[11C]PK11195-PET Brain Imaging of the Mitochondrial Translocator Protein in Mitochondrial Disease.
ABSTRACT: To explore the possibilities of radioligands against the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO as biomarkers for mitochondrial disease, we performed PET (PET)-MR brain imaging with [11C]PK11195 in 14 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease and 33 matched controls. A case-control study of PET-MR imaging with the TSPO radioligand [11C]PK11195. Forty-six percent of symptomatic patients had volumes of abnormal radiotracer binding greater than the 95th percentile in controls. [11C]PK11195 binding was generally greater in grey matter and significantly decreased in white matter. This was most striking in patients with nuclear TYMP or mitochondrial m.3243A>G MT-TL1 mutations, in keeping with differences in mitochondrial density seen post mortem. Some regional binding patterns corresponded to clinical presentation and underlying mutation, even in the absence of structural changes on MRI. This was most obvious for the cerebellum, where patients with ataxia had decreased binding in the cerebellar cortex, but not necessarily volume loss. Overall, there was a positive correlation between aberrant [11C]PK11195 binding and clinical severity. These findings endorse the use of PET imaging with TSPO radioligands as a non-invasive in vivo biomarker of mitochondrial pathology. This study provides Class III evidence that PET-MR brain imaging with TSPO radioligands identifies mitochondrial pathology.
Project description:Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for translocator protein 18?kDa (TSPO) are widely used to measure neuroinflammation, but controversy exists whether second-generation radioligands are superior to the prototypical agent 11C-( R)-PK11195 in human imaging. This study sought to quantitatively measure the "signal to background" ratio (assessed as binding potential ( BPND)) of 11C-( R)-PK11195 compared to one of the most promising second-generation radioligands, 11C-DPA-713. Healthy subjects had dynamic PET scans and arterial blood measurements of radioligand after injection of either 11C-( R)-PK11195 (16 subjects) or 11C-DPA-713 (22 subjects). To measure the amount of specific binding, a subset of these subjects was scanned after administration of the TSPO blocking drug XBD173 (30-90?mg PO). 11C-DPA-713 showed a significant sensitivity to genotype in brain, whereas 11C-( R)-PK11195 did not. Lassen occupancy plot analysis revealed that the specific binding of 11C-DPA-713 was much greater than that of 11C-( R)-PK11195. The BPND in high-affinity binders was about 10-fold higher for 11C-DPA-713 (7.3) than for 11C-( R)-PK11195 (0.75). Although the high specific binding of 11C-DPA-713 suggests it is an ideal ligand to measure TSPO, we also found that its distribution volume increased over time, consistent with the accumulation of radiometabolites in brain.
Project description:Translocator protein (TSPO) is a biomarker for detecting neuroinflammation by PET. 11C-(R)-PK11195 has been used to image TSPO since the 1980s. Here, we compared the utility of four 11C-labeled ligands-(R)-PK11195, PBR28, DPA-713, and ER176-to quantify TSPO in healthy humans. For all of these ligands, BP ND (specific-to-non-displaceable ratio of distribution volumes) was measured by partially blocking specific binding with XNBD173 administration. In high-affinity binders, DPA-713 showed the highest BP ND of 7.3 followed by ER176 (4.2), PBR28 (1.2), and PK11195 (0.8). Only ER176 allows the inclusion of low-affinity binders because of little influence of radiometabolites and high BP ND. If inclusion of all three genotypes is important for study logistics, ER176 is the best of these four radioligands for studying neuroinflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inflammation is hypothesized to be a key event in the growth of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). In this study we sought to investigate the relationship between inflammation and tumor growth in vivo using the PET tracer 11C-(R)-PK11195 and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI derived vascular biomarkers.<h4>Methods</h4>Nineteen patients with sporadic VS (8 static, 7 growing, and 4 shrinking tumors) underwent prospective imaging with dynamic 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET and a comprehensive MR protocol, including high temporal resolution DCE-MRI in 15 patients. An intertumor comparison of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential (BPND) and DCE-MRI derived vascular biomarkers (Ktrans, vp, ve) across the 3 different tumor growth cohorts was undertaken. Tissue of 8 tumors was examined with immunohistochemistry markers for inflammation (Iba1), neoplastic cells (S-100 protein), vessels (CD31), the PK11195 target translocator protein (TSPO), fibrinogen for vascular permeability, and proliferation (Ki-67). Results were correlated with PET and DCE-MRI data.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with static tumors, growing VS displayed significantly higher mean 11C-(R)-PK11195 BPND (-0.07 vs 0.47, P = 0.020), and higher mean tumor Ktrans (0.06 vs 0.14, P = 0.004). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the imaging findings and demonstrated that TSPO is predominantly expressed in macrophages. Within growing VS, macrophages rather than tumor cells accounted for the majority of proliferating cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We present the first in vivo imaging evidence of increased inflammation within growing sporadic VS. Our results demonstrate that 11C-(R)-PK11195 specific binding and DCE-MRI derived parameters can be used as imaging biomarkers of inflammation and vascular permeability in this tumor group.
Project description:[11C]-PK11195 (PK11195) has been widely used with positron emission tomography (PET) to assess levels of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) as a marker of neuroinflammation. Recent ligands, such as [11C]-PBR28 and [11C]-DPA713, have improved signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for TSPO over PK11195. However, these second generation radiotracers exhibit binding differences due to a single polymorphism (rs6971) that leads to three genotypes: C/C, C/T and T/T associated with high, mixed and low binding affinities, respectively. Here we report that [3H]-DPA-713 in the presence of cholesterol or PK11195 has an accelerated dissociation rate from TSPO in platelets isolated from individuals with the T/T genotype. This allosteric interaction was not observed in platelets isolated from individuals with the C/C or C/T genotype. The results provide a molecular rationale for low binding affinity of T/T TSPO and further support the exclusion of these subjects from PET imaging studies using second generation TSPO ligands.
Project description:For PET imaging of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of neuroinflammation, most second-generation radioligands are sensitive to the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6971; however, this is probably not the case for the prototypical agent 11C-PK11195 (11C-labeled N-butan-2-yl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide), which has a relatively lower signal-to-noise ratio. We recently found that 11C-ER176 (11C-(R)-N-sec-butyl-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylquinazoline-2-carboxamide), a new analog of 11C-(R)-PK11195, showed little sensitivity to rs6971 when tested in vitro and had high specific binding in monkey brain. This study sought, first, to determine whether the sensitivity of 11C-ER176 in humans is similar to the low sensitivity measured in vitro and, second, to measure the nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND, or the ratio of specific-to-nondisplaceable uptake) of 11C-ER176 in human brain.Nine healthy volunteers-3 high-affinity binders (HABs), 3 mixed-affinity binders (MABs), and 3 low-affinity binders (LABs)-were studied with whole-body 11C-ER176 PET imaging. SUVs from 60 to 120 min after injection derived from each organ were compared between genotypes. Eight separate healthy volunteers-3 HABs, 3 MABs, and 2 LABs-underwent brain PET imaging. The 3 HABs underwent a repeated brain scan after TSPO blockade with XBD173 (N-benzyl-N-ethyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenylpurin-9-yl)acetamide) to determine nondisplaceable distribution volume (VND) via Lassen occupancy plotting and thereby estimate BPND in brain.Regional SUV averaged from 60 to 120 min after injection in brain and peripheral organs with high TSPO densities such as lung and spleen were greater in HABs than in LABs. On the basis of VND determined via the occupancy plot, the whole-brain BPND for LABs was estimated to be 1.4 ± 0.8, which was much lower than that for HABs (4.2 ± 1.3) but about the same as that for HABs with 11C-PBR28 ([methyl-11C]N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2-phenoxy-5-pyridinamine)) (?1.2).Obvious in vivo sensitivity to rs6971 was observed in 11C-ER176 that had not been expected from in vitro studies, suggesting that the future development of any improved radioligand for TSPO should consider the possibility that in vitro properties will not be reflected in vivo. We also found that 11C-ER176 has adequately high BPND for all rs6971 genotypes. Thus, the new radioligand would likely have greater sensitivity in detecting abnormalities in patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and Objectives</h4> The pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) remains elusive. Recent data suggest a role for neuroinflammation as defined by increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO). In the present study, we investigated whether there are signs of neuroinflammation in female patients with CFS and QFS compared with healthy women, using PET with the TSPO ligand 11C-(R)-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline-carbox-amide ([11C]-PK11195). <h4>Methods</h4> The study population consisted of patients with CFS (n = 9), patients with QFS (n = 10), and healthy subjects (HSs) (n = 9). All subjects were women, matched for age (±5 years) and neighborhood, aged between 18 and 59 years, who did not use any medication other than paracetamol or oral contraceptives, and were not vaccinated in the last 6 months. None of the subjects reported substance abuse in the past 3 months or reported signs of underlying psychiatric disease on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. All subjects underwent a [11C]-PK11195 PET scan, and the [11C]-PK11195 binding potential (BPND) was calculated. <h4>Results</h4> No statistically significant differences in BPND were found for patients with CFS or patients with QFS compared with HSs. BPND of [11C]-PK11195 correlated with symptom severity scores in patients with QFS, but a negative correlation was found in patients with CFS. <h4>Discussion</h4> In contrast to what was previously reported for CFS, we found no significant difference in BPND of [11C]-PK11195 when comparing patients with CFS or QFS with healthy neighborhood controls. In this small series, we were unable to find signs of neuroinflammation in patients with CFS and QFS. <h4>Trial Registration Information</h4> EudraCT number 2014-004448-37.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of macrophages using the translocator protein (TSPO) tracer (R)-[11C]PK11195 has shown the promise to image rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further improve TSPO PET for RA imaging, second generation TSPO tracers [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 have recently been evaluated pre-clinically showing better imaging characteristics. OBJECTIVE:A clinical proof of concept study to evaluate [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 to visualize arthritis in RA patients. METHODS:RA patients (n = 13) with at least two active hand joints were included. PET/CT scans of the hands were obtained after injection of [18F]DPA-714, [11C]DPA-713 and/or (R)-[11C]PK11195 (max. 2 tracers pp). Standardized uptake values (SUVs) and target-to-background (T/B) ratios were determined. Imaging data of the 3 different tracers were compared by pooled post-hoc testing, and by a head to head comparison. RESULTS:Clinically active arthritis was present in 110 hand joints (2-17 pp). Arthritic joints were visualized with both [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714. Visual tracer uptake corresponded with clinical signs of arthritis in 80% of the joints. Mean absolute uptake in PET-positive joints was significantly higher for [11C]DPA-713 than for [18F]DPA-714, the latter being not significantly different from (R)-[11C]PK11195 uptake. Background uptake was lower for both DPA tracers compared with that of (R)-[11C]PK11195. Higher absolute uptake and lower background resulted in two-fold higher T/B ratios for [11C]DPA-713. CONCLUSIONS:[11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 visualize arthritic joints in active RA patients and most optimal arthritis imaging results were obtained for [11C]DPA-713. Second generation TSPO macrophage PET provides new opportunities for both early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of RA.
Project description:PURPOSE:Over the past 20 years, neuroinflammation (NI) has increasingly been recognised as having an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. As such, being able to image NI non-invasively in patients is critical to monitor pathological processes and potential therapies targeting neuroinflammation. The translocator protein (TSPO) has proven a reliable NI biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. However, if TSPO imaging in acute conditions such as stroke provides strong and reliable signals, TSPO imaging in neurodegenerative diseases has proven more challenging. Here, we report results comparing the recently developed TSPO tracers [18F]GE-180 and [18F]DPA-714 with (R)-[11C]PK11195 in a rodent model of subtle focal inflammation. PROCEDURES:Adult male Wistar rats were stereotactically injected with 1 ?g lipopolysaccharide in the right striatum. Three days later, animals underwent a 60-min PET scan with (R)-[11C]PK11195 and [18F]GE-180 (n = 6) or [18F]DPA-714 (n = 6). Ten animals were scanned with either [18F]GE-180 (n = 5) or [18F]DPA-714 (n = 5) only. Kinetic analysis of PET data was performed using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) with a contralateral reference region or a novel data-driven input to estimate binding potential BPND. Autoradiography and immunohistochemistry were performed to confirm in vivo results. RESULTS:At 40-60 min post-injection, [18F]GE-180 dual-scanned animals showed a significantly increased core/contralateral uptake ratio vs. the same animals scanned with (R)-[11C]PK11195 (3.41 ± 1.09 vs. 2.43 ± 0.39, p = 0.03); DPA-714 did not (2.80 ± 0.69 vs. 2.26 ± 0.41). Kinetic modelling with a contralateral reference region identified significantly higher binding potential (BPND) in the core of the LPS injection site with [18F]GE-180 but not with [18F]DPA-714 vs. (R)-[11C]PK11195. A cerebellar reference region and novel data-driven input to the SRTM were unable to distinguish differences in tracer BPND. CONCLUSIONS:Second-generation TSPO-PET tracers are able to accurately detect mild-level NI. In this model, [18F]GE-180 shows a higher core/contralateral ratio and BPND when compared to (R)-[11C]PK11195, while [18F]DPA-714 did not.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Neuroinflammation is involved in several brain disorders and can be monitored through expression of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) on activated microglia. In recent years, several new PET radioligands for TSPO have been evaluated in disease models. [(18)F]DPA-714 is a TSPO radiotracer with great promise; however results vary between different experimental models of neuroinflammation. To further examine the potential of [(18)F]DPA-714, it was compared directly to [(11)C]PK11195 in experimental cerebral ischaemia in rats.<h4>Methods</h4>Under anaesthesia, the middle cerebral artery of adult rats was occluded for 60 min using the filament model. Rats were allowed recovery for 5 to 7 days before one hour dynamic PET scans with [(11)C]PK11195 and/or [(18)F]DPA-714 under anaesthesia.<h4>Results</h4>Uptake of [(11)C]PK11195 vs [(18)F]DPA-714 in the ischemic lesion was similar (core/contralateral ratio: 2.84±0.67 vs 2.28±0.34 respectively), but severity of the brain ischemia and hence ligand uptake in the lesion appeared to vary greatly between animals scanned with [(11)C]PK11195 or with [(18)F]DPA-714. To solve this issue of inter-individual variability, we performed a direct comparison of [(11)C]PK11195 and [(18)F]DPA-714 by scanning the same animals sequentially with both tracers within 24 h. In this direct comparison, the core/contralateral ratio (3.35±1.21 vs 4.66±2.50 for [(11)C]PK11195 vs [(18)F]DPA-714 respectively) showed a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio (1.6 (1.3-1.9, 95%CI) fold by linear regression) for [(18)F]DPA-714.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a clinically relevant model of neuroinflammation, uptake for both radiotracers appeared to be similar at first, but a high variability was observed in our model. Therefore, to truly compare tracers in such models, we performed scans with both tracers in the same animals. By doing so, our result demonstrated that [(18)F]DPA-714 displayed a higher signal-to-noise ratio than [(11)C]PK11195. Our results suggest that, with the longer half-life of [(18)F] which facilitates distribution of the tracer across PET centre, [(18)F]DPA-714 is a good alternative for TSPO imaging.
Project description:The presence of activated microglia in the brains of healthy elderly people is a matter of debate. We aimed to clarify the degree of microglial activation in aging and dementia as revealed by different tracers by comparing the binding potential (BPND) in various brain regions using a first-generation translocator protein (TSPO) tracer [11C]( R)PK11195 and a second-generation tracer [11C]DPA713. The BPND levels, estimated using simplified reference tissue models, were compared among healthy young and elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and were correlated with clinical scores. An analysis of variance showed category-dependent elevation in levels of [11C]DPA713 BPND in all brain regions and showed a significant increase in the AD group, whereas no significant changes among groups were found when [11C]( R)PK11195 BPND was used. Cognito-mnemonic scores were significantly correlated with [11C]DPA713 BPND levels in many brain regions, whereas [11C]( R)PK11195 BPND failed to correlate with the scores. As mentioned elsewhere, the present results confirmed that the second-generation TSPO tracer [11C]DPA713 has a greater sensitivity to TSPO in both aging and neuronal degeneration than [11C]( R)PK11195. Positron emission tomography with [11C]DPA713 is suitable for the delineation of in vivo microglial activation occurring globally over the cerebral cortex irrespective of aging and degeneration.