological role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. To clarify the role of miR-92b-3p in ccRCC, we compared miR-92b-3p expression levels in ccRCC tissues and adjacent normal renal tissues. Significant upregulation of miR-92b-3p was observed in ccRCC tissues. Overexpression of miR-92b-3p using a miRNA mimic promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion activities of ACHN cells. Functional inhibition of miR-92b-3p by a hairpin miRNA inhibitor suppressed Caki-2 cell growth and invasion activities in vitro. Mechanistically, it was found that miR-92b-3p directly targeted the TSC1 gene, a known upstream regulator of mTOR. Overexpression of miR-92b-3p decreased the protein expression of TSC1 and enhanced the downstream phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, suggesting that the mTOR signaling pathway was activated by miR-92b-3p in RCC cells. Importantly, a multivariate Cox proportion hazard model, based on TNM staging and high levels of miR-92b-3p, revealed that miR-92b-3p expression (high vs. low hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.83; P = .018) was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival of ccRCC patients with surgical management. Taken together, miR-92b-3p was found to act as an oncomiR, promoting cell proliferation by downregulating TSC1 in ccRCC.
Project description:Skeletal muscle, a critical component of the mammalian body, is essential for normal body movement. miRNAs are well documented in gene post-transcription regulation in many biological processes, including muscle development and maintenance. miR-92b-3p, which is often associated with tumorigenesis, has never been explored in myoblast development. Here, we used murine-derived C2C12 myoblasts to explore the potential functions of miR-92b-3p in skeletal muscle development. Our results demonstrated that miR-92b-3p mimics inhibited C2C12 cell proliferation and migration, whereas miR-92b-3p inhibitor promoted C2C12 cell proliferation and migration. C2C12 cell differentiation was not affected by miR-92b-3p mimics, according to immunofluorescence and qPCR results. Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 3 (SGK3) was predicted and validated as a target of miR-92b-3p. Overexpression of SGK3 promoted C2C12 cell proliferation. SGK3 and miR-92b-3p formed a regulatory pathway to modulate C2C12 cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-92b-3p inhibited C2C12 cell proliferation by targeting SGK3 and impeded C2C12 cell migration.
Project description:The lack of useful biomarkers is a crucial problem for patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Emerging evidence has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids have novel impact as biomarkers for patients with malignant diseases, but their significance in synovial sarcoma (SS) patients remains unknown. Initial global miRNA screening using SS patient serum and SS cell culture media identified a signature of four upregulated miRNAs. Among these candidates, miR-92b-3p secretion from SS cells was confirmed, which was embedded within tumour-derived exosomes rather than argonaute-2. Animal experiments revealed a close correlation between serum miR-92b-3p levels and tumour dynamics. Clinical relevance was validated in two independent clinical cohorts, and we subsequently identified that serum miR-92b-3p levels were significantly higher in SS patients in comparison to that in healthy individuals. Moreover, serum miR-92b-3p was robust in discriminating patients with SS from the other STS patients and reflected tumour burden in SS patients. Overall, liquid biopsy using serum miR-92b-3p expression levels may represent a novel approach for monitoring tumour dynamics of SS.
Project description:The role of microRNA-92b-3p (miR-92b-3p) in cardiac hypertrophy was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-92b-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy. MiR-92b-3p was markedly decreased in the myocardium of Ang-II-infused mice and of patients with cardiac hypertrophy. However, miR-92b-3p expression was revealed increased in Ang-II-induced neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy was shown attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice received tail vein injection of miR-92b-3p mimic. Moreover, miR-92b-3p inhibited the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), skeletal muscle ?-actin (ACTA1) and ?-myosin heavy chain (MHC) in Ang-II-induced mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), which was increased in Ang-II-induced mouse hypertrophic myocardium and cardiomyocytes, was identified as a target gene of miR-92b-3p. Functionally, miR-92b-3p mimic, consistent with MEF2D siRNA, inhibited cell size increase and protein expression of ANP, ACTA1 and ?-MHC in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes. Taken together, we demonstrated that MEF2D is a novel target of miR-92b-3p, and attenuation of miR-92b-3p expression may contribute to the increase of MEF2D in cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:The primordial follicle pool, providing all oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, is established perinatally. The formation of primordial follicle pool is regulated by precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recent studies have identified several microRNAs as post-transcriptional regulatory factors in the process of primordial follicle assembly. Here, we showed that miR-92b-3p was significantly upregulated in the stage of primordial follicle assembly in newborn mouse ovaries. Inhibiting miR-92b-3p suppressed the formation of primordial follicles, while overexpression of miR-92b-3p accelerated the processes of cyst breakdown and the following primordial follicle assembly. Accordingly, the expression of follicular development-related genes was reduced upon inhibiting of miR-92b-3p and increased under miR-92b-3p overexpression. Mechanistic studies identified TSC1 as a direct target of miR-92b-3p. miR-92b-3p could activate mTOR/Rps6 signaling through targeting and inhibiting TSC1 expression. In addition, knockdown of TSC1 showed an identical phenotype with that of miR-92b-3p overexpression in accelerating processes of cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Thus, our work demonstrates that miR-92b-3p is a novel regulator of primordial follicle assembly by negatively regulating TSC1 in mTOR/Rps6 signaling.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of RNA, which exhibits powerful biological function in regulating cellular fate of various tumors. Previously, we had demonstrated that over-expression of circRNA circCDYL promoted progression of HER2-negative (HER2<sup>-</sup>) breast cancer <i>via</i> miR-1275-ULK1/ATG7-autophagic axis. However, the role of circCDYL in HER2-positive (HER2<sup>+</sup>) breast cancer, in particular its role in modulating cell proliferation, one of the most important characteristics of cellular fate, is unclear.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>qRT-PCR and <i>in situ</i> hybridization analyses were performed to examine the expression of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p in breast cancer tissues or cell lines. The biological function of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p were assessed by plate colony formation and cell viability assays and orthotopic animal models. In mechanistic study, circRNAs pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation, dual luciferase report, western blot, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining assays were performed.<h4>Results</h4>CircCDYL was high-expressed in HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer tissue, similar with that in HER2<sup>-</sup> breast cancer tissue. Silencing HER2 gene had no effect on expression of circCDYL in HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer cells. Over-expression of circCDYL promoted proliferation of HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer cells but not through miR-1275-ULK1/ATG7-autophagic axis. CircRNA pull down and miRNA deep-sequencing demonstrated the binding of miR-92b-3p and circCDYL. Interestingly, circCDYL did not act as miR-92b-3p sponge, but was degraded in miR-92b-3p-dependent silencing manner. Clinically, expression of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p was associated with clinical outcome of HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MiR-92b-3p-dependent cleavage of circCDYL was an essential mechanism in regulating cell proliferation of HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer cells. CircCDYL was proved to be a potential therapeutic target for HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer, and both circCDYL and miR-92b-3p might be potential biomarkers in predicting clinical outcome of HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer patients.
Project description:Although the combination of etoposide (VP16) and cisplatin (DDP) is widely used as a first-line treatment for advanced-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), chemoresistance limits its clinical use. Abnormalities of autophagy are associated with tumor chemoresistance. The present study found that miR-24-3p, a recently discovered microRNA, is significantly downregulated in VP16-DDP-resistant SCLC cells (H446/EP) compared with VP16-DDP-sensitive parent cells (H446). Forced expression of miR-24-3p sensitized H446/EP cells to VP16-DDP treatment because of a blockade of autophagic activity. We further found that downregulated miR-24-3p enhanced autophagy activation as it directly targets and inhibits autophagy-associated gene 4A (ATG4A). Overexpression of miR-24-3p into H446/EP cells led to reduction of the ATG4A protein level, allowing SCLC cells to resensitize to VP16-DDP. We conclude that miR-24-3p regulates autophagy by targeting ATG4A. Inhibition of autophagy by increasing miR-24-3p could be the basis of a strategy to prevent and treat SCLC with combination chemotherapy, particularly in chemoresistant disease.
Project description:Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is clinically critical but technically challenging, especially in a minimal-invasive way. Emerging evidence suggests that exosome-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) is a kind of promising cancer biomarker. Here we investigated the predictive potential of exosomal miR-92b in plasma samples obtained from 114 participants [40 CRC, 22 colorectal adenomas (CA), 52 non-neoplasm controls (NC)] by RT-qPCR. We found that exosomal miR-92b level was significantly down-regulated in CRC patients compared with CA and NC patients, especially in CRC at stage II, regardless of lymph node metastasis and invasive depth. The AUC in distinguishing CRC, CA and NC from each other ranged from 0.631 to 0.793, while a higher AUC of 0.830 was achieved in differentiating CRC at clinical stage II/III from NC individuals. Additionally, a logistic model integrating miR-92b with age showed a significantly improved accuracy in distinguishing CRC patients from NC (AUC increased from 0.793 to 0.867). Taken together, our findings indicated that decreased expression of exosome-derived miR-92b in plasma is a promising biomarker for early detection of CRC.